Sustainable Development Goal "none" ile LEE- Mimari Tasarım Lisansüstü Programı'a göz atma
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ÖgeBiophilic design efficiency on humans' well-being in daily life with an atmospheric approach(Graduate School, 2021-12-06) Bayatmaku, Shaghayegh ; 502181029 ; Architectural Design ; Mimari TasarımAccording to studies on the human-nature relationship, it was revealed that urbanization and urban transformation projects failed to protect and enrich natural elements in their designs. Instead, building construction grew significantly for more financial benefit. Therefore, people who lived in the buildings, which were themselves a part of nature and humans directly related to nature, became isolated in buildings with fewer signs of natural elements. This study aims to reveal how people compensate for the lack of nature in capitals and investigates humans' well-being in their preferred places. In fact, what puts a space in a way that can make us feel calm is the potential in space to experience with all of the five senses and not just the vision, which gives us the entire presence at the present moment in the space that is known as the source of calmness. Having such space is not possible with a place that is merely a physical entity, unlike it needs an attempt to improve the atmosphere of the place. Studies about nature turned out that the atmosphere of nature is an ideal one that has been experienced and tested by humans and resulted in calmness. Thus, to approach the thesis aim, a literature review was gathered that consists of several studies on "Biophilic Architecture" and "Atmosphere of the Place," which make an effort to define an architectural design framework that affects human experience pleasantly in daily life. These studies represent a framework that gives humans a multisensory experience that enables them to feel the entire presence at the present moment in space. This experience results in human well-being in terms of physical, psychological, and mental. Besides, it addresses the main questions of "What is the efficiency of biophilic design with an atmospheric approach on humans' well-being in their preferred spaces in daily life?" and "What is the correlation and intersection between biophilic design patterns and atmosphere optimization factors?" that have some sub-questions. These sub-questions include "What are Peter Zumthor's atmospheric patterns?", "Which atmospheric and biophilic patterns are used in people's preferred places in daily life?", "What is the relationship between people's biophilia measure and the preferred places?" and "Which patterns could result in humans' presence at the present moment in the preferred places?". This study is qualitative and quantitative and tries to provide answers to the questions by phenomenological content analysis, researcher triangulation using focus group discussion, and questionnaire. It embraces a phenomenological content analysis of Peter Zumthor's "Thinking Architecture" book to clarify the factors optimizing the atmosphere of a place. It tries to expose the correlation and intersection between them and biophilic design patterns to highlight the most critical factors. A researcher triangulation using focus group discussion was conducted with three senior architects working in this field to prove the validity of the content analysis and the found patterns. According to the findings, a questionnaire was designed and asked from 132 Iranian architects (25-40 years old) to prove the factors and express their efficiency in people's daily lives and their preferred places' design. The most efficient patterns extracted from the questionnaire are compared with the found patterns in the previous steps' results to prove them. Furthermore, the questionnaire asked about participants' Biophilia measure (affinity toward nature), their well-being in their preferred places, the function of the place, participants' satisfaction of the places, and their preferred places' architectural characteristics in terms of biophilic design patterns and found atmospheric factors. There were some questions about participants' feelings in their preferred places and their relationship with the place, such as the "Sense of belonging" level to investigate the relationship between these items with the considered biophilic and atmospheric patterns and the "Presence at the present moment" level. So, this research aimed to obtain findings related to the crucial impact of "Biophilic design" and the "atmosphere of the place" on human well-being. According to existing literature and participants' responses, it exposes the correlation and intersection between biophilic design patterns and atmosphere optimization factors to highlight the most critical factors to have the experience of "Presence at the present moment." Finally, it suggests several patterns to have a biophilic atmosphere in humans' preferred places that make people healthy and well in their daily lives.
ÖgeCorrelations between composition attributes of architecture and music(Graduate School, 2021-02-17) Tayyebi, Seyed Farhad ; Demir, Yüksel ; 502132007 ; Architectural Design ; Mimari Tasarım"I call architecture frozen music" by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe vividly expresses the great linkage between architecture and music. The architects applying music in building design are increasing in numbers, and interrelated projects are getting progressively widespread. Interestingly, most of the interrelation between architecture and music, in various scales, are formed by some assumed correlated parameters regardless of the feeling arousal of the attribute to the listeners and observers, which are mostly based on the subjective artists' opinion or rooted in more-objective scientific issues. For instance, 'interval' in music has been arguably understood as 'proportion' in architecture; accordingly, the harmonic musical interval applied in architectural ratio with the hope of acquiring pleasant architectural proportion. But is there any correlation between the preferences of satisfactory musical intervals and their transformation into architectural proportions? From this perspective, this research aims to explore the correlations between the preferences of architectural and musical attributes from the subjective people's point of view rather than the artist's opinion or merely through an objective perspective. Thus, this study aims to answer the following questions. • Is there any correlation between the preferred architectural and musical attributes of people? What are the most frequently correlated attributes? • More specifically, on a small scale, which musical instruments preferences correlate with architectural material preferences? On a large scale, which musical attribute preferences correlate with architectural attributes preferences in general? At first, a pilot study has been conducted to examine the methodology through exploring the correlation between architectural attributes and musical attributes across limited demographic classes (S. F. Tayyebi & Demir, 2020). By learning from it, two other studies find an answer to the questions. The first study, as a small-scale investigation, has explored the preference correlations between the attributes related to architecture material and musical instruments. Another study, as a large-scale investigation, has scrutinized the correlation between the general attribute preferences of architecture and music across a wide range of demographic classes. Despite some tiny differences, the methodologies of the three papers have an identical structure. The methodology has three phases presented in Figure 4.1. The first phase provides a clear list of the considered attributes, based on two studies conducted during the dissertation progress (S. F. Tayyebi & Demir, 2019) (S. F. Tayyebi et al., 2020), though they can also be seen as part of the limitations of the dissertation. After examining eight different methods and discovering the most reliable method to extract the personal preferences of architectural attributes (Tayyebi & Demir, 2020), a survey is then prepared and distributed worldwide on the QuestionPro platform to collect the individual's demographic information, the musical attribute preferences, and architectural attribute satisfaction. In the second phase, the participants' responses were analyzed, and the unreliable responses were filtered to provide a complete set of attribute preferences of valid participants. Finally, in the third phase, Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis examined the correlations between every single attribute within different demographic categories. The outcomes of the analysis were then filtered by the correlation p-value, to skip the statistically invalid correlations. The second and third studies also integrated with Bonferroni correction, as a second filtering technique, to skim off the utmost reliable correlations. Clustering method has also applied to the third study to summarize the correlated attributes provide a holistic understanding of the correlation trends. As the first outcome, all the studies confirm the importance of demographic classes in the correlations exploration between the preferences of architectural and musical attributes. Not only the trace of age and gender apparently exists in the discovered correlations, the large-scale study considering the participants' education shows that even education more than age and gender impacts on the discovered correlations. It reinforces the importance of the three demographics. Along the same line, some demographic classes, attribute categories, and the attributes themselves reflect higher number of correlations. For example, females more than males, material color and material qualities more than material reflection and texture, symmetry more than indentation and stress, and genre more than psychological attributes of music show correlation. Furthermore, within genre category, rap and jazz, and within the psychological attributes of music, sophisticated and poetic/deep have higher number of correlation and thus may reflect better the preferences of some attributes in another field. Regarding the aim of the paper, Pearson's analysis results of the two main studies in small and large scale are indeed the outcome of the study, and thus presented in appendices. For example, the first study, concerning architectural material and musical instrument correlations, shows that preferences of cello for mature females reflect higher satisfaction for brick, full of texture materials, aluminum, reflective, and light-colored material. The results of the large-scale study show male musicians, mature musicians, and even architect-musicians who are interested in sophisticated music tend to prefer sophisticated architectural forms. Rock follower musicians are less satisfied with complicated architectural forms. Preferences for sad music for female architects tend to have a preference for horizontality in building forms. The outcomes of the large-scale study, exploring a large number of correlations, are also clustered to provide a holistic understanding of the correlations. On its basis, those who prefer Complicated music seems to have more positive opinions about Complicated architectural forms. There are strong correlations, albeit very few in number, that shows those who like Dance music seem to prefer Rhythmic and complicated buildings. Among the Mellow music followers, in general, Simple architectural forms were found more satisfactory. Joyful music followers seem to tend towards regular patterns in architecture. Those who enjoy Rap have a preference for either regular or irregular patterns that exude a sense of repetition in the formal structure. Finally, this explorative study confirms the existence of numerous correlations between architectural and musical attributes, thereby proving the potentials of applying the resulting insights into future building design and further investigations.
ÖgeEtkileşimli dijital teknolojiler bağlamında beden mekan deneyimi(Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2020) Ucay, Rabia ; Çebi Dursun, Pelin ; Mimari TasarımGünümüzde mektup, resim, maket gibi analog teknolojilerden mobil telefon, fotograf, üç boyutlu model gibi dijital teknolojilere doğru geçişler görülmektedir. Yaşanan bu değişim kültürü, alışkanlıkları, bilginin yapısını ve üretimini değiştirirken mimarlığın asıl çalışma alanı olan mekanı da dönüştürmektedir. Bu çalışma, 'Dijital teknolojiler, mekanın bedenle iletişim kurma biçimlerini ve mekan anlayışını nasıl etkiler?' sorusu ile başlamıştır. Dijital teknolojilerin bedene ve mekana kazandırdığı etkileşimli uzantılarla, mekansal algı ve bedensel deneyimi dönüştürmesi ve alternatif deneyimlere dair ipuçları sunması çalışmanın temel motivasyonunu oluşturmaktadır. Teknoloji, dijitalleşme ile birlikte bedensel verileri tanımlanabilir ve kontrol edilebilir hale getirmektedir. Bu çalışma, dijital teknolojilerin bedensel deneyim aracılığıyla mekan ve beden arasında karşılıklı etkileşim potansiyelini artırarak farklı bir gerçeklik katmanı ortaya koyması fikri üzerinden gelişmektedir. Bu yeni durumda, dijital teknoloji bedenle duyuları aracılığıyla iletişim kurmakta ve bu iletişimden elde ettiği bilgileri mekana aktararak mekansal öğelerin dönüşümünü sağlamaktadır. Tez beden, mekan ve teknoloji arasında kurulan bu ilişkiyi 'etkileşim' kavramı üzerinden tartışmaya açmaktadır. Beden ve mekan arasında teknolojinin sağladığı etkileşim, bedene ait duyular, bedenin duyularıyla mekana aktarılan veriler ve bu verilerle üretilen mekansal özellikler bağlamında ele alınmaktadır. Dijital teknolojilerle birlikte var olan deneyimsel mekanlar, bedenle ve bedensel deneyimin zihinsel süreçleri olan gerçeklik katmanlarıyla bütünleşerek mekansal deneyimi dönüştürmektedir. Beden artık fiziksel anlamda var olmadığı sanal mekanları da deneyimleyebilmekte ve dijital teknolojiler aracılığıyla bedenin deneyim süreçlerini oluşturan verileri mekanı oluşturan bilgi kaynağına dönüştürebilmektedir. Böylece dijital teknolojiler ile birlikte mekan ölçümsel ve geleneksel tanımlarından sıyrılmaktadır. Dijital olmayan 'geleneksel mekan', çoğunlukla kartezyen anlayış ve görme duyusu baskın tasarım yöntemleri ile oluşturulmakta, mekanın bedenle kurduğu etkileşimi ve mekanın kurucu öğelerinden biri olan bedenin duyumlarını yeterince önemsememektedir. Gelişen dijital teknolojiler ise mekanı yalnızca göz ile deneyimlenen estetik ve statik bir nesne olmaktan çıkarır; bedenin diğer duyularıyla da etkileşime geçerek bedensel deneyimin bütünlüğünü korur. Bu sayede mekan da nesne konumundan özne konumuna taşınır; gözlerin ve bedenin hareketi, zihinsel süreçleri gibi bedensel durumlara anlık yanıtlar verebilir hale evrilir. Tezin ana argümanı, duyusal algılara dayalı bedensel deneyimi amaçlayan ve dijital teknolojilerle kurgulanan etkileşimli mekanları konu edinen örnekler yardımıyla tartışmaya açılacaktır. Böylece etkileşimli dijital teknolojilerle tasarlanan deneyimlerin oluşturduğu durumlar tez kapsamında oluşturulan beden, mekan ve teknoloji ilişkisi üzerinden okunacaktır.
ÖgeWomen's use of space in Tehran modern houses constructed between 1960-1980(Graduate School, 2021-02-16) Davodipad, Sepideh ; Özsoy, Ahsen ; 502092018 ; Architectural Design ; Mimari TasarımThe main objective of this thesis is the exploration and detailed examination of the women's use of space in modern dwellings constructed between the years 1960-1980 in Tehran, Iran, by considering political, economic and socio-cultural dynamics. The research is based on theories of the use of space, gender and domesticity which are supported by studies in culture, spatial behavior and modernity. Furthermore, factors such as the social, economic and political transformation of the country were studied. In addition, Iran's modern architecture and domestic life evolution were investigated to achieve an image of modern Iran and its residential situation in the period in question. Finally, cases of modern domesticity and women users were studied and analyzed to develop the discussion and the results. Iran's modernization process began from the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century with political and economic reforms that were followed by socio-spatial reforms. The state's policy of modernization intensified following the White Revolution of the 1960s and the economic boom of the 1970s. Tehran was the capital of the modernization and a ground pattern for socio-spatial transformation in the country. The images of modern living spaces and modern society with a focus on women as agents of change and discontinuity were imported from the west. Modern socio-spatial ideas were in confrontation with the traditional and the local ways of life, but these ideas transformed and adapted the status quo. Although the imported patterns of the modernism are similar in non-western countries, Iran had a radical approach to it as a result of the state's top-down modernity policies. Modern domesticity was idealized, and the image of the modern woman emerged as a result of the state's modernization aspiration and the social opportunities with a growing number of middle-class educated women with financial independence. The concepts of "modern home, life, and woman" were promoted by Euro-American models. The state dominated economical and international structures had significant roles in socio-spatial reforms in Iran. The constitutional revolution (1906) was seen as the propulsion engine of the socio-cultural reforms in the early century. The pace of the reforms was accelerated after WWII due to social, political and economic transformations. The outcome of the reforms was a modern society made up of educated and useful individuals which was placed at the center of socio-political identity. The modern reforms lead to the modern taste and lifestyle. The core of the new lifestyle and new cultural practices manifested themselves in domestic life and in other fields. The years between 1920-1980 (first and second Pahlavi period) witnessed many reforms and changes in housing and residential neighborhoods. The government's housing policies affected the building process. Extending social life in houses to the public, producing a modern middle-class as a result of educational reforms constituted new steps to change and transformation. Economic transformation as a result of the oil industry and the relevant events such as its extraction, raising the prices, and its nationalization all affected the housing sector. Many residential neighborhoods were constructed with the cooperation of foreign architectural firms and consultants. Moreover, constructing residential neighborhoods in oil cities by 1920, the establishment of home-economics schools by President Truman's Point 4 program, introducing home appliances (imported-montage-local), post-WWII modernization, the oil boom and increase in the ability of consumers to buy goods, resulted in new concepts of taste, beauty, gender, class, consumption, religious and national identity taking shape in the domestic realm. Modernization became the government's first plan for the country and the capital. The accelerated urbanization and industrialization were followed by the social changes such as the growth of the young generation, the growth rate in the urban middle-class families, and the rise of immigration to big cities. Moreover, the oil industry and the economic growth resulting from it supported the state's plans. Consequently, the construction of residential complexes and towers accelerated in this period to address the needs of the new and educated middle-class families. Modern domestic life and women as an integral part of the modernization process became a focal point of the government. Public and private boundaries broke down, gender roles and duties inside and outside home were redefined. New domestic spaces replaced traditional gender-based spatial divisions. The housekeeping taught to women through different programs came to be rationalized, standardized and sanitized. The instructions focused on minimizing the women's use of energy in order to enable them to carry out more tasks related to home, family and society. They were educated as modern mothers and wives of the home and at the same time participated in the public economic and socio-cultural activities of the nation. The research question focused on the women's use of space in Tehran modern houses constructed in the last two decades of the Pahlavi period (1960-1980); their everyday life, modification, and alteration of the space. The study had a historic approach to both the domestic evolution and the women's use of space. Therefore, the impact of political, social, and economic circumstances and their consequences in housing and women's family, social, and private life was considered. The modern history of Iran is divided into four periods including pre-Pahlavi, first and second Pahlavi, post-revolutionary. Iran's modernization process accelerated in the 1960s and 1970s due to economic and social changes. Housing construction developed with people flooding from small cities and villages to Tehran. Low and high-rise apartments, row houses, and residential complexes were planned by the state and private sector to cope with the housing problem. Modern housing improved the standard of living for the vast majority of the population. However, being modern in a traditional society with strict cultural values took another shape. Spaces were modern but users did not know how to reconcile past and present, modern and traditional, Iranian and foreign. There was coexistence between religious, traditional, and modern ways of life. In this framework, analyzing women's use of space includes studies of the effects of the modernization, adoption, and adaptation process and how political, economic, and socio-cultural systems influence that process and how women used and modified space during that time. In this sense, the role of the state, different western programs, and the press aimed to shape the new image of women inside and outside the home. The focus of this study was on the everyday life of women and spatial connections. The methodology of this research was a qualitative method and narrative inquiry that includes archival research, memories, photographs, and in-depth interviews. Twenty women aged 38-72 from six different settlements participated in the study. These settlements were constructed during the process of modernization of the capital between the years 1960-1980 and promoted new and modern lifestyles for the newly emerged modern middle-class. The participants were asked through an in-depth interview to tell the story related to their home. The interviews took 60-120 minutes and were conducted in two different periods, October 2016, and November 2017. The data was analyzed through narrative content analysis using Atlas. ti 8.0 qualitative software package. The stories are interpreted through exploring codes, writing comments and comparing them. Searching common subjects in the narratives led to the identification of themes and sub-themes. The results showed that the factors that affected the use of space and adjustments were manifold with several links between socio-cultural norms, women's everyday life, and use of space. Some of these connections represented demographic and economic sources, whereas others had physical, environmental, and socio-political sources. These were categorized into three domains, in accordance with user profile, dwelling unit, and settlement. Use and alterations of space in the user profile domain are internal and were related to the demographic and economic issues of the households such as changes in the life stages of the family and their economic situations. These included changes in age or structure of the family. The economic condition of the family is significant in the use and alterations in space in two aspects: the current situation and women's contribution to the economy of the family. Overload of different uses or rooms without use, and allocating some parts of the living room, kitchen, or bedrooms for doing outside work are some of the main changes in special organization and modifications. In the dwelling unit domain, study results show that women's everyday life, time-space activities and socio-cultural norms have a direct impact on the use of spaces. The different families show different uses and adaptations in the same domestic space resulting from their way of life. Modern homes aimed to liberate women from participating in society and public life. In reality, the everyday life of women, and socio-spatial divisions had separated the women from the outside world. Dwelling units changed to a place for integrating different activities related to housework and wage work. Furthermore, socio-cultural concepts such as privacy, cleaning, and traditions gave meaning to the use of space. Segregation of the domestic spaces using curtains, decorative walls, or furniture had emphasized the significance of private/public, back/front, presentable/unpresentable, pure/ impure (najis) spaces of the home. The settlement domain included external factors that affected women's use of space such as the characteristics of the surrounding neighborhood or socio-political factors. These are constraints or extensions of the domestic space to the public and vice versa. For example, results show how women domesticate the public spaces, or how the public spaces of the settlement provide more uses for women's activities, such as bicycle riding or walking dogs and parties that normally are unacceptable in the society. Moreover, the physical characteristics of the settlements such as accessibility to bazaar, family, security, comfort, fame, gardens, and children's playing grounds are significant in making them desirable or undesirable living spaces for women. Transformations in social and political values affected the use of space most of the time. These included losing previous functionality, replacing it with new ones, residential dissatisfaction and emerging preservative/secular, public/private life dichotomies. In this framework, analyzing women's use of space through the concepts of gender and domestic life provides further studies of the effects of the modernization, adoption and adaptation process and how political, economic and socio-cultural systems influenced that process and how women used and modified space during that time. Using qualitative and narrative research methodology, the focus of this study was on the everyday life of women and their spatial connections. Investigating the post WWII domestic life from women users' point of view provide further sensitivity to architectural design and evolution. The study of gender and space relationship represent new perspectives in housing quality and residential satisfaction