Türk halk oyunlarının eğitiminde ritm bilgisinin önemi

Yoruç, Halil
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"Türk Halk Oyunlarının Eğitiminde Ritm Bilgisinin Önemi" konulu bu tezde ritm bilgileri ve Türk Halk Oyunlarındaki ritmler hakkında ulaşılabilen kaynaklar doğrultusunda bilgiler verilmiştir. Ritm hakkında açıklamalara yer verilerek Türk Halk Oyunlarında kullanılan ritmik değerlerin hareketler ile ilişkisi, öğretimdeki önemi açısında ele alınarak incelenmiştir. -Eğitim öğretim ile ilgili temel kavramlar, öğrenim hakkında bilgiler verilmiştir. -Ritm tanımı,tarihçesi ve temel ritm kavramları hakkında bilgilere yer verilmiş ve bu unsurların tanıtımı yapılmıştır. -Türk Halk Oyunlarının bölgelere göre ritmik dağılımı hakkında bilgiler verilmiştir. -Türk Halk Oyunlarının öğretiminde uygulanacak olan ritmik analizin önemine yer verilmiştir. -Bütün bu çalışmaların daha iyi anlaşılır olması için örneklerle bütün çalışmaların yapmak isteyenlere faydalı olması amacı güdülmüştür.
The necessity of teaching rhytm and its elements before teaching Turkish folk dance steps is shown in this thesis named "The importance of rhytm knowledge in training of Turkish Folk Dances" This thesis covers both the knowledge of rhytm which shound also explain the rhytmic analysis of Turkish Folk Music used in Turkish Folk Dances and of Turkish Folk Dance, and the science of education. Turkish Folk Music and its products are free in style, in other woords they are not restricted by rules, so that they are very different and variant. In addition to that, migrations, geographic conditions have increased the richness of rhytmic and musical structure. This richness causes some difficulties in training Turkish Folk Dances. To prevent the difficulties, first of all, teaching methods should be known very well. In the second part, education and teaching are mentioned in details. The descriptions of the education, teaching, learning are made. The steps from "knowledge" to "exaluation" in the teaching period are explained with some samples What to teach and why to teach are mentioned. For example, how to use the ryhtmic knowledge in the learning of Turkish Folk Dances has to be explained so that the knowledge transfer between two areas will be successful. To over come the above mentioned difficulties, the knowledge of rhytm should be very wide. There fore, knowledge of rhytm is explainde in the third par of the thesis.The definitions of rhytm, rhytmic pattern, measure, beating, accent, degree, dividing three notes equally tempo classification; rhytmic notation, period values and pauses are made to make the next coming parts more understandable. Rhytmic patterns in Turkish Folk Music are collected under three titles : Fundamental, complew and mixed. Fundamental rhytmic patterns have two, three orfour unitsof period or the other variations that have three unitsof period. Mixed rhytmicpatterns are formed with collection of the fundamental rhytmic patterns and con be grouped in five, as five, six, seven, eight and nine units of period. Complex rhytmic patterns are formed wiht mixed rhytmic patterns or with the formation of fundamental rhytmic patterns and mixed rhytmic patterns. Complex rhytmic patterns, which have less density in comparison with fundamental and mixed rhytmic patterns, are grouped in eight, such as ten, eleven, twelve, fifteen, sixteen, eighteen, twenty-one units of period. The fourth part of the thesis gives information about rhytmic distribution of Turkish Folk Dances according to geographic provinces. The fundamental pattern with two units of period are seen widespread in whole country. However, the density is higher in Middle Anatolia. The samples of this kind are mostly seen in one of the characteristic musical works especially composed for dancing and are called in different, special names according to the province such as "Şıkıdım" in Sivas, "Sağma" in Tokat, "Metelik" or "Kolbastı" in Trabzon, Giresun and Ordu.Although the fundamental rhytmic pattern with three units of period are generally seen in South and North-Eastern Anatolia, the other provinces have also some melodies with this kind of rhytmic pattern. The fundamental rhytmic pattern with four units of period is observed in whole country with changing degress. The mixed rhytmic pattern with five units of period begins in Sivas and Gaziantep and becomes denser toward the East. With an ewception, in Thrace, they are meet in dance with the style of "Kabadayı". It is possibbe to meet the mixed rhytmic patttern with six units of period with different characteristics due to playing in the whole country. The mixed rhytmic pattern with seven units of period is mostly found in the Black Sea region and the Thrace, although the application could be different from each other. Although the mixed rhytmic pattern with eight units of period is similar to the rhytmic pattern with four units of period, some melodies are recognized to have eight units of period if the lyrics or units of period in a measure are taken into consideration. It is seen in whole country. The mixed rhytmic pattern with nine units of period is seen every provinces bu more in Western and South Western Anatolia. The type of it may vary among the provinces. The complex rhytmic pattern with ten unitsof period begins from Sivas and in the south from Gaziantep and is seen more and more towards the East. The complex rhytmic pattern with more than ten units of period is reallly complex and is found mostly in the western thrace (e.g. Yugoslavia, Macedonia).The fifth part of the thesis covers the rhytmic analysis of the Turkish Folk Music and Turkish Folk Dances. The unit period of the notes in a measure used in the melodic structure of dance melodies, the unit period of the notes used in accompanying rhytm instruments and the unit period of the dance steps may vary. To accord them each other, the rhytmic analysis is necessary, so that which unit of period matches the other could be found. On the other hand, the rhytmic values of dances may also vary according to the parts of the body. For example, while legs movement has 8 times 1/8 units of period, arms'( movement has 2 times l/4units of period. As a result, it is observed thet the melodies of Turkish Folk Dances has very rich rhytmc structure in addition to very rich melodic structure, there is a regional distribution and density of rhytms, the units of period of melodic structure and of the notes of accompanying rhytmic instruments differ from each other, the rhytmic pattern may vary during a melodie, the necessity of finding out the distribution of the units of period in body movements, knowing the rhytmic values makes the teaching easier and faster, the absence of rhytmic knowledge causes a degeneration of the dances, the importance of teaching methods. Folk dancing, which is considered as the most precious sample of a variety of folk arts and the liveliest sample of cultural richness at the present, is an art. It is different from other arts in a way that it covers the original characteristics of the related society, presents common beliefs, feelings, ideas and behaviour of individuals, has the beauty and the features clarifying its world for itself whereas being just beautiful gor others.The product brought up by the result of the maturation of folk dancing has met the needs of the societies for education which is sometimes described as the transformation of the konwledge from one generation to other and for social events in their happy or sad days such as weddings, births, deaths, celebrations of some happenings like a successful agricultural production or hunting for ages. Like education,every culture that is also transferred from one generation to other wants to keep its folk dancing, which is a part of it, as original as possible, away from other cultures affects and promote it as widely as possible since it is a kind of identity and has the uniting and converging featura among the individuals. The use of the presented visual artistic technique has resulted in that folk dancing is seen nicer senses of the audiences at the present, which prove the dynamic face of it. The important point is that to be able to preserve in in its dynamism while using these technique. With the use f visual objects other than dance itself, the expressive universality ranging from traditional explanation to getting the aesthetics in all steps of dances keeps going on and the rise of enthusiasm in presentation of the public's formation to public again has been seen. While staging folk dances, having a variety of aspects together and the cultural form that is changing in time stressing on the essence of dance result in the artiste fact.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 2020
Anahtar kelimeler
halk oyunları, folk dances, oyunlar, games, ritim, rhythm, Türk halk oyunları, Turkish folk dances