FBE- Gayrimenkul Geliştirme Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans
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ÖgeYerleşme Ölçeğinde Sürdürülebilir Tasarım Değerlendirme Sertifikalarının Türkiye’deki Kentsel Dönüşüm Projelerinde Kullanımı Üzerine Bir İnceleme(Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2016-06-24) Yıldız, Sıla ; Sertyeşilışık, Begüm ; 10112912 ; Gayrimenkul Geliştirme ; Real Estate DevelopmentSince the 19th century, the world has been facing air pollution, water resources pollution and destruction in lands for agriculture due to inevitable and fast increase in urban population as well as the increased use of fossil fuel depending on the increase of energy consumption. In order to solve these problems regarding the difficulties that urban areas faces and to maintain the sustainability, first city models were developed at the beginning of the 20th century. The initial models were focusing on solving the problems that the industrial revolution caused on environmental pollution. The aim of these models was to combine the advantages of rural areas with the economical advantages of urban areas in order to balance the sustainability. Aside from the first sustainable urban models, in the middle of the 20th Century, ecological urban models were emerged and developed in order to maintain the natural environment. Recent urban models are designed specifically to solve problems that urban areas face. To do so, the models are focused on preventing urban sprawling by building spacious streets/pavements to enable people to walk more comfortably, by supporting public transport to decrease air pollution and enabling mixed use to design both working and living areas in a combination. Another recent prominent model is certification systems that evaluate the sustainability performance within building and settlement scale. At the beginning, these certification systems were focusing on the evaluation of sustainability performance of the buildings. However, after discovering the fact that in order to maintain the sustainability of the urban areas’ management, all components need to be taken into consideration, these models started to involve neighbourhoods development scales as well. Within the analysis of this thesis, LEED Neighbourhood Development Certification System, which was prepared by American Green Building Council and BREEAM Communities certification systems, which was prepared by Building Research Establishment, were evaluated. LEED Neighbourhood Development and BREEAM Communities Certification System was developed in the native land of the industrialization and to solve the problems that caused by the industrialization process as well as being frequently used in worldwide platforms. In order to measure the sustainability performance during the process, the aims that settlement scale certifications focus on are; integrated design, the choice of location and use of land, prevention of pollution, transportation system, the protection of natural resources, productivity of the water, the production of construction that achieved sustainability, and finally sustainability of social and economic structure. Both certificates have variety of strategies depending the circumstances of the countries they are being operated and developing. The points and values that are gained out of the strategies provided and implemented are determined, depending on the countries’ circumstances. Urban areas locations are where people heaped together in working and resting fields, as well as being in constant change and development. All the changes occur within economical, social and political fields affect the urban areas’ structure and cause urban regeneration. The important matters that cause urban regeneration are; social problems occurred in old and slum areas in the urban, risk of natural disasters, inadequacy of technical and social foundation, incorrect choice of location and damage of natural structures due to sprawl. During the period of globalisation, in order to solve these problems, the competitiveness of the city should be increased and it is needed to revive the economical structure of the urban areas. During the change on production technics, one of the first urban regeneration methods is to deconstruct the area and rebuild it, in order to enable healthier environment for the citizens for the long run. In the middle of 20th Century, due to political circumstances, the urban intervention focused on urban amendment and reconstruction the areas. However, towards the end of 20th Century and at the beginning of the 21st Century, the intervention shaped into transforming the areas instead, due to financial reasons. How worldwide issues reflected to Turkey, occurred in 1950s political and economical structure change. From that period onwards, Turkey faced problems such as; uncontrollable increase in urban population, decrease in air quality due to increase in greenhouse gas emission, uncontrolled use of water resources, electricity scarcity due to increase in energy/electricity use, decrease in agricultural lands due to sprawl of artificial areas to agricultural lands. The period of last 20 years, these factors increased depending on technological development. First step was taken in 1991 when Turkey joined Montreal Protocol, in order to solve the problems that appeared in Turkey. Due to the regulations of the Montreal Protocol Turkey signed up for a commitment regarding the decrease of worldwide use of green house gas, enabling sustainability of human settlement, adjusting to climate change and improving green buildings through CEDBIK. As for national platform, firstly legislations were developed in order to maintain the sustainability in regards to building scale. The year 2010 onwards, documents such as KENTGES and 10. Development Plan grabbed the attention to enable the sustainability in settlement scale. The urban regeneration methods in Turkey are developed differently than other worldwide examples due to circumstantial differences. The initial urban regeneration process started in order to redevelop urban areas that were damaged by fire or war. As of 1950, this process started to focus on improving illegal buildings. In 2000 and onwards, especially due to natural disaster risks, urban renewal and improvement of the projects continued to operate with development. As Turkey’s urban regeneration process is examined, it can be seen that the urban regeneration was generally focus on solving and improving the physical issues of the urban areas. In other words, there was no consideration or concern of enabling the sustainability of environmental sources as social structure. Especially nowadays it is argued that as a result of urban regeneration application, there is an increase in construction volume and social isolation. In Turkey, up until 2023, urban regeneration consists of 6 to 7 million constructions yet to come. It is predicted that this process will affect around 25 million people. It is also foreseen that in order to make this project happen, 400 billion dollars will be needed for the budget. The social, environmental, financial and physical problems that Turkey’s reel estate industry and urban regeneration projects caused are; as Turkey’s commitment to worldwide platform is taken into consideration, it will be highlighted that urban regeneration applications should be in integrated design and sustainability principle. Therefore, urban regeneration projects in Turkey are seen as an opportunity to enable the settlement scale in sustainability. In Turkey as part of an urban regeneration, from the beginning of the project’s concept process, these questions are needed to be answered; how can the social structure be protected or improved? With which sustainability methods, the communal social and physical needs can be ensured? With which ways, the environmental sustainability of the urban areas can be maintained? How can the project protect the nature life areas and how can the bio-variety be improved? How can the carbon emission consumption of the urban areas be reduced? How can the unrenewable natural resources, be prevented to be used? LEED ND and BREEAM Communities certificates come forward when it comes to Turkey’s urban regeneration projects applications in terms of socioeconomic structure and the maintenance of natural environmental sustainability. The conditions for these certificates are as follows; ensuring social integration, including all communities who will be affected by the project’s process, providing residences with purchasing power, providing adequate public utility, reducing vehicle traffic, renewing historical monuments that are becoming old, decreasing the use of energy consumption, protecting water resources, reducing carbon emission amount, enabling conditions which can empower the relationship between humans and the nature. It is concluded that in order to solve the environmental, financial, social and physical problems that were caused by the urban regeneration and the reel estate industry, a national certificate, which can measure the sustainability performance in settlement scale, should be used in urban regeneration projects. This solution can bring benefits to the urban areas.