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ÖgeAn analysis of the knowledge of earth sciences in Middle Byzantine histories, chronicles and military manuals (867-1204)(Graduate School, 2022-01-06)This Master of Science thesis handles the novelty and the accuracy of the knowledge of Earth Sciences in Middle Byzantine histories and military manuals (taktika). Its aim is to understand the knowledge regarding the Earth Sciences, which Byzantines brought forth through the analysis of the original Byzantine texts and their comparison with the classical texts and modern science. The year 867 AD witnessed a great blossom in fields of science, education, literature and culture in general. This flourishing period following the Byzantine Dark Ages (seventh and eighth centuries) called as Macedonian Renaissance, after the eponymous Macedonian dynasty (867-1056) or Middle Byzantine Renaissance created some of the greatest minds the Empire has ever seen such as Leon the Mathematician, Mikhael Psellos etc. Thanks to the developments made during this period the accessibility of classical texts was at its peak. Therefore, the intellectuals of this period were both educated in religious and classical texts. This thesis is based on the works of Byzantine history and taktika writers educated during the Macedonian Renaissance, beginning from 867 until the infamous Sack of Konstantinoupolis during the Fourth Crusade in 1204. Therefore, it includes all Middle Byzantine history, chronicle and taktika authors whose works have survived and can be reached. The main reason for choosing this period for study is the revival of classical education as we have stated above, and the reason for choosing the authors of history and taktika genre is that it would be the rational start for a master study with limits such as these. Because these sources are in a better position than their predecessors in terms of variety and accessibility. The Byzantine knowledge analysed in the thesis contains all fields of Earth Sciences from geomorphology to atmospheric phenomena and seismic phenomena, which Byzantines recorded frequently. In addition to the analysis, this thesis also studies how the Byzantine intellectuals perceive and interpret natural phenomena given their education in both religious and classical texts and how did they use this knowledge in historical work, military manuals. One of the purposes of this study is to draw attention to the lack of similar studies. There are many studies about the earthquakes or climatic changes in the Byzantine Empire or how the Byzantines interpreted these. However, there were none that studies Earth Sciences under the scope of the History of Science or the History of Geology. History of Earth Science in Byzantine Empire is an overlooked field of study. Therefore, this study attempts to focus on this particular overlooked subject. Both Byzantine and classical texts used in this work were studied in their original Greek with a philological approach. The information gathered was tracked whether it belongs to the author or belongs to one of the classical authors, or whether it has a religious, biblical origin as it was in most cases. In addition, the information gathered is evaluated according to modern geology.