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  • Öge
    New forms of the creative economy: Creative hubs in Istanbul
    (Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, 2021) Parlak, Meltem ; Baycan, Tüzin ; 709849 ; Şehir ve Bölge Planlama
    Globalization, development of information and communication technology (ICT) and widespread Internet access have led to profound changes in the cities of the 21st century. The effects of these changes are clearly visible in the economies of cities as well as the physical spaces and social relations in cities that evolve as a result of economic changes. Creativity and innovation play a crucial role in the resulting new economic landscape. The new economic landscape, which is also referred to as flexible specialization, post-fordism and the knowledge economy, is focused on high-level financial services, technology-intensive and knowledge-based firms and institutions, and cultural and leisure activities. Thus, creative industries are one of the most important driving forces of economic growth and the new economy. Creative industries require highly educated, knowledge-intensive labor. Changes in the basic inputs of the economy and the resulting labor profile also bring about changes in physical spaces. Certain cities and areas come to the forefront where the highly educated, knowledge-intensive labor is concentrated. Therefore, gaining the upper hand in competition among cities and formulating strategies and new approaches to offer attractive benefits and possibilities for the creative labor have become more important than ever. These strategies involve a multi-dimensional approach which requires making investments into enterprises, human capital and infrastructure. Such an approach is based on both physical and social infrastructure investments that can promote diversity, secure equal rights and freedom of people, stimulate collaboration and support cultural vibrancy. Creative hubs emerge out of the physical and social changes brought about by the creative economy. The labor profile required by the new economy that is characterized by concepts such as creativity, entrepreneurship and collaboration come with new requirements. And these requirements lead to new forms of working. The labor of a creative economy consists of communities that work under flexible conditions and are able to work remotely, and include freelancers, entrepreneurs and microbusinesses. From this point of view, creative hubs create the physical and social spaces where this type of labor can come together, work together, collaborate, engage in exchange of knowledge and establish new relation networks. Therefore, it is essential that we understand how these workspaces emerge, examine their properties, grasp their potential, and understand the changes that they trigger in cities. Focused on creative hubs, the objective of this thesis study is to conduct a multi- dimensional review of creative hubs, which emerge during development of a creative economy, by covering their physical and social aspects, and present the spatial relation that they establish with cities. For this purpose, first the circumstances that lead to emerge of these new-type of workspaces have been examined. The changes that took place in the economy at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century as well as the emergence of new economy have been scrutinized. Properties of the creative economy, which appeared as information and technology gained more importance and creativity became a key component of economy, have been reviewed. Concepts such as creative cities and creative clusters have been addressed that place greater emphasize on the importance of human capital and enable the flexible, tolerating, cosmopolitan and face-to-face relationships needed by the labor of the new economy, and allow such relationships to be utilized to create new ideas and develop new products, services and organizations. Lastly, creative hubs, which are next- generation workspaces where freelancers, remote workers, entrepreneurs and start-ups convene, produce, work and do business together, have been reviewed. Under the umbrella of creative hubs, several concepts such as co-working spaces, incubation centers, makerspaces and labs (e.g. fablabs, innovation centers, city labs, design labs, augmented reality labs etc.) have been addressed This thesis study covers the sample creative hubs that are located in Istanbul. Istanbul is the leading center of Turkey in terms of creative economy. In this context, it is important to reveal the potential of Istanbul for creative economy. Therefore, a chronological review of the changes in the land use structure in Istanbul has been conducted in connection with the city's economy. Then, the effects of city's existing economic structure on the land use are presented. Analysis of Istanbul's creative economy has provided useful guidance to evaluate spatial distribution of creative hubs in the city. This analysis has been conducted based on the data obtained during the field research. The data was obtained through in-depth surveys conducted with the managers and founders of the creative hubs. Deskwork, observations made during the field research, social media accounts of creative hubs and findings related to geographic data have also been used as part of the method. Research questions and the survey questions have been formulated around the 4 main themes, i.e. Structure, Focus, Services and Values. The 8 research questions which guided the study have also been addressed in this context. With a sample of co-working spaces, incubation centers, makerspaces and labs which fall into the definition of creative hub set out for the purposes of the thesis, a total of 49 surveys were conducted. The 49 creative hubs in the data set have a total of 117 locations, including their branches throughout the city. Geographic information system data has been utilized for the section on spatial distribution. For the geographic distribution section, data on 54 creative hubs, with a total of 129 locations in the city, has been used. The research results show that the majority of creative hubs are private initiatives that emerged during the last 10 years. Majority of the creative hub users are aged 21-40 years. Most of the users within this age group are from the Generation Y. One of the most important findings of the thesis study is that it has shown the relation between creative economy and creative hubs. All of the top 10 sectors represented in creative hubs belong to creative industries. The majority of co-working space members consists of people working on software projects. Similarly, most of the projects in incubation centers consist of information and communication technology projects. A significant portion of people and sectors in creative hubs work in creative sectors, and this is reflected in the user profile. Freelancers, entrepreneurs and microbusinesses make up the common users of creative hubs. Labor in the creative economy has flexible work conditions. Therefore, creative hubs also offer flexible and versatile possibilities to their users. Creative hubs provide their users with basic physical services, such as desks, chairs, Internet access, use of space and tools, which are made available during different hours. However, non-physical services are the ones that set creative hubs apart from others. Co-existence and physical proximity allow interactions, knowledge transfer and new business opportunities. Non-physical services provided by creative hubs include social possibilities such as developing relation networks, social interaction, mentorship, brainstorming, knowledge and skill sharing. Creative hubs are distinguished from other workspaces based on the social possibilities brought about by sharing of physical space. This also reflects the basic motivation behind the emergence of creative hubs. It has been found out that most of the founders of creative hubs decided on founding such an organization in order to bring together like-minded people and that their decisions were based on the prior experiences that the founders had during their own business development processes. Spatial distribution of creative hubs in the city is consistent with the location selections of existing finance and high-level service companies in the city. Creative hubs in the city, which emerged during the last 10 years and showed a particularly sharp increase during the last 5 years, are concentrated in the office buildings located in the city's central business district. This area is, at the same time, the most preferred location of sectors in the creative industries, and it is accessible and offers rich offer of cultural events. The properties and advantages of this area affect the location selection of creative hubs. Proximity to the central business district and proximity to public transport are the leading criteria that founders of creative hubs consider when making a location selection decision. Identity of the founders is another factor that affects location selection. It has been found out that the space provided by universities, local governments and public sector plays an important role in location selection of creative hubs. Another striking finding related to spatial distribution is that creative hubs also select certain buildings such as airports, old industrial buildings and stadiums and use them in an innovative way. Results of the analysis on the status of creative hubs in Istanbul show that the next- generation workspaces, which emerge in line with the development of creative economy and are based on concepts such as collaboration, networking and shared resources, are in an upward trend. Presence of creative hubs in the city plays a key role in developing creative economy and increasing information and technology production. Based on the information obtained from analyses, a series of recommendations have been formulated which can help development of creative hubs and the creative economy in Istanbul. These recommendations involve a multi- dimensional perspective and require a long-term corporate commitment that is open to collaboration.
  • Öge
    Modeling socio-spatial change: Impact of socio-technological factors on future urban space configuration
    (Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, 2021) Hamurcu Ulubaş, Aslı ; Terzi, Fatih ; 709826 ; Şehir ve Bölge Planlama
    With the Information Age, physicality and virtuality are blending with each other and demanding for a new understanding of urban space. The ways of doing things, in other words the ways of living, are changing, and in return, the space needed for these actions to take place is going under a multi-dimensional metamorphosis. It seems that the multilayered networks of relations are gaining new and multiple attributes, features and spatialities. Form, function and meaning of space are under a (re)construction by these new multilayered networks of relations. Therefore, revealing the impact of advancements in new information and communication technologies (nICTs) on the urban space is becoming crucial to understand the socio-technological factors and their possible outcomes so as to fulfill the upcoming spatial needs of the society. Moving from this point of view, this study aims, first, to model the socio-spatial change, and second, to put forward how socio-spatiality is changing along with the developments in nICTs in the twenty-first century, and how socio-technological factors are affecting urban space in terms of formation of new urban functions/uses or spaces that will habit/suit/house these dynamics within the city. However, making generalizations on the circumstances of socio-technological factors might be misleading in case of taking action in urban regeneration processes, as cultural, economic, societal, and political dynamics differ among different geographies. Understanding the local dynamics of a certain case area is, in this manner, inevitable to speculate upon the future of that area. For this reason, Kadıköy historical city center in Istanbul, Turkey is chosen as the case study area as, today, it houses/hosts a variety of dynamic socio-cultural groups along with a variety of cultural, economic, physical, and soci(et)al circumstances. In this context, this dissertation mainly consists of two parts that are intertwined on the theoretical basis. In the first part of the study (Chapter 2 and Chapter 3), socio-spatial change is examined a posteriori to the case study area. This part of the thesis covers each step taken to model socio-spatial change in the predefined case study area. In the second part of the study (Chapter 4 and Chapter 5), a discussion on the proposal of a theoretical framework for defining socio-technological factors based on socio-spatial dialectic, and their implications on future urban spatial configuration from the same predefined case study area is made. Each chapter dedicated to each step taken to carry out this thesis is prepared in the format of an article manuscript and been submitted to international peer-reviewed journals. At the time this thesis is submitted, first three articles were published in different indexed journals. To begin with, in the first part of the study, first of all, a preliminary study is conducted to define the socio-spatial change from a historical background and to reveal the dynamics and parameters of this change (Chapter 2). This preliminary study is also supported by morphological analyses (on building, plot, and street schemes) so as to discover the change in space in relation to changing social structure. Based on the findings, some inferences, depending on the predefined social (population change, social diversity, and income group) and morphological (settlement pattern, street pattern, and variation of land use) components, are made about changing socio-spatialities in the given place by means of time-space-society relations. The results show that each socio-cultural group brought their own culture and adapted their physical environment according to their basic needs. Besides, culture has a restrictive and an explanatory effect on the formation of space. In addition to culture, population growth and the adaptive capacity of society to external forces demanding change in the urban space also turn out to unavoidably affect the development scheme of the morphological character of the area. This chapter is published in the journal Spatium with the same title. However, it was come up with the result that this preliminary study was not enough to define the relationship between the social structure and the morphological development as a means of magnitude. In other words, like many other empirical studies, at some point, this preliminary study remained limited to put forward the direction of the relationship and also the power exerted by 'affecter' on the 'affected'. For this reason, as a second step forward (Chapter 3), by (re)processing data, existing visual and written sources were turned into non-parametric data (dummy variables), and then, they were categorized in nominal and ordinal scales. By this, several independent (cultural diversity, family type, income level, ownership status) and dependent (land use type, land cover, building type, building layout, settlement type, settlement pattern, street pattern, commercial pattern) variables are defined for making categorical regression analysis to estimate the relationships between these variables along with their impact on each other by determining the magnitude and the power for each defined variable. Thus, with this approach, each and every variable defined as a part of social structure are tested in terms of their effect on each and every variable defined as a part of morphological development. Results of the study show that urban character of the Kadıköy historical city center is closely related with family type, income level and cultural diversity. Among these variables, cultural diversity is again found as the key factor of change in urban space like in the preliminary study. Above all, this study has unique contributions in search for alternative methodologies to overcome limitations in the availability of data and it is expected to open new dimensions for further studies in social sciences and urban studies. It is also published in the journal Social Indicators Research with the same title. In the second part of the study, changing character of everyday living and culture is, first of all, discussed on the theoretical basis in relation with nICTs (Chapter 4). Possible effects of developments in nICTs were depicted as a part of process analysis. The outcome of the study shows that there are three phases by which urban (public) space is expected to change according to the impact of socio-technological factors. These phases are: (1) adaptation of technology in public displays/furniture and in building shells; (2) production of mixed-use areas; and finally (3) replacing certain uses within urban space. Among these phases, the fastest phase we are more likely to see its results is the adaptation of technology in public displays and furniture or in building shells, and in contrary, the slowest expected change is the replacement of certain uses within the urban space. Nevertheless, the transition phase of blending the physicality and the virtuality in a certain place gives some clues about the expectations from change in urban space in the near future. With the production of mixed-use spaces, nICTs are becoming a part of the physicality. They both enable multiple interactions (physical and virtual) to take place in a certain place or a location, and replace certain media and serve it virtually. These virtually mediated actions need attention to be paid so as to give shape to the future of cities as they critically change the notions of place attachment and place dependency. This study also has unique contributions to the theory by proposing an alternative definition (socio-technological factors) and by discussing its impact on future urban space configurations. This chapter is published in the journal Space and Culture with the same title. Nevertheless, the impact of technology on socio-spatiality should be evaluated as a shaping element of social practices within the daily life, and in return, as a shaping element of urban space as these social practices are inevitably taking place in it. Thus, envisioning the future aspects of nICTs means trying to observe and conceptualize newly emerging socio-spatialities based on the socio-technological factors that are being materialized by means of diversifying social relations on the physical and digital space. However, in order to determine these socio-technological factors, local scale analyses are needed as they are shaped and limited by differentiating cultural, economic, environment, soci(et)al, political, and technological circumstances of the geographies. On behalf of determining these socio-technological factors, in the final stage of the thesis (Chapter 5), a web-based survey was conducted in the case study area. 473 responses from the survey were analyzed by means of consecutive methods: multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and categorical regression (CATREG). By these analyses, first, socio-technological groups/profiles among users (inhabitants, workers, visitors) of Kadıköy historical city center were determined, and then, their preferences among physical space versus virtual space were revealed. Three socio-technological profiles were depicted which are highly mobile techno, mobile transi-techno and techo-selective. Additionally, it is come up with the result that although certain physical spaces are being replaced by virtual spaces, place attachment seems to be continuing its significance and vitality. These show a clue that Kadıköy historical city center is under a transition process for adapting nICTs in daily life activities. This chapter is also submitted to an international peer-reviewed journal for consideration for publication at the time this thesis is submitted. In overall, this dissertation can be taken as an attempt to determine the existing socio-technological factors, and to test for their impact on urban space as a part of socio-spatial dialectic. Based on the reality that socio-spatial change is a long run change, it will also take longer time to fully depict the impact of socio-technological factors on urban space in terms of defining its speed and cycles of change. For this reason, at this point, it is not possible to propose a definite pattern for change in urban space related to diversifying socio-technological factors. However, this dissertation can be taken as a step to do so. At least, with this thesis, it is intended to encourage and lay the groundwork for similar research on this topic.
  • Öge
    Impacts of climate change on tourism sector in Turkey: Challenges and future prospects
    (Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, 2021) Aygün, Aysun ; Baycan, Tüzin ; 663244 ; Şehir ve Bölge Planlama
    Tourism has 10.4% contribution to global GDP and 10% to global employment that makes it one of the most critical economic sectors. The tourist motivation, destination choices and travel time decisions are the most questioned issues in tourism literature while climate change may change those dynamics. Climate is one of the factors in travel timing, type of tourism activities, destination and length of stay. Climatic attributes are especially important on climate sensitive and climate dependent tourism activities that require specific climate conditions. For example, winter tourism requires specific snow cover and weather conditions for sports tourism, trekking, hiking or climbing are preferred under specific climate conditions that ensures safety. The changing climate is expected to have inevitable social, economic and environmental consequences which the tourism sector itself will also face. Climate change and tourism have two-sided interaction; tourism activities especially transportation demand generate a great amount of greenhouse gas emission, on the other hand, tourism activities are highly sensitive to climate change impacts. Climate change will cause warmer temperatures, extreme weather events and precipitation change. The first impact, temperature increase, is expected to affect today's popular destinations that are attractive for their pleasant weather. Due to the increased temperatures those regions are projected to be too hot for tourism activities, have poor climate conditions and low comfort levels, consequently lose their attractive feature or the peak season of tourism may shift from summer season to fall and spring. On the other hand, northern regions are expected to have moderate and warm weather conditions that are suitable for tourism activities. This situation may create new popular destinations in the global market. The precipitation is less likely preferred by tourists during their visitation. The sudden, unexpected and strong variations on precipitation generates uncertainty and affects the tourist preferences. Extreme weather event is a threat to tourism destinations due to the safety and security concerns. Climate change will also have negative impacts on tourism industry such as loss of resources, biodiversity, less snow cover, sea level rise. The natural heritage, beaches and environmental assets are the important components of destination attributes that contribute to attractiveness and competitiveness. The loss of these attributes is expected to influence the preferences of tourists. The changing pattern of tourism flow and impacts on local tourism markets inevitably generate socio-economic problems in those tourism dependent countries such as unemployment, decreased income and poverty. Therefore, investigating climate change impacts on tourism gains great importance to adapt the climate change, eliminate the risks and benefit the potentials. Today, Turkey is one of the most popular tourism destinations in the world. Turkey has climatic, natural and environmental attractions that successfully have been valued in the tourism sector and achieved to be recognized in the global market. Turkey is vulnerable to climate change due to its geographic location in the Mediterranean region. Climate change projections on Turkey deduce 2-60C increase in temperatures especially in the summer period, 20% decrease in precipitation, and a longer warm period. According to researches, climate change will have adverse impacts on tourism sector, the popularity of the country as a tourism destination will diminish due to sea level rise, extreme weather events, the extreme hot waves, and loss of biodiversity and natural values. Both summer and winter tourism will be affected by these changes. The national strategic climate change plans mention the climate change impacts on tourism sector. There are also some studies focusing of specific destinations or tourism types and investigating climate change impacts on these areas and activities. Although the awareness of vulnerability of tourism sector to climate change has increased, there has no constructive step taken yet at national, local or academic level. A comprehensive perspective is missing in policy and strategy papers and literature. The impacts of climate change should be defined for each region, risks should be revealed and development strategies should be developed to eliminate the risks, mitigate the impacts and adapt to the changing conditions. From this point of view, this study mainly focused on: (i) "What are the impacts of climate change on tourism sector in Turkey in terms of regional challenges, international demand and socio-economic dynamics?" (ii) "How should be the roadmap of the sectoral development to manage climate change challenges; eliminate risks and benefit opportunities without jeopardizing the socio-economic structure?" The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of climate change on international tourism in popular tourism destinations in Turkey and provide a strategic roadmap. The objectives of the study are; (i) evaluating physical impacts of climate change in terms of changing comfort levels on popular tourism destinations in Turkey, (ii) investigating the reflections of these impacts on number of tourists, income and employment,(iii) revealing the different exposures to climate change by comparing different tourism destinations that have different climatic, geographic conditions as well as offer different tourism attractions and tourism types in Turkey, (iv) determining the most vulnerable tourism regions to climate change impacts, (v) addressing high risk regions (vi) highlighting opportunities that can be turned into benefit of destination's tourism industry, (vii) providing a tentative strategic framework for climate change responsive tourism development. In order to achieve this purpose, 30 tourism destinations in Turkey are included in the case study. While determining the case study cities, the number of tourists they host, their role in the Tourism Strategy Plan, tourism activities and geographic locations are taken into consideration. From different geographical regions, with different climatic character, having different tourism activities and attractiveness, 30 cities were selected. In order to evaluate the physical impacts of climate change on climate comfort levels, Tourism Climate Index (TCI) is used. The results of TCI analysis were used to estimate the potential impacts of climate change on international tourism demand. The model developed by Hein et al. (2009) assumes the climate as the only variable changing over time and the rest constant is used. The comparison between base year (1963-2017) and projected year (2019-2100) is revealed in terms of both climate comfort levels and the number of tourist/tourism demand. Finally, the socio-economic impacts of changing demand are evaluated by adapting Input-Output Analysis for national assessment and Ryan Short Cut Model for regional assessment. The results of the study reveal that the climate comfort levels are expected to decrease in the future up to 2100 comparing with today's climate conditions especially in summer period. On the other hand, comfort levels are projected to increase in winter period. Moreover, the impacts are different for each geographic region. There are highly vulnerable cities especially in coast line, and there are more resilient cities mostly located inland. Relationally, the demand in summer period is expected to decrease while the demand in winter is expected to increase. The coastal region is expected to be impacted negatively while inner Anatolia impacted slightly positive or neutral. Moreover, the seasonal shift is the most important outcome of the changing climate. The coastal tourism-dependent cities will be the most vulnerable areas under new climatic conditions. The socio-economic impacts of changing climatic conditions will be more intense for those tourism-dependent cities. The results reveal the regional opportunities for tourism investments and alternative tourism development. They also address the vulnerabilities and risks that can be managed through adaptation and mitigation strategies. Regarding these projected consequences, a proposal for climate change responsive tourism development plan is provided at the end of the study. This study highlights the climate change and tourism interaction, the impacts of climate change on Turkey's tourism industry from a comprehensive, comparative and multi-dimensional perspective and provides a roadmap to manage climate change impacts by revealing the regional potentials and vulnerabilities.
  • Öge
    Yoğunluk ve sürdürülebilirlik ilişkisi: Kentsel enerjinin korunmasında kent formunun etkisi üzerine bir alan araştırması
    (Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, 2021) Uçlar Özdemir, Sevcan ; Aysan Buldurur, Mesture ; 663238 ; Şehir ve Bölge Planlama
    Bugün Dünyada küresel ısınma, iklim değişikliği ve yüksek karbondioksit emisyonu ile oluşan tahribat, enerji tüketimindeki artışın giderek büyüyen bir sonucudur. Sanayileşmiş dünyanın geliştirdiği enerji yoğun yaşam tarzı, enerji tüketimini, temel yaşam ihtiyaçları ve geçim faaliyetleri seviyesinden çok daha öteye taşımıştır. Bu durum, nüfusun ve kişi başına enerji kullanımının, sonlu kaynaklara ve sınırlı bir kapasiteye sahip olan gezegenimiz üzerinde devam eden baskılarından kaynaklanmaktadır. Dünya nüfusunun, üretimin ve tüketimin kentsel alanlarda yoğunlaşması kentsel alanlar üzerindeki baskıyı giderek artırırken, sürdürülebilir kentsel gelişme modellerine duyulan ihtiyaç da belirginleşmektedir. Günümüzde dünya nüfusunun yarısına yakını kentsel alanlarda yaşamaktadır. Dünyadaki ekonomik faaliyetlerin önümüzdeki yıllarda da kent merkezlerinde yoğunlaşmaya devam etmesi muhtemeldir. Dolayısıyla sürdürülebilir gelişme yaklaşımlarının öncelikli ve acil olarak kentsel alanları hedef alması gerekliliği kaçınılmazdır. Bunun için de yaşam tarzlarının, şehirleşme politikalarının ve enerji kullanım alışkanlıklarının değişmesi gerekmektedir. Enerji, kentsel alanın en kritik kaynak akışlarından biridir. Fiziksel ve ekonomik sistemler için itici bir güçken, iklim değişikliğinin de temel nedenini oluşturur. Bu açıdan kentsel alandaki enerji ilişkilerini doğru anlamak ve enerji kullanımını doğru şekilde yönetmek kritik bir öneme sahiptir. Teknolojik ilerlemeler, enerji tüketimini azaltmada temel rol oynarken, kentsel ekonomilerin büyümesi ve konut sakinlerinin yaşam standardının yükselmesi, enerji tüketimini arttırmaya devam etmektedir. Sanayi, ulaşım, inşaat ve yapı sektörleri arasında, konut ve ticari binaları içeren yapı sektörünün, dünya enerji tüketiminin yaklaşık %30'unu oluşturduğu bilinmekte ve bu oranın giderek arttığı gözlemlenmektedir. Yapılar enerjinin ana tüketicileri olduklarından, binaların enerji verimliliği, sürdürülebilir bir kentleşme için zorunlu bir hedef olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. Yıllar önceki teknoloji ve malzemelerle üretilmiş olan binalar, ekonomik ömürlerinin uzunluğu nedeniyle varlıklarını sürdürmeye devam ederken, bugünün yaşam standartlarının beklentilerini karşılamak için daha fazla enerjiye ihtiyaç duymaktadır. Bu da sürdürülebilir kentsel alanlar yaratmanın en önemli gerekliliklerinden birinin enerji tüketimini en aza indirmek olduğunu göstermektedir. Yapı sektöründe en fazla enerji, yaşam alanlarımızda yüksek seviyede termal konfor elde etmek amacıyla ısıtma gereksinimleri için kullanılmaktadır. Yerleşim yerlerinin ısıl performansı, kentsel ölçekte ve bina ölçeğinde birçok farklı değişkenden etkilenmektedir. Literatürde, bu faktörleri ölçen birçok çalışma vardır. Bu çalışmalar göstermektedir ki, makro ve mikro ölçekte, yapıların iklim koşullarıyla uyumlu olarak doğru mekânsal konfigürasyonda ve morfolojik yapıda yerleşimi, enerji verimli kentsel alanlara ulaşmak için önemli bir anahtardır. Bu çalışmada, mevcut yerleşimlerin mevcut ısı enerjisi tüketimleri edinilerek, farklı kentsel ölçeklerde morfolojik yapı ile olan ilişkileri değerlendirilmiştir. Çalışmanın amacı kent formunun yoğunluğunun ısı enerji tüketimi ile olan ilişkisini, yapısal yoğunluğa referans olan morfolojik kriterler üzerinden inceleyerek ortaya koymak, şehir ölçeğinden bina ölçeğine değişen etkilerini inceleyerek daha sürdürülebilir yerleşim dokusunun özelliklerini tespit etmektir. İstanbul'dan seçilen farklı morfolojik karakterlere sahip mahalleler ile bu mahallelerden seçilen sokaklardaki ısı enerjisi tüketimleri, kendi ölçeklerindeki morfolojik karakterleriyle incelenmiştir. Literatürde kentsel form ve enerji tüketimine odaklanan çalışmaların genellikle tekil binalar ölçeğinde yapılan analizlerden ortaya çıktığı görülmektedir. Bu çalışmalar, teorik varsayımlara dayalı hesaplamalara atıfta bulunan simülasyon araçlarını kullanarak bir bina veya bina kümesini analiz etmektedir. Ancak mevcut bir kentsel alanda, gerçek enerji tüketim değerleri üzerinden yapılmış tekil binalara yönelik çalışmalar dışında üst ölçekli bir çalışmaya rastlanmamaktadır. Çalışmanın özgün kısmı, literatürde net bir şekilde ortaya konmuş olan kentsel formun yoğunluğu ile ısı enerjisi ihtiyacı arasındaki ters orantıyı, gerçekleşen ısı enerjisi tüketimleri üzerinden, sokak bazında bina kümesi ölçeğinden, mahalle ölçeğine kadar inceleyerek, gerçek insan davranışlarının söz konusu olduğu bir yaşam alanında ortaya çıkan sonuçların değerlendirilmesinden oluşmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın sonuçları kentsel formun enerji verimliliği ve sürdürülebilirlik için önemli bir konuma sahip olduğunu kanıtlamaktadır. Çalışmanın bulguları, daha sürdürülebilir bir gelişme için, yeni yerleşim alanlarında yeni kentsel tasarım kriterleri ve yönetim politikaları geliştirmenin olası bir yolunu sunmaktadır.
  • Öge
    The relationship between daily life of older adults and the urban environment in istanbul: The case of fati̇h and ni̇şantaşi
    (Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, 2021) Bayar, Rumeysa ; Türkoğlu, Handan ; 672529 ; Şehir ve Bölge Planlama
    The World Health Organization stated that the population is dramatically ageing and the developed countries will face this demographic change more rapidly in its report of Population ageing in 2012. Within the next 30 years, Turkey also will challenge with increasing elderly population as all other countries. This research aims to provide a unique literature review which explains the relationship between population ageing and urban planning principles through highlighting what age-friendly city is. Since a significant proportion of the global population lives in urban areas, it is necessary to highlight the importance of designing neighbourhoods to meet the needs of older adults. Before building policies for older adults, it is important to well understand what constitutes older adults' daily life. Because as a part of active ageing and ageing in place, individuals tend to spend their lifetime in the same neighbourhood. This research examines two different urban neighbourhoods in terms of urban infrastructure and sociodemographic backgrounds and questions what is the main influencer on the daily life of older adults. The first area is the historically oldest district, Fatih, the other one is socio-economically highly developed area in Şişli district which is Nişantaşı area. Participants are elderly aged above 65 and they are questioned by semi-structured interview. This research examines the engagement of older adults to the city and facilities provided by urban infrastructure. As a key output; a holistic assessment is added to both literature and urban planning process, engagement to the city, limitations and concerns are emphasized and brought to light. The data is analysed by thematic analysis method, by evaluating them over the main headings specified in the conceptual framework. These headings are determined as accessibility, sociability, outdoor activities and public transportation. At the same time, data sets were visualized by grading them on a radar chart containing the subtitles of these topics. The most important finding obtained within the scope of the results of the study is that besides the opportunities offered by the living urban environment, it has been proved that socio-economic level increases active ageing. However, it is underlined that the living environment has significant affects on the level of participation and social life of elderly people regarding activity and well-being.