LEE- Proje ve Yapım Yönetimi-Yüksek Lisans

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  • Öge
    Design-construction interface problems in construction projects
    (Graduate School, 2023-02-02) Buğan, Esra Emine ; Çakmak, Pınar ; 502191403 ; Project and Construction Management
    There is ongoing inefficiency and traditionalism in the construction industry. Throughout the development of Industry in general, the construction industry received the least positive impact. Many different management systems can be applied and developed in the construction industry like agile transformation, lean management etc. Yet the construction industry has not fully implemented any of the developments. However, it is seen that there is a lack of information on lessons learned from past experiences and mistakes. For this reason, budget, time and quality deficits have started to be given due to the increasing incompatibility of the inefficiency from the way of doing business with today's complex projects and resources. Throughout the lifecycle of the construction projects, the common aim for all participants is to achieve a "perfect" project with less cost at a minimum schedule. The biggest difficulty experienced while advancing the project process is to exhibit the right approach to the problems that arise. A real challenge emerges when deciding how to define and mitigate the causes of design-construction interface problems in the process and reduce the negative impact that is or will be reflected on the project. The thesis research aims to identify the causes of design-construction interface problems and to determine their frequency of occurrence and degree of importance. At this point, while analyzing the frequency and importance of these problems from the eyes of industry professionals; it is also important to reveal whether there is any difference in the perspectives of different professionals. In this context, to achieve the mentioned aim, the thesis research is developed in two main parts. The first part includes a comprehensive literature review to find out what are these design- construction interface problems, how they occur and how they impact the construction project life cycle. Databases are searched for in the areas where the problems are thought to originate. These main areas are stakeholders and their relationships and management, construction project phases and situations occurring at the interface of these phases, design phase and design management. At the intersection of all these areas, the problems that occur during the construction project process are listed and grouped according to the project phases in which they occur. In the second stage, a questionnaire survey is conducted with the design-construction interface problems gathered from the literature to measure the frequency of occurrence and degree of importance of these problems. The first part of the questionnaire gets general information about the respondents, the second and the third parts search for the frequency of occurrence and degree of importance of design-construction interface problems on a 5-point Likert scale, the last part has an open-ended question that aimed to get the opinions of the survey participants on the subject. The data that is obtained with the help of the questionnaire is analyzed through the SPSS program. In the first step, Cronbach's alpha reliability test is used to ensure the reliability of data. Secondly, frequency and descriptive analysis are used to get the frequency of each response. Third, the rankings of all variables are calculated using the Relative Importance Index (RII). Fourth, Skewness-Kurtosis values are evaluated to determine whether the data were normally distributed. Survey participants were divided into groups (designer, consultant and contractor); one-way ANOVA tests were applied to investigate whether there was a statistically significant difference between the groups. Finally, the variables were analyzed in one-way ANOVA test to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between stakeholders. According to the results of ANOVA tests, further post-hoc analyses were applied to the variables to show from which groups the differences came from. As a result, "PDC16 - Economic Situation" and "PC9 - Construction errors and defective work at the construction site" become the most occurred and most important problems from the consultants' point of view. "PD8 - Lack of proper coordination between various disciplines of the design team" cause is ranked as the most occurred and most important problem from the contractors' point of view. And, "PT5 - Awarding the contract to the lower bidder price regardless of the quality of service" is found as the most occurred and most important problem for the designers. "PT5 - Awarding the contract to the lower bidder price regardless of the quality of service" is ranked at the top both in the lists of designers', consultants' and contractors' . "PDC17 - Fast Track Construction" becomes critical for consultants and contractors; "PD6 - Time limitation in the design phase" and "PD9 - Unstable owner requirements" are important for contractors and designers. This thesis research identified the causes of design-construction interface problems seen in construction projects according to the project stages; and determined the frequency of occurrence and degree of importance of these problems from the perspective of different construction project professionals. To be aware of problems to detect them when necessary and to raise awareness to take the necessary action when encountered; supported by recommendations. Thus, it has been seen that, although the results vary for each stakeholder, it has been determined that there are similar points. The findings of this thesis research can help construction project professionals by providing an understanding of the design-construction interface primary problems. By having knowledge of the main problems and their impacts, participants can take precautions, make effort to minimize their impacts, and after all make a significant contribution to the successful completion of construction projects.
  • Öge
    Digital twin for enhanced construction project management during construction
    (Graduate School, 2022-12-09) Aktürk, Berkay ; Çakmak, Pınar Fatma ; 502191402 ; Project and Construction Management
    The construction industry has a bad reputation worldwide in terms of productivity and efficiency. Insomuch that, it accounts for a large share of global economic costs. Therefore, a proper management is vital for the construction industry. In order to intensify, increase and improve the quality, value and scope of its management approach, the industry has started to seek the solution in digital tools in recent years. The adoption of Building Information Modeling (BIM) by the construction industry has acted as a spur for the attempt to digitize the industry. Thus, fresher, more sophisticated ideas started to emerge. The concept of the digital twin, which made its first waves in a space program, has grown rapidly and quickly entered other industries as well as the construction industry, along with the technological trends related to the Industry 4.0. The digital twin is a virtual system that connects design, construction, and operation by using a combination of technologies to data-link its physical and real assets bidirectionally. While the adoption of BIM in the construction industry is not yet complete, the digital twin is considered a closed box for industry professionals and it does not have many practical applications or case studies. At this point, this thesis research aims to shed a light on the interaction of the digital twin and BIM from a construction project management perspective; to investigate the influences of the digital twin during construction. To answer key questions, -namely (1) "What are the characteristics and practices of the digital twin in the construction industry?"; (2) "What are the functions and applications of the digital twin in the construction from a management perspective?"; (3) "To what extent and how can the digital twin support BIM in the construction?"- a comprehensive synthesis of the literature on the digital twin through the lens of construction project management is carried out as the first step. Scopus database was selected for data extraction by realizing the knowledge gap about the construction, a detailed background analysis was performed to find out the digital twin characteristics, practices, their relationship with BIM, and finally functions and applications of both in construction. As a result of the literature analysis, the topics that can benefit from digital applications within the construction management services provided during the construction phase of the project life cycle are site progress monitoring, resource allocation and waste management, clash detection, decision-making, communication and collaboration, cost management, scheduling, risk management, logistics and supply chain, and safety detection. As the second step, a questionnaire survey was conducted to measure the influence of digital twin services in the literature on parallel BIM uses intending to understanding the importance of these services for professionals. The first part of the questionnaire captures general information about the respondents and the second part gathers information about the influence of Digital Twin services on BIM uses on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = not effective, 5 = extremely effective). The study adopted purposive sampling as the sampling method, 108 industry experts were reached and 70 responses were collected with a response rate of 65%. The data obtained through the questionnaire were analyzed by applying statistical tests through the SPSS 27 program. First, Cronbach's alpha reliability test was used to assess the data's reliability. With a value of 0.893, the study's Cronbach's alpha (α) score was found to be quite acceptable. Secondly, it was observed that the results were normally distributed with the Skewness-Kurtosis normality distribution test, which determined whether the further analyzes would be parametric or not. Third, Pearson's correlation test was applied to measure the relationship between variables. Finally, the variables were divided into meaningful groups in accordance with the aim of the study. Based on experts' opinions, results were analyzed by performing independent-samples t-test and one-way ANOVA. In the scaling of the influence of the specified digital twin services on parallel BIM uses, all services have received mean scores to be considered high. According to the results, the service with the highest impact on BIM applications was communication and collaboration, while logistics and supply chain and safety detection shared the lowest mean score. These findings suggest that digital twin services during construction have a substantial impact on BIM because they transcend beyond their current uses. Additionally, almost all digital twin services that find applications in construction have a high correlation with each other. This is an indication that elements should be considered as a whole and a two-way network for enhanced management during construction. By dividing the participants into two groups, whether they are digital twin users or not, and whether they are domestic or international, it was analyzed whether these aspects affected their perspectives by performing independent sample t-tests. Although there was found a statistically significant difference in the "scheduling" variable between domestic and international participants, the fact that both groups had a high mean score showed that the experts thought that the digital twin had a significant impact on 4D BIM applications. In the first ANOVA test that divided the participants into more than two groups according to their organizational structure, "decision making", "risk management", and "logistics and supply chain" were the digital twin services that have seen a statistically significant difference between groups. Another digital twin service "scheduling", which has seen a significant difference, was observed in analyzes where participants were grouped according to their years of experience. Levene's test was applied to measure the homogeneity of variances related to variables and Games-Howell, Gabriel's and Tukey's post-hoc analyzes were performed to find out which groups caused the identified difference. In addition, even though each group approaches the project with different risks, different objectives and different perspectives, the fact that there are differences of opinion for only a few services in this combination of relationships has been an indication that the positive influence of the digital twin has been accepted by the stakeholders of the industry. This study reviewed and analyzed the characteristics and current applications of technologies and concepts of the digital twin in the construction industry, and has contributed to and strengthened the digital twin body of knowledge which is limited within the construction project management framework. Additionally, by revealing the topics that digital applications can offer benefits within the construction management services provided during the construction phase of the project life cycle; the influence and potential of the digital twin on BIM uses have been demonstrated. Experts agree that digital twin services that offer many uses during the construction go beyond parallel BIM uses and offer several benefits for construction project management. Thus, it has been shown that the digital twin can be a tool for enhanced construction project management, which can get rid of the low efficiency and lack of productivity that the construction industry is still experiencing. This study serves as a source of motivation for researchers working in the field of digital construction and a guide for industry professionals and institutions with question marks about concepts and outcomes.
  • Öge
    Türk yapım projelerinde çevik proje yönetimi araçlarından scrum'un uygulanabilirliğinin vaka çalışmalarıyla incelenmesi
    (Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, 2021-05-20) Cesur, Melike ; Taş, Elçin Filiz ; 502181406 ; Proje ve Yapım Yönetimi ; Project and Construction Management
    İnşaat sektörü, ekonomik krizlerden büyük ölçüde etkilenen sektörden biridir. Diğer sektörler kriz sonrasında yeni teknolojiler ve yöntemler geliştirerek gelişime geçebilmesine rağmen; inşaat sektörü doğru bildiği yanlışlarla süreçlerine devam etmektedir. Süre ve maliyet aşımları, düşük iş gücü verimliliği, israf, işveren ve paydaş gereksinimlerinin yeteri kadar anlaşılamaması, iletişim ve koordinasyon yetersizlikleri, planlama hataları, karmaşıklık, değişiklik, belirsizlik ve risklerle baş edememe sorunları neredeyse her inşaat projesinde tekrarlanmaktadır. İnşaat projelerindeki bu sorunlar nedeniyle yatırımcılar farklı yatırım araçları arayışına yönelirler. Yatırımcılar tarafından inşaat projelerine talep azaldıkça firmalar rekabet etmeye çalışır. Değişikliklere, belirsizliklere ve risklere adapte olarak rekabet avantajı sağlamak için yeni teknolojileri, yöntemleri ve yönetim yaklaşımlarını uygulamak gerekir. Bu nedenle, yazılım projelerinde benzer sorunlara yanıt bulmak amacıyla ortaya konulan ve karmaşık projelerde değişikliklere, belirsizliklere ve risklere yanıt verebilme gücünü sağlayan çevik proje yönetimi, inşaat sektörüne adapte edilmelidir. Çevik proje yönetimi bir iş yapış felsefesidir. Bu felsefenin uygulanması için bazı yöntemler tanımlanmıştır. Bu tez çalışmasında, bu uygulama yöntemlerinden biri olan Scrum'ın inşaat projelerinde uygulanabilir olduğunu, eğer uygulanırsa birey, proje, firma, sektör ve ülke düzeyinde pek çok avantaj sağlayacağını ortaya koymak ve sektörde farkındalığını ve bilinirliliğinı artırmak amaçlanmıştır. Bu amacı gerçekleştirmek için öncelikle çevik proje yönetimi ve Scrum, doğru bilgilere ulaşmak için doğmuş olduğu yazılım sektörü literatüründe araştırılmıştır. Yazılım ile inşaat projeleri hem benzer hem de farklı özelliklere sahip olduğu için yazılım sektörü literatüründeki kavramların inşaat sektörü için tam olarak bir karşılığının olmadığı anlaşılmıştır. Bu nedenle, inşaat sektörü literatürünün çevik proje yönetimi ve Scrum'ı ne şekilde ele aldığı, bu kavramların inşaat projelerinde neden uygulanması gerektiği, uygulanabilirliği ve uyarlanabilirliği, uygulanırsa sağlayacağı avantajlar ve karşılaşacağı kısıtlar konuları incelenmiştir. Literatür çalışması sonucunda yurt içi literatürünün, yurt dışı literatürüne göre epey geride kaldığı; yurt dışında 2006 yılı itibariyle çalışılmaya başlandığı ve 21 çalışma olduğu, yurt içinde ise 2019 yılı itibariyle çalışılmaya başlandığı ve 3 çalışma olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Çevik proje yönetiminin ve Scrum'ın, Türkiye inşaat sektörü uygulamaları ile ilişkilendirildiği literatür çalışmasına ihtiyaç olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. Çevik proje yönetiminin ve Scrum'ın Türk yapım projelerinde uygulanabilirliğini incelemek amacıyla vaka çalışmaları yapılmıştır. Yapılan vaka çalışmalarında Scrum'ı projelerinde deneyimlemiş olan proje yönetim, yüklenici, tasarım ve cephe firmaları ile yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmeler yapılmıştır. Görüşme soruları, literatür çalışmaları sonrası elde edilen bilgilerden hazırlanmış ve çevrimiçi toplantı aracı vasıtasıyla katılımcılara sorulmuştur. Görüşme soruları firmalar hakkındaki bilgileri, Scrum uygulanmasına karar verme süreçlerini, Scrum uygulanan projeler hakkında bilgileri, Scrum uygulanan projelerde Scrum uygulanması hakkında bilgileri, projelerde Scrum uygulanmasının avantajlarını, kısıtlarını ve dezavantajlarını, Scrum'ın Türk inşaat projelerine uyarlanması ve yaygınlaştırılması için önerileri içerecek şekilde yaklaşık 60 sorudan oluşmuştur. Vaka çalışmaları sonucunda firmaların Scrum'ı yazılım projeleri için tariflendiği şekliyle uygulamak konusunda zorluk yaşadığı, belli bir süre sonra kendi iş yapış yöntemlerine dahil ederek uyarladıkları tespit edilmiştir. Scrum'ı teorik olarak öğrenmek ve tüm disipliniyle uygulamak zor olacaktır. Scrum, deneyselliği ve sürekli iyileşmeyi destekleyen bir iş yapış çerçevesi olduğu için gelişimi ve verimi sağlayabilmek amacıyla çerçevenin sınırlarını aşmak gerekir. Önemli olan çevik zihniyeti kavramaktır. Elde edilen veriler, Türk yapım projelerinde Scrum'ın uygulanabildiğini, uygulamak için uyarlamaların yapılabildiğini, sağlayacağı avantajları, uygulanması yolundaki kısıtların çözümünün olabileceğini göstermektedir. Türk yapım projelerinde Scrum'ın uygulanması ve yaygınlaştırılması için ülke, sektör, firma, proje ve birey düzeyinde önerilerde bulunulmuştur. Bu önerilerin uygulamaya konması ile birey düzeyinde çalışan mutluluğu ve verimlilik artışı; proje düzeyinde verimlilik, iletişim, koordinasyon ve güven artışı; firma düzeyinde rekabet, verimlilik artışı; sektör düzeyinde üretkenlik artışı, kriz ve belirsizliklerle baş edebilme; ülke ekonomisini yüksek oranla etkileyen inşaat sektöründeki verimlilik sayesinde ülke düzeyinde ekonomide artış sağlanacağı öngörülmüştür. Çalışma, inşaat sektöründe faaliyet gösteren ve verimliliğini artırmayı hedefleyen firmalara, konu hakkında araştırma yapan araştırmacılara kaynak olabilecektir.