LEE- Çevre Bilimleri Mühendisliği ve Yönetimi-Doktora
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ÖgeDegradation of industrial micropollutants with sulfate radical–based advanced oxidation processes(Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, 2021) Montazeri, Bahareh ; Arslan Alaton, İdil ; 693111 ; Çevre MühendisliğiOccurrence of micropollutants in wastewaters from the industries poses a serious threat to the environment and many of these contaminants are recalcitrant and/or toxic and/or biologically non-degradable. Therefore, the major concern is to treat the wastewater before being discharge into the environment. Among all these industrial micropollutants, in particular 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP) from chlorophenols (CPs), 2,4-dichloroaniline (2,4-DCA) from chloroanilines (CAs) and iprodione (IPR) from hydantoins, have been drawn specific attention due to their commercial importance as raw materials, potential toxicity and refractory nature. 3,5-DCP is directly released to the aquatic environment through various waste streams such as wood pulp bleaching processes. 2,4-DCA is extensively used in manufacturing of pigments, optical brighteners and pharmaceutical agents. IPR as a fungicide is used to prevent gray mold on crops; however, its usage has been banned recently by the European Food Safety Authority. Considering the wide spread usage of the above-mentioned micropollutants and their incomplete removal in conventional industrial and urban wastewater treatment plants; they may end up in the aquatic environment, becoming threats to wildlife. Sulfate radicals (SO4●-)-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have demonstrated that they have the potential to be efficiently applied in removing many organic pollutants from wastewater. In the first part of this study, three persulfate (PS)-mediated AOPs including one homogenous photochemical oxidation processes; ultraviolet-C (UV-C)-activated PS oxidation process (UV-C/PS), and two heterogeneous catalytic oxidation processes; zero-valent iron-activated persulfate oxidation process (ZVI/PS) and zero-valent aluminum-activated persulfate oxidation process (ZVA/PS) were employed in order to investigate the three micropollutants removal in distilled water (DW) and examine the influence of initial PS concentration (0.00 mM-1.00 mM) and pH on the treatment performances. UV-C/PS treatment of 3,5-DCP for all studied PS concentrations resulted in complete 3,5-DCP removal and the 3,5-DCP degradation rate increased by increasing the initial PS concentration which can be explained by an increase in the steady-state concentration of SO4●- generation in reaction solution. Increasing the initial pH to values more than 7.5, resulted in rapid 3,5-DCP degradation. Maximum 3,5-DCP removal efficiency was as 59% by 120 min ZVI/PS (PS=1.00 mM; pH=5.0); however, complete 3,5-DCP removal was obtained by decreasing pH to more acidic value after 20 min ZVI/PS (PS=0.50 mM; pH=3.0) treatment. ZVA/PS could not provide complete 3,5-DCP removal after 120 min treatment such that for the highest tried PS concentration.(1.00 mM; pH=3.0) resulted in only 31% 3,5-DCP removal. 2,4-DCA degradation by UV-C/PS, at all studied initial PS concentrations and pH values resulted in complete pollutant removal. PS activation with ZVI resulted in complete 2,4-DCA removal for initial PS concentration exceeding 0.50 mM such that after 80 min ZVI/PS (PS=0.75 mM; pH=5.0) treatment, complete 2,4-DCA was obtained; however, the required time to achieve complete 2,4-DCA with initial PS of 1.00 mM was longer (100 min) most probably as a result of SO4●- scavenging reaction with excess PS and/or ferrous ion. The highest 2,4-DCA removal (47%) by 120 min ZVA/PS (pH=3.0) treatment was obtained with initial PS concentration of 0.25 mM, below or beyond which the 2,4-DCA removal decreased. 2,4-DCA removal by 120 min ZVA/PS (PS=0.50 mM) treatment increased remarkably from 20% to 89% , when pH decreased from 3.0 to 1.5 suggesting that more acidic pH facilitated effective removal of 2,4-DCA due to ZVA corrosion. Complete IPR removal was achieved by UV-C/PS at all studied initial PS concentrations such that even with low PS (0.03 mM), complete IPR was obtained in 20 min. Increasing initial PS concentration in the range of 0.01 mM to 1.00 mM led to higher SO4●- concentrations and consequently faster IPR degradation rates. Alkaline hydrolysis of IPR was observed at initial pH of 9.0 and 11.0 during UV-C/PS treatment; however, complex pH effect on IPR degradation rate was observed at neutral and acidic pH values. ZVI/PS (pH=5.0) treatment of IPR, demonstrated that increasing initial PS concentration to more than 0.50 mM, appreciably improved ZVI/PS treatment of IPR. ZVA/PS was an efficient treatment only in IPR degradation such that even low PS concentrations (0.10 mM and 0.25 mM) with initial pH of 3.0 resulted in almost 80% IPR removal after 120 min treatment and for higher PS concentrations, complete IPR was obtained. In both heterogeneous treatments of all three model industrial micropollutants acidic pH values showed a better performance. Those oxidation processes from treatability of the micropollutants in DW resulted in complete micropollutant removal, were investigated under selected PS and pH conditions to correlate each micropollutant removal with chloride ion (Cl-) release, metal ion release, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal and PS consumption. Experiments conducted in DW indicated that for all three model industrial micropollutants, complete removals were achieved by UV-C/PS accompanied with dechlorination and appreciable mineralizations. 3,5-DCP was completely degraded by UV-C/PS (PS=0.30 mM; pH=6.3) treatment in 40 min accompanied with 95% DOC removal that was achieved after 120 min treatment. Maximum Cl- concentrations of 3.91 mg/L was obtained after 120 min UV-C/PS treatment of 3,5-DCP corresponding to practically 90% of the highest possible theoretical Cl- release of 4.35 mg/L. Practically complete 2,4-DCA removal was achieved after 10 min UV-C/PS (PS=1.00 mM; pH=6.0); however, with the progress of the treatment, dechlorination and DOC removal were proceeded such that 93% DOC removal and Cl- concentration of 3.64 mg/L were obtained after 40 min treatment. Beyond this treatment time, both DOC removal and dechlorination were practically stopped and remained constant probably due to PS depletion. IPR degradation was accompanied with rapid dechlorination and PS consumption. UV-C/PS (PS=0.30 mM; pH=6.2) treatment was also effective in IPR mineralization; 78% DOC was removed after 120 min treatment and maximum Cl- concentrations of 1.50 mg/L was obtained at the end of the reaction. For all three studied industrial micropollutants, complete/near-complete removals were achieved by ZVI/PS accompanied with iron (Fe) release; however, their mineralizations were partially (21%-50% DOC removal) after 120 min treatment. ZVA/PS was only effective in IPR removal; however poor mineralization was obtained after 120 min treatment. Treatability of the selected micropollutants was also examined in a synthetic tertiary treated urban wastewater (SWW) during the studied treatments due to the fact that the presence of different water constituents in the reaction solution may inhibit the oxidation performance. Experimental results of three model industrial pollutants by the selected treatments (UV-C/PS and ZVI/PS) in SWW, revealed complete micropollutant removals; however, their mineralizations were partially and different compared to DW. UV-C/PS treatment of 3,5-DCP in DW that exhibited appreciable mineralization of 3,5-DCP, demonstrated worse treatment performance compared to ZVI/PS when applied in SWW (26% DOC removal and 41% DOC removal in SWW after 120 min treatment by UV-C/PS and ZVI/PS, respectively). Partial mineralizations of 2,4-DCA in SWW by 120 min UV-C/PS and ZVI/PS treatments were obtained as 57% and 35% DOC removals, respectively which were lower compared to DW revealing performance of both treatments decreased in complex medium. The experiments in DW exhibited the superior performance of the UV-C/PS for IPR mineralization (78% DOC removal after 120 min); however, the oxidation performance of UV-C/PS in SWW decreased appreciably and resulted in 24% DOC removal after 120 min. 40% DOC removal after 120 min was observed with ZVI/PS being the most efficient process in SWW. UV-C/PS treatment of all three selected micropollutants, was most negatively affected when apply in SWW most probably due to UV-C light absorption of SWW constituents hindering effective absorption by the target pollutant. Vibrio fischeri (V. fischeri) and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (P. subcapitata) were employed as the organism tests to assess changes in acute toxicity during application of the studied treatments. Responses of the two mentioned test organisms were rather different; higher inhibition rates were observed on P. subcapitata than V. fischeri. While the percent relative inhibition of the original 3,5-DCP on P. subcapitata was almost 20%, the inhibitory effect increased after 80 min UV-C/PS treatment reaching to 47%. After 80 min ZVI/PS treatment of 3,5-DCP, the percent relative inhibition of treated samples on P. subcapitata did not change appreciably. The percent relative inhibition of the original 2,4-DCA on P. subcapitata was in the range of 20%-28%; however, the inhibitory effect increased and reached 72% after 120 min UV-C/PS treatment. The percent relative inhibition of original IPR samples on P. subcapitata was obtained as <10%; however, it reached 56% and 39% after 120 min UV-C/PS and ZVI/PS, respectively. During the application of selected treatments in DW, the genotoxicity of original micropollutants and their AOPs-treated samples were explored using a mutant strain of Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535; however, no significant genotoxic effect was observed. At the final stage of this study, the type and nature of possible evolved degradation products during the selected treatments of three model industrial pollutants in DW were examined by ion chromatography, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis in order to gain a deeper insight into the formed radical reactions with the target pollutants. Hydroquinone, acetic acid and Cl- could be detected and quantified in the reaction solution during UV-C/PS and ZVI/PS treatments of 3,5-DCP. Aniline and acetic acid formations were evidenced during UV-C/PS treatment of 2,4-DCA accompanied with dechlorination; however only acetic acid was identified during ZVI/PS. LC analysis confirmed the formation of 2,4-DCA, hydroquinone, acetic acid and formic acids as the major aromatic and aliphatic degradation products of IPR during UV-C/PS while hydroquinone, lactic acid and acetic acid was evidenced for ZVI/PS treatment of IPR.
ÖgeDynamic membranes in aerobic membrane bioreactor systems for municipal wastewater treatment(Graduate School, 2021-06-08) Işık, Onur ; Demir, İbrahim ; Özgün, Hale ; 501142704 ; Environmental Sciences Engineering and Management ; Çevre Bilimleri Mühendisliği ve YönetimiThe amount of municipal wastewater produced around the world is expected to increase parallel to the increase in population. Therefore, the treatment of municipal wastewater is very crucial for public health. Conventional activated sludge systems have been used for the treatment of municipal wastewater for a long time. Due to limited area availability and stringent discharge standards in most cases, compact treatment systems enabling high effluent quality have become attractive recently. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a good alternative to conventional activated sludge systems. There are several advantages of MBR technology over conventional biological treatment systems. Low footprint and high permeate quality can be considered as the most distinguishing features of the MBRs. Due to the retention of high suspended solids concentration in the bioreactor, smaller reactor volume and low sludge production can be achieved by the MBR process. However, some constraints have been observed during the operation of MBRs including membrane fouling and membrane costs. Dynamic membrane (DM) technology is a promising solution for problems encountered during the operation of MBRs for wastewater treatment. Membranes can be substituted with coarse-pore filters made of low-cost materials such as meshes or fabrics in dynamic membrane applications for cake (DM) layer formation. DM is a secondary layer formed on a low-coast porous support material. DM layer acts like a Microfiltration (MF) or Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane and keeps the sludge particles inside the bioreactor providing high permeate quality. Besides, physical cleaning, without using chemical reagents, may be enough for cleaning in dynamic membrane bioreactors (DMBRs), thus, the operational costs can be reduced. Flat sheet submerged module configurations were mostly used for aerobic DMBR studies for municipal wastewater treatment in the literature. Also, few studies used tubular modules in DMBRs. However, no studies reported using hollow fiber modules in the literature. The main aim of this thesis was to investigate the applicability of hollow fiber DM for municipal wastewater treatment in an aerobic DMBR. This thesis was conducted in 6 Stages. In stage 1, a hollow fiber polyester fabric support material was used for DM formation and compared with a commercial hollow fiber UF membrane. The system was fed with medium strength synthetic municipal wastewater to keep the characteristics of the wastewater same, and to evaluate the treatment and filtration performances of both membranes clearly. Morphological analyses were also carried out for DM and UF surfaces. The system was operated continuously at a flux of 5 L/m2·h for 85 days. High chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and total suspended solids (TSS) rejection were achieved by the DM. Transmembrane pressure (TMP) of the DM was higher in comparison to the UF membrane, which was related to the formation of the cake layer in DM. In Stage 2, impact of support material type on DMBR performance was investigated for municipal wastewater treatment. A hollow fiber polyester support material was compared with a glass fiber support material in terms of treatment and filtration performances. Medium strength synthetic municipal wastewater was used for a stable feed characteristics. Similar treatment performances were obtained with each membrane achieving high removal efficiencies for COD(>97%) and TSS (>99%) parameters. Higher TMP was observed for glass fiber material in comparison to polyester material. Based on morphological analyses, dynamic layers formed on both support materials had similar compositions, organic and inorganic materials. A homogeneous layer was formed on a polyester support material, while fine particles were deposited between the filaments of glass fiber support material, which caused clogging. In Stage 3, a hollow fiber polyester fabric support material was used for DM formation for raw municipal wastewater treatment. The wastewater had average COD concentration of 413 mg/L, sCOD concentration of 208 mg/L and TSS concentration of 259 mg/L. Treatment and filtration performances were evaluated. High treatment performance was obtained in the permeate achieving over 93% of COD removal efficiency and low TSS concentration (<10 mg/L) in the permeate. The average TMP value was observed as around 598 mbar after the system reached stable conditions. In Stage 4, effect of different TSS concentrations on the DM layer was evaluated in terms of biological treatment and filtration performances. Hollow fiber polyester support material was used for DM layer formation. Treatment and filtration performances of the DMBR were investigated at two different TSS concentrations (5 g/L; 10 g/L). The DMBR was operated at a flux of 18 L/m2·h at each condition. High treatment performance and permeate quality were achieved at each sludge concentration. However, a shift to a relatively higher range in particle size distribution of permeate was observed at high sludge concentration. Furthermore, higher TMP was observed at the sludge concentration of 10 g/L, resulting in a rapid clogging. Overall, results indicated that selection of the optimum sludge concentration played a significant role in achieving homogeneous and stable DM layer in DMBRs. In stage 5, hollow fiber polyester support material was used for DM formation and compared with a commercial UF membrane in terms of micropollutant and heavy metal treatment performance from raw municipal wastewater, also biological treatment and filtration performances were evaluated. The removal of different micropollutants; sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, caffeine and acetaminophen, was assessed for both membranes. The membranes were operated at a flux of 10 L/m2·h. High TSS (>99%) and COD (> 91%) removal efficiencies were achieved with both membranes. Similar high removal efficiencies of micropollutants (>68.3->99.7%) were achieved with both membranes. DM was operated at higher TMP compared to UF membrane, since DM layer was formed on the support material. Morphological analyses were conducted for both membranes to get insight to the DM layers which accumulated on the membranes. In Stage 6, effect of using different inoculum on DMBRs performance was investigated. Excess sludge from HRAS and conventional activated sludge system retuned activated sludge were used as inoculums. Conventional UF membrane was used in parallel with a dynamic membrane (DM) in the same reactor to be operated at the same conditions. Both sludges were characterized to understand the changes during the operational period. Biological treatment and filtration performances of both membranes were investigated. High TSS (>99%) and COD (> 86%) removal efficiencies were achieved with both membranes for both inoculum sludge. Because of the inoculum sludge characteristics, lower TMP values were observed for DM at Phase-2. Morphological analys (ESEM measurement) was conducted to understand the effect of different inoculum on the sludge cake on the surface of the membranes.
ÖgeFabrication of thin film nanocomposite pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) membranes using cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and evaluation of performances in the processes(Graduate School, 2021-02-02) Paşaoğlu, Mehmet Emin ; Koyuncu, İsmail ; 659118 ; Environmental EngineeringNowadays, owing to quick world population growth and abrupt economy, high water demands desire innovative technologies in order to ensure clean and safe water with lower energy use. Severe environmental emissions arising by the consumption of fossil fuels often needs us to build energy harvesting technology which are environmentally sustainable. As an advanced technology, osmotic membrane processes consisting of forward and pressure-retarded osmosis, are conceived to be conspicuous technologies for the treatment, recycling and reuse of wastewaters and the harvesting of salinity gradient energy which is called "Blue Energy". Nevertheless, forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) are at the level of growth yet. It is difficult piece of work to fabricate osmotic membranes obtaine high water permeability and perfect ion retention. The ideal osmotic membrane candidate can be a thin film composite membrane satisfy the conditions which has high water permeation and as soon as low reverse salt flux ratio. Furthermore, for the membrane to endure relatively high hydraulic pressures in PRO systems, certain mechanical properties are vital. Thankfully, membranes that are fabricated with electrospinning method have an excellent capability to overcome all specifications of the perfect support layer in consequence of porous structure characteristics and simplicity with that nanomaterials may be integrated to enhance the nanofibers mechanical strength. Apart from this, interfacial polymerization (IP) may be accomplished to electrospun nanofiber membrane to achieve a very thin selective polyamide coating. TFN membranes may show tremendous potential in osmotically driven membrane processes after integrating nano additives into their support layer. The aim of this thesis to carry out and design a comprehensive study on the development of reinforced pressure retarded osmosis membranes. Specifically, this thesis presents the development of novel nanofiber supported thin film composite membranes with high water permeability and excellent selectivity for solvents, while showing an excellent mechanical strength for PRO processes. Interfacial polymerization reactions were used to construct very thin polyamide selective layer on the support, and electrospinning process was used to fabricate a number of support layers. Initially, we investigated the potential to use flat sheet electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers as support support layer to fabricate PRO membranes. Polyamide TFCs were successfully applied on five different substrate containing 0,1,2,5,10% crystal nanocellulose (CNC) in 16% PAN polymer solution. PRO membranes successfully fabricated via tailor-made flat sheet fabrication unit. It is concluded that PAN and CNC generated a complete mixture according to SEM, FTIR, DMA & contact angle analysis findings.The addition of CNC improved the mechanical strength of PAN support layers which is the main phenomenon in PRO applications. The newly developed membrane can achieve a higher PRO water flux of 300 LMH, using a 1 M NaCl draw solution and deionized water feed solution. The corresponding salt flux is only 1.5 gMH. The reverse flux selectivity represented by the ratio of water flux to reverse salt flux (Jw/Js) was able to be kept as high as 200 L/g for PRO operation. Following the success of flat-sheet TFN PRO membrane fabrication, improvements need to be done to increase packing density of fabricated final membrane modules. In this point, we used a novel technique to fabricate tubular membranes for PRO applications. The newly fabricated membrane achieves a higher PRO water flux of 405.38 LMH with using a 1 M NaCl and a DI as feed water. The corresponding salt flux is found as 2.10 gMH which is higher than flat sheet membranes. The selectivity of the reversed flux represented by the ratio of the water flow to the reversed salt flux (Jw/ Js) was able to be kept as high as 193.03 L/g for PRO operation.As far as we know, the performance of the work developed membrane in this study has shown better performance than all PRO membranes reported in the literature previously.
ÖgeNitrogen removal and microbial community shift in oxic-settling-anoxic sludge reduction process( 2020) Karlikanovaite Balıkçı, Agne ; Yağcı, Nevin ; 618662 ; Çevre Mühendisliği ; Environmental BiotechnologyNitrifikasyon ve biyolojik azot giderme mekanizmalarını içeren sürekli araştırma çalışmalarıyla aktif çamur işleminin performansı arttırıldı. Ancak, uygulanan bu işlemden kaynaklanan aktif çamurun rutin israfı nedeniyle, sürekli olarak fazla biyokütle üretimi olmaktadır, bu da daha fazla arıtma ihtiyacıyla beraber çamurun uygun bir bölgeye atılmasını veya yakılmasını gerektirdiğinden dolayı fazla çamurun arıtımı ve imha edilmesi hala zorlayıcıdır. Fazla çamurun arıtılması ve imha edilmesi, toplam işletme maliyetinin % 25-65'ini oluşturmaktadır. Bu nedenle, aşırı çamur üretimini en aza indirmek için stratejilerin uygulanması hem çevresel hem de ekonomik açıdan ideal bir çözüm olabilir. Şimdiye kadar çamurun en aza indirilmesi için yaygın olarak Anaerobik sindirim kullanılsa da, üretilen aşırı çamur hacminin dünya çapında hala artması, biyolojik atık su arıtma proseslerinde aşırı çamur üretimini azaltmak için daha yeni, daha umut verici stratejiler ve yöntemlerin keşfedilmesi gerekmektedir. Literatürdeki mevcut bilgiler ve bu alanlardaki uzmanlıkların ışığında, nitrojen giderimi ve çamuru en aza indirgemek için uygun işlem alternatiflerinin belirlenmesi ve çamur üretimini azaltmak adına anaerobik/anoksik yan akım reaktörleriyle besin giderimi için modifiye edilmiş alternatif işlemlerin uygulanması gibi seçenekler mümkün olabilir. Literatüre göre, OSA sürecinin avantajlarına ek olarak, OSA arıtma performansını en üst düzeye çıkarmak için operasyonel ve tasarım parametrelerini belirlemek hala büyük bir ihtiyaçtır; Daha da önemlisi, OSA süreci ile ilgili çalışmaların çoğunda sentetik atık su kullanıldı, bu çalışmanın orijinal tarafı, gerçek evsel atık su kullanılarak yapılmış olmasıdır. Bu özel araştırmada, konular uluslararası bir düzeyde ele alınacaktır, çünkü OSA sürecinin entegrasyonu ile kademeli besleme SBR sistemi toplam azot giderimi açısından oldukça verimlidir, çamur imhası ve arıtımı gerekli olmayacaktır. Yine de, mevcut literatürdeki araştırmacılar arasında çamurun azaltılmasına neden olan kilit mekanizma halen çok tartışmalıdır, bu nedenle ASM1 bu çalışmada OSA sürecinde çamur azaltmaya neden olan mekanizmayı araştırmak için kullanılmıştır. Buna ek olarak mikrobiyal topluluğu değerlendirmek için literatürde ilk kez bakteriyel 16S rRNA gen amplikonları Yeni Nesil Dizileme (NGS) kullanılmıştır. Özet olarak, OSA sistemi ile ilgili multidisipliner bir yaklaşım ve yoğun araştırma gerektiren bir zorluk yaratan birçok darboğaz vardır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, OSA sürecinin uygulanmasından önce ve sonra SBR sistemlerinin performansını göstermektir. Gerçek atık su kullanan OSA sürecindeki bilgi eksikliği, OSA sistemlerinin uygulanmasından sonra toplam azot giderimi, aşırı çamur azaltımı, mikrobiyal topluluk değişikliklerine odaklanan bu çalışmayı güçlü bir şekilde motive etmiştir. Bu çalışma, gerçek atık suyun tam ölçekte arıtılmasında OSA sistemlerinin uygulanmasının daha iyi anlaşılmasına katkıda bulunacaktır. Kentsel atıksu arıtımı sırasındaoluşan fazla çamurun uzaklaştırılması ve besi maddesi giderimi konusunda son yıllarda uygulanan standartların sıkılığı,pekçok atıksu arıtma tesisinin çıkış suyu standartlarını sağlama ve çamuroluşumu konusunda ciddi zorluklarla karşı karşıya kalmasına neden olmuştur. Bu çalışmada, yukarıda belirtilensorunların giderilmesi konusunda gelecek vaad eden bir proses olanoksik-çökeltim-anaerobik (OSA) üzerine odaklanılarak, azot giderimi ve çamur azalmasının birlikte gerçekleştirildiği bir sistemin değerlendirilmesi amaçlamıştır. Yan akım reaktöründe en yüksek çamur azalması iç geri devir oranının %7,7 olduğu durumda %58 olarak gerçekleşmiştir. Diğer sistemlerde ise iç geri devir oranının %5,9 ve 5,0 olması durumlarında bu değer sırasıyla %37 ve %35 olarak elde edilmiştir. Bu doğrultuda, bu sistemlerde, yan akım reaktöründen gelen çamur girişi nedeniyle ana reaktörde gerçekleşen yüksek biyokütle konsantrasyonunun ve çamur bekletme süresinin etkisiyle mikrobiyal ölüm fazının çoğalmaya görece daha yüksek gerçekleştiği düşünülmektedir. Bu sistemlerde, aynı zamanda, yüksek (%85'e kadar) azot giderim verimlerinin gerçekleştiği gözlenmiştir. Buna göre, iç geri devir oranının, literatürde genellikle kullanılan %10 oranı yerine %8 olarak gerçekleştirilmesinin hem çamur azalması hem de azot giderimi açısından, muhtemelen daha düşük maliyetli, bir seçenek olacağı düşünülmektedir. OSA prosesi, biyolojik atıksu arıtımı sırasında kaçınılmaz olarak oluşan, susuzlaştırılıp stabilize edildikten sonra uzaklaştırılması gereken fazlabiyolojik çamur miktarının azaltılmasına yönelik olarak fazla çamur yan akımına anaerobik reaktör ilavesi ile gerçekleştirilmektedir. İlave edilen yan akım anaerobik reaktörde, fazla çamur hattındaki biyolojik çamurun bir kısmı belirli bir süre oksijensiz koşullara maruz bırakıldıktan sonra biyolojik arıtma ünitelerinin girişine biyokütle girdisi olarak verilmektedir. Bu sayede, yan akım reaktöründe kısmi stabilize olan çamur biyolojik ünitelerde besi madde olarak kullanılmak suretiyle özellikle azot giderimi için karbon kaynağı olma potansiyeli taşımaktadır. Aynı zamanda, yan akımda stabilizasyon nedeniyle sistemin çamur yaşı artmakta, dolayısıyla gözlenen dönüşüm oranları düşmektedir. Bunun sonucu olarak da biyolojik sistemde çamur üretimi azalmakta ve uzaklaştırılacak çamur miktarı düşmektedir. Bu çalışmada, çamur azalmasına yönelik olarak geliştirilen OSA sistemi kullanılarak farklı işletme koşullarında çamur azalması oranları ve azot giderimine yoğunlaşılmıştır. Bu sistemlerin aktif çamur modelleri ile modellenmesi ve gerçek sistemlere yönelik modelleme çalışmalarına esas oluşaturacak kinetik katsayı belirleme çalışmaları gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ayrıca, bu sistemlerde farklı işletme şartlarında mikrobiyal topluluğun değişimi ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Mikrobiyal kinetiğin değerlendirilmesi ve çamur azaltma mekanizmasının daha iyi anlaşılması için bir dizi respirometrik test tasarlanmıştır. Kalibrasyon çalışmasının sonuçlarına göre mikrobiyal ölüm oranının, sistem konfigürasyonuna bağlı olarak, en değişken kinetik parametre olduğu görülmüştür. Bu kinetik katsayının sistemler OSA konfigürasyonunda işetilmeye başlandıktan sonra önemli ölçüde arttığı, buna karşılık -diğer model parametrelerinin neredeyse sabit kaldıkları görülmüştür. Bu durumun, mikrobiyal topluluktaki veya mevcut topluluğun metabolizmasındaki değişimden kaynaklanıyor olabileceği düşünülmektedir. Bu çalışmada işletilen klasik aktif çamur sistemlerinde, yürütülen respirometrik analizler sonucunda, aktif biyokütle oranı% 75 civarında elde edilmişken yan akım reaktöründe bu değer 2 kat daha düşük olarak belirlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak, respirometrik analizlerden elde edilen veriler doğrultusunda, OSA prosesininölüm fazını teşvik ettiği, bunun sonucu olarak reaktördeki biyokütle canlılığını azaldığı ve aşırı çamur azalmasının sağladığı sonucuna varılmıştır. Bu çalışmanın en önemli yönlerinden birisi de gerçek evsel atık su kullanılmasıdır. Literatürdeki çalışmalar sentetik olarak hazırlanmış atıksuların kullanımı ile gerçekleştirilmişken, tüm deneysel çalışma bir atıksu arıtma tesisi kum tutucu çıkışından alınan ham atılsu ile yürütülmüştür. Böylelikle, OSA prosesinin pratik uygulanabilirliği yönünde önemli sonuçlar elde edilebilmiştir. Elde edilen veriler, OSA sistemlerinde çamur azalmasının ve azot gideriminin birlikte gerçekleştirilebilirliğinin mümkün olduğunu göstermiştir. Mikrobiyal topluluğun ölüm fazına yakın çalışması ve biyolojik çamur girdisi nedeniyle biyolojik reaktörde yüksek biyokütle konsantrasyonları elde edilmiş, bu çalışma süresinde sistemden normal biyolojik atıksu arıtma tesislerinde yapılan rutin çamur atma işlemi yapılmamıştır. Yürütülen deneysel çalışmada, kurulan OSA sistemleri farklı değişim oranlarında işletilmiştir. Bu amaçla, biyolojik sistemden yan akım reaktörüne beslenen çamur miktarları değiştirilmiştir. Bu sistemlerde çamur azalması, gözlenen dönüşüm oranları ve azot giderim yüzdeleri belirlenmiştir. Mikrobial topluluk kompozisyonu başlangıç biyolojik çamuru ve farklı işletilmiş OSA sistemlerinden alınan biyolojik çamurlarda belirlenerek sonuçlar karşılaştırılmıştır. Literatürde ilk kez kapsamlı olarak, bu sistemlerde, bakteriyel 16S rRNA gen sekanslama analizi (Yeni Nesil Sekanslama) ile mikrobiyal topluluk profili ortaya konulmuş ve değerlendirilmiştir. Bu çalışmada, çamur azalması oranlarının değerlendirilmesi ve mikrobiyal topluluktaki değişimin ortaya konulması amacıyla farklı iç geri devir oranlarında işletilen sistemlerin gözlenen dönüşüm oranları hesaplanarak, aynı koşullarda işletilen kontrol sistemleri ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Buna göre, en yüksek çamur azalması (%52,1) iç geri devir en yüksek olduğunda elde edilmiştir. 16S rRNA gen amplikon sekans analizi, benzer filogenetik gruplardan, Proteobakteriler, Acidobacteria ve Bacteroidetes türlerinden oluşan bakteri topluluğunun baskın olduğunu göstermiştir. Değişen iç geri devir oranlarına bağlı olarak bu toplulukların baskınlığı da farklılık göstermiştir. OSA sistemlerindeThiothrixtürünün baskın olduğu ve sistemlerde önemli rolü olabileceği görülmüştür. Çamur üretiminin en aza indirilmesinin, Intrasporangiaceae türlerinin baskınlığı ile de ilgili olabileceği elde edilen bulgular arasındadır.
ÖgeRecovery of water and chemicals from textile wastewater with ceramic membranes(Graduate School, 2021-12-17) Ağtaş, Meltem ; Koyuncu, İsmail ; 501142702 ; Environmental Sciences Engineering and ManagementDecreased water resources in our world necessitate the treatment and reuse of polluted water. Water recovery is of vital importance, both in terms of sustainability and economy, especially in industries that consume large amounts of water. One of the industries that consume a high amount of water is the textile industry. In the textile industry, 0.06-0.40 m3 water/kg product is used according to literature. In parallel with the amount of water used in the processes in the textile industry, a high amount of wastewater is generated. These wastewaters are known to contain high COD, different dyes, heavy metals, etc. For this reason, it is not possible to discharge these wastewaters into the environment without proper treatment. Many traditional methods for the treatment of textile wastewater such as coagulation flocculation, activated carbon adsorption, ozonation and biological treatment are used. However, these methods cannot meet strict discharge limits or are not economically viable. Therefore, membrane processes come to the fore in textile wastewater treatment since they are recommended for textile wastewater treatment in the BAT (Best Available Techniques) reference document. As a result of textile wastewater treatment with membrane processes, high-efficiency treatment is provided and the treated wastewater can have the potential to be reused. Polymeric membranes are generally preferred in treatment processes. However, since textile wastewaters have high temperatures and extreme pH values, the use of polymeric membranes is not suitable. The textile industry produces wastewater with temperatures that can go up to 90-95 °C. Generally, wastewater must be cooled down before membrane treatment. For efficient treatment, membranes have to be thermally stable; most polymeric membranes tend to degrade at high temperatures and therefore, they are not suitable for hot wastewater treatment.Therefore, the use of ceramic membranes in the treatment of textile wastewater is a viable method. Besides, when ceramic and polymeric membranes are compared, it can be said that ceramic membranes are having more advantageous in terms of high thermal, mechanical, and chemical stability, well-defined pore size distribution, and high flux. In this thesis, a comprehensive study was carried out on the pilot-scale water and chemical recovery using ceramic membranes from real textile wastewater and the development of halloysite nanotube doped membranes for the treatment and recovery of real textile wastewater. First, a pilot-scale ceramic ultrafiltration/nanofiltration system was operated for hot water recovery by treating real textile wastewater in a selected textile factory. Later, in the same facility, real textile wastewater with caustic content was used in order to make chemical recovery. Based on the successful results of these studies, after it was proven that water and chemical recovery can be made with ceramic membranes, halloysite nanoclay added membranes were produced in order to make this process more economical, and treatment trials were carried out with real wastewater from the same facility and important results were obtained.