Etkileşimli dijital teknolojiler bağlamında beden mekan deneyimi

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Tarih
2020
Yazarlar
Ucay, Rabia
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Özet
Günümüzde mektup, resim, maket gibi analog teknolojilerden mobil telefon, fotograf, üç boyutlu model gibi dijital teknolojilere doğru geçişler görülmektedir. Yaşanan bu değişim kültürü, alışkanlıkları, bilginin yapısını ve üretimini değiştirirken mimarlığın asıl çalışma alanı olan mekanı da dönüştürmektedir. Bu çalışma, 'Dijital teknolojiler, mekanın bedenle iletişim kurma biçimlerini ve mekan anlayışını nasıl etkiler?' sorusu ile başlamıştır. Dijital teknolojilerin bedene ve mekana kazandırdığı etkileşimli uzantılarla, mekansal algı ve bedensel deneyimi dönüştürmesi ve alternatif deneyimlere dair ipuçları sunması çalışmanın temel motivasyonunu oluşturmaktadır. Teknoloji, dijitalleşme ile birlikte bedensel verileri tanımlanabilir ve kontrol edilebilir hale getirmektedir. Bu çalışma, dijital teknolojilerin bedensel deneyim aracılığıyla mekan ve beden arasında karşılıklı etkileşim potansiyelini artırarak farklı bir gerçeklik katmanı ortaya koyması fikri üzerinden gelişmektedir. Bu yeni durumda, dijital teknoloji bedenle duyuları aracılığıyla iletişim kurmakta ve bu iletişimden elde ettiği bilgileri mekana aktararak mekansal öğelerin dönüşümünü sağlamaktadır. Tez beden, mekan ve teknoloji arasında kurulan bu ilişkiyi 'etkileşim' kavramı üzerinden tartışmaya açmaktadır. Beden ve mekan arasında teknolojinin sağladığı etkileşim, bedene ait duyular, bedenin duyularıyla mekana aktarılan veriler ve bu verilerle üretilen mekansal özellikler bağlamında ele alınmaktadır. Dijital teknolojilerle birlikte var olan deneyimsel mekanlar, bedenle ve bedensel deneyimin zihinsel süreçleri olan gerçeklik katmanlarıyla bütünleşerek mekansal deneyimi dönüştürmektedir. Beden artık fiziksel anlamda var olmadığı sanal mekanları da deneyimleyebilmekte ve dijital teknolojiler aracılığıyla bedenin deneyim süreçlerini oluşturan verileri mekanı oluşturan bilgi kaynağına dönüştürebilmektedir. Böylece dijital teknolojiler ile birlikte mekan ölçümsel ve geleneksel tanımlarından sıyrılmaktadır. Dijital olmayan 'geleneksel mekan', çoğunlukla kartezyen anlayış ve görme duyusu baskın tasarım yöntemleri ile oluşturulmakta, mekanın bedenle kurduğu etkileşimi ve mekanın kurucu öğelerinden biri olan bedenin duyumlarını yeterince önemsememektedir. Gelişen dijital teknolojiler ise mekanı yalnızca göz ile deneyimlenen estetik ve statik bir nesne olmaktan çıkarır; bedenin diğer duyularıyla da etkileşime geçerek bedensel deneyimin bütünlüğünü korur. Bu sayede mekan da nesne konumundan özne konumuna taşınır; gözlerin ve bedenin hareketi, zihinsel süreçleri gibi bedensel durumlara anlık yanıtlar verebilir hale evrilir. Tezin ana argümanı, duyusal algılara dayalı bedensel deneyimi amaçlayan ve dijital teknolojilerle kurgulanan etkileşimli mekanları konu edinen örnekler yardımıyla tartışmaya açılacaktır. Böylece etkileşimli dijital teknolojilerle tasarlanan deneyimlerin oluşturduğu durumlar tez kapsamında oluşturulan beden, mekan ve teknoloji ilişkisi üzerinden okunacaktır.
Today, there are new transitions from analog technologies such as letters, pictures to digital technologies such as mobile phones, photographs, and 3D models. While the culture of variation is changing habits, structure and production of information, it also transforms the real working space of architecture. This study was started with the question "How do digital technologies affect the way space communicates with the body and understanding of space?" The main motivation of the study is that digital technologies transform spatial perception and physical experience with what they bring to the body and space, and offer clues to alternative experiences. Technology makes physical data identifiable and controllable with digitalization. This work is based on the idea that the combination of space and digital technologies creates a different layer of reality by increasing the potential for interaction between space and body through physical experience. Digital technology communicates with the body through the senses of the body and transfers the spatial elements by transferring the information obtained from this communication to space. The thesis opens up this relationship between body, space, and technology through the concept of 'interaction'. The interaction of technology between the body and space is handled in the context of the senses of the body, the data transferred to space with the senses of the body, and the spatial features produced by this data. Experiential spaces that exist together with digital technologies transform the spatial experience by integrating with the body and layers of reality, the mental processes of bodily experience. The body can also experience virtual spaces where it no longer exists physically and can transform the data that make up the experience processes of the body into a source of information that creates the space through digital technologies. Nondigital ''traditional space'', designed by mostly cartesian understanding and visual sense dominant design techniques, does not care enough about the interaction of space with the body and the sensations of the body. Developing digital technologies, on the other hand, make space not only an aesthetic and static object experienced with the eye but also protects the integrity of the bodily experience by interacting with other senses of the body. In this way, space evolves from the object position to the subject position and evolves into a state that can give instant answers to bodily situations such as the movement of the eyes, the body, and mental processes. In the first part; for what reasons the thesis is handled in terms of interaction and digital technology and the content of the thesis is explained. The second part is the relationship between technology and space, which lies at the base of the triangle that describes the conceptual relationship structure. This section questions the 'reality' situation that causes space definitions such as virtual reality, augmented reality revealed by interactive digital technologies. In addition to discourses about reality, what is the reality and how it was formed is discussed through the situations that took place in the historical process by using the technologies of the period. It is considered valuable to examine the unique technological features of each period before speaking about the "digital", the latest phase of technology, in terms of understanding its genetics and how it changed the bodily and spatial experience. Then, the relationship between digital and analog (non-digital) is given in order to understand what is meant by "digital", which is the return of the age we are in, and the nature of the digital. As a deduction and extension of these reviews, ''Understanding Media'' deals with the periodic features of McLuhan (1994), which deals with the technologies of the period in relation to 'communication/interaction'. This review reveals the effects of technologies on daily life and the changes brought by "digital". Studying the characteristics of the period is considered valuable both in terms of understanding digital technology's everyday practices, culture and therefore how it transforms space, as well as determining the place of this subject among architectural practice and discourses. Then, in light of this information, the reasons that cause digital technologies to leap into architecture and space are discussed. In the next stage, the interactions of digital technologies and the relationship of space are explained through the tools developed to date. In these examples developed in the field of digital technology, space and body experiences are examined, as well as the roles of interactions and senses are questioned. The third section is based on the experience arising from the body-space relationship consisting of the twin edges of the conceptual triangle and the interaction concepts arising from the body-digital technology relationship. In this section, it is evaluated as a whole since it has a simultaneous relationship with both bodies, space, and digital technology concepts. The ways in which the experience obtained from the space takes place on the body side are examined in relation to experience and senses through the phenomenological discourses of Heidegger, Pallasma, Merleau Ponty. While the phenomenological approach deals with each individual's unique perception and experience, it discusses the body's perception of reality, not the truth. In this respect, it is evaluated together with the real experience created by digital technologies in the perception of the body. In order to examine the body-space experience in the space built with digital technologies, the body's functioning of the senses and its relationship with digital technologies are included. Because without understanding how the current (analog) reality is perceived and experienced, how the digital realities are experienced cannot be understood. Then, the types of interaction established with the body in interactive digital technology-based spaces and how the experience takes place are examined through the data inputs of the body, interaction types and the changing elements of the space, which are the interfaces of the body. Throughout this section, it is aimed to clarify, elaborate and embody examples with interaction-oriented digital space experience, the approaches of technology to the body and physical experience, how this affects the body, the multisensory experience developing with digital technology. In the fourth section, the current examples (spatial experiences) and an experimental study, which are produced in the last decade, are studied in order to read the theoretical framework that main argument of the thesis through design practices and to interpret the architectural space and body-space experience through digital technology, interaction and sensory relations. With the mentioned experimental study, it is aimed to experience the interaction of the space with the body through digital technologies, to keep the theory and practical aspects of architecture together and to contribute to the thesis by revealing the effect/result of theoretical concepts. The fifth part is the section where the thesis is finalized by including all the relevant comments and evaluations. Consequently, in the thesis, there are implications regarding the body-space experience in the context of interactive digital technologies by obtaining data from concepts, interrelationships, examples and experimental study.
Açıklama
Anahtar kelimeler
mimari mekan, architectural space, mimarlık, architecture, teknoloji, technology, insan bedeni, human body
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