Göstergebilim ışığında modernizm, postmodernizm ve bir örnek : Klassis

dc.contributor.advisor Özer, Filiz
dc.contributor.author Tanju, Bülent
dc.contributor.authorID 14396
dc.contributor.department Mimarlık Tarihi
dc.date.accessioned 2023-03-03T13:02:37Z
dc.date.available 2023-03-03T13:02:37Z
dc.date.issued 1991
dc.description Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1991
dc.description.abstract Bilim ve teknoloji etkinliğinin yaygın konsensüsü üzerine kurulu bilimci anlayış, sanat ürünlerinden anlamsal bilgi bekler. Oysa sanat eserlerinde ayrı, özel bir bilgi türü daha barınır. Dil bir simgeleştirme sistemidir ve simgesel sistemimizin esasını oluşturur. İnsan dış çevresini, dilin o çevreyi sunduğu gibi yaşar. Bilginin ve kültürel olguların sanıldığı kadar nesnel ve tarafsız olmadığının anlaşılması, poziti vistrasyonalist söylemin gerçekliğin tek ve evrensel yorumunun olmadığının fark edilmesini sağladı. Şifrelerin bildirilerin oluşumunu yönetmesi, buna karşın yeni bildirilerin şifre dizgesini yeniden yapılandırması diyalektiği, Humboldt' un bahsettiği dilin yaratıcılığı tartışmasının temelini oluşturur. Açık yapıtta kural dışı tek bir deneyimin yadsınması, ilişkilerin karışıklığını değil, bu ilişkilerin örgütlenmesine olanak verecek kuralı gerektiriyor. Açık yapıt, bir kişisel müdahaleler çokluğu olanağıdır, ama ayrıntısız müdahaleye şekilsiz bir çağrı değildir. Mimari nesnenin yananlamsal özelliklerinin yada simgesel işlevinin, düzanlamsal işlevinden daha az işlevsel olduğunu ileri sürmek güçtür. İşlev terimi nesnenin tüm bildirişimsel amaçlarını kapsar. Kullanım nesnelerinin tasarımcılarının gösterenleri eklemlemesi, gösterilenlerin işleyişini determine edemez, çünkü bizzat tarih böyle bir şeyi devre dışı bırakır. Gösterenlerle gösterilenler arasındaki kaymayı ve gösterilenlerin değişimini bilen bir tasarımcı için sorun, değişebilir düzanlamsal işlevler ve açık yananlamsal işlevler tasarlamaktır. Modern mimarlık rasyonalizmin tekil bakış açısıyla yetinmekteydi. Evrensel olduğu kabul edilen yasalarla düzenlenmiş bir dünya kurma çabasındaki modern mimarlık, modern sanatla karşıt kutupları oluşturuyordu. Popülist postmodernizm, mimarlığı bir kitle iletişim aracı olarak görmektedir. Oysa popülist tavrın var olanı sürekli olumlayan eğilimiyle, rasyonalizmin vardığı yerin aşılması mümkün olmayacaktır. Avantgarde postmodernizm ise, mimarlığın içsel değerlerini, ilişkilerini sorgulamakta ve iletişimsizliğin biçimlerini araştırmaktadır. tr_TR
dc.description.abstract Scientific concept based upon the consensus of scientific and technological effectiveness, that is a world-wide thinking that reduces every dimension of life to the rules of scientific effectiveness. Positivist/rationalist approach expects knowledge that can be defined as "episteme" from the work of art! This is semantic knowledge. However, in artworks there exists a special kind of knowledge that can be defined as esthetical input which can be based upon elements of pleasure, intuition, or inspiration. Positivist approach puts information under the order of scientific effectiveness which objectivates an area including people, puts it under the command of tools of intelligence, and helps this passive area to be anticipated. The belief stating that the technological and scientific developments definitely yield happiness and pronperity has been settled in the belief of technological development. The new social organization is scientific and impersonal. This organization is a new rationalizing model which targets production and development. The criticism about positivism starts with the realization that the invention of information on the man and the society emphasizes more on a logical factors in comparison to positive sciences. When people perceive the enviroment around them, they don't qualify it with unbiased approach, but mostly with a biased one. What provides the continuity of the structural system of society is the group of symbols which are adopted by everyone living in that society. Symbols teach people similar social behavior from generation to generation. Language is a symbolizing system and constitutes the basic of symbolic system. "One experiences the outside world in the way language presents it." The element of language defines the world of symbols. People perceive elements not on unbiased and objective basis, but in an active and selective way, besides they do this in the direction of behavior resulted by their interests. According to Habermas, one has two kinds of VI natural and basic interests neither of which can be reduced to the other] l.A technical interest to rule the nature. 2. An interest of communication that provides mutual influence on one another. These interests yield actions of purpose, intelligence and communication. Expression of one of the two basic interests as communication interest explains why the 20th century intellectual development is essentially connected to the linguistic studies. Two factors provide the redefinition of culture! One of the two basic interests of a person is communication and the importance of symbols and language is the formation of knowledge is we 11 -understood accordingly. The condition that knowledge and cultural factors were not as objective and unbiased as they were thought to be provided the realization that stated positivist/rationalist approach only showed one side of the reality and that reality was not only the universal interpretat ion. Semiotics is a peculiar set of languages and it is a language based on the methods of expression; the sources is linguistics in terms of functional concepts. Semiotics accepts no limits because it is the science of all signs: Language, approach, speech; and can be used for every meaningful unit or combinition; whether contains only linguistic or visual quality. If objects imply meaning, they can be turned into speech. Wherever there exist understanding and signification, semiotical activity is valid everywhere. Semiotics studies all cultural events as communication process. Examination öf culture as communication process is not the explanation of material life with spiritual phenomenons. The reson is that objects show behavior appropriate to communication process in behavioral forms, production, relations and values. Wherever there is society, every usage transforms into its own sign. This is possible because there is culture, but at the same time there is culture because this transformation is possible. Semantic cultural appearance is a semantic are not anything other than the research of meanings which people communicate to eachother continuously. According to semantics what is signified in expression is any cultural value. A cultural value can be defined as a semantic unit in any system. VII Cultural values are not defined with their contents, but with their relations with other elements and with their different meanings in different systems. Which of these meanings is used is determined according to the context. The content of the sign is a world which establishes culture in sub-systems and semantic areas. l.In a culture semantic sub-systems in conflikt with one another can exist together. 2. A cultural value can take place in the same cultural enviroment in semantic sub-systems. 3. Any semantic sub-system can be decomposed very fast and can be built in a new system. Denotation is the interest given to an expression by a code in a specific culture. An insulated sign denotes a position in semantic system. What gives a life to a sign signification that makes processes useable are based on connotations. Connotation is the sum of all cultural values called by the definition of what is signified. In other words, it is the sum of all cultural values that significan associates in the mind of a receiver. The variety of sub-cultures in a culture show that a message can not be solved unless with the help of different angles of wiev and conventions. The management of formation of messages by the codes, and the reconstruction of the code system by new messages give form to the fundamentals of discussion of the creativity of language that is stated by Humboldt. Later the same dialectic is seen as the fundamental of art creativity in Chomsky's "rule-governed creativity", "rule-changing creativity" » Rationalism that formates the spine of the evolution of western civilization has effected the development of western art quite a bit. Although in the development period of rationalism this effect was in the form of parallelism and similarities, later it took the form of opposition and rejection. Whether this is positive or negative, western art is in close relation with rationalist thinking. Gideon states that what lies beneath the birth or cubism is the real refraction point of perspective that accepts the perfection of renaissance at one focus as the last target. This is the point when one starts to long for the roots of a view with plural foci and learn to accept that the focus where he stands is not the only one. The importance of subjective share in profit relation is noticed by previous thinkers especially in descriptive arts. VIII The new meaning given to the word " openness" is found in "open form" of baroque period. In baroque form we don* t see the formation a round one central axis and under i a ted and unchanging determination of space limited by the symmetrical lines and narrow angles belonging to classical renaissance form. Because of the seeking for the mobile and exceptional, a baroque plastic mass can never own a facade that is determined. Man got rid of the addiction to the law in baroque and faced a mobile world expecting creativity from him. Since conscious "openwork" is "poli-semic", it is never exhausted and stays open. The reason is that a world set up on polisemism took the place of a world organized with universally-accepted laws: In positive meaning because of the lack of orientation centers and in negative meaning because of the capability for values and def initiveness to be looked-over. A middle-age artist's concluded single-direction work reflects a universal approach in the form of an order of open and predetermined systems. In contemporary mobile work, an irregular only experience, rejectedas in Einstein period, does not bring about the confusion of relations, but brings about the rule that will organize these relations. In short, an open work is an oppurtunity of abundance of personal inturferences but not an unshaped call for an undetailed interference. For a message to have esthetical function, first of all it has to have these pecularities: a. A message should be poli-semic and have open-meanings. b.It should be auto-reflexive; that is it should lead the receiver's interest to its form. We believe that whatever we perceive in esthetical message really exists in that. This is an illusion because whatever we think we find in that is the meaning we actually attribute to its organization form. The hypothesis that culture can be examined as a communication, also proposes that architecture too remains inside the area of Interest of semiotics. Architectural sign contains a significan. The signified of this significan is, at the same time, the function that is poosible in practice. An architectural object, denotes a way of living. Form can only make references to function in the context of habitual and expectetional IX system. It is no longer possible to transfer a dense knowledge responsibility without referring to knowledge and renovation; the solution of the unexpected is all ways developed with the articulation of the expected. It is difficult to propose that the connotational characteristic or symbolic function of an architectural object are less functional then its denotational function. The term of function, contains an object's all communicational means, only that in a social life this object of utility's symbolic connotations are not less helpful then its functional denotations. Symbolic connotations, as long as they transmit an object's social utility value (which is not certainly identical with "function") appear as functional meanings that is to say, not only like simile and metaphor. The paradoxical appearence of today's taste is, to present itself as a period of time in which forms are consumed rapitly (because of rapidly changing of codes and ideological background). But, in reality, today is a period of time, in which forms are dealed rapidly and lived up overcoming their visible exhausion. Today, these dynamic experienced superficially, without changing the basic cultural system. But in contrary, revival has become a rhetoric technique which trys to fancy today's way to perceive the world. An ideology, which is sufficiently flexible, makes all the forms comprehended without letting them threat itself. Another condition, which is typical for today is the rapidly consumption of connotational significan then the denotational ones. In this situation, styling operation interferes situation. Styling operation is a design of symbolical cover for a constant function. The articulation of the sign if leans by the designers of utility objects don't determinate the significan' s operation, because history, itself, eliminates this operation. The problem for the designer, who knows the slide between the significan and the signified and the change mechanism of the signified, is to design variable denotational functions and "open" connotational functions. Architectural communication, as a system of certain rhetor ik rules, can own both mass and esthetical communication's opportunities with the effort of the designer. However, popular speech is a natural quality of the architectural communication. An architectural message is calming and convincing, whereas it is creative and has a heurotic appearance. Although it arises from the needs and the wishes of the society, it sill has the ability to criticize the society. Every real architectural work brings a novelty. In general the concept of modernism based on the thesis that reality is not limited with a rationalist understanding of knowledge but "modern architecture" was contented with the singular point of view of rational izm. Modern architecture, with the efford to create a world systematized with the laws that were accepted to be universal, was in fact in great contrast with modern art.. In a heterogen society, the distinction of esthetical forms increases. While this forms were experiencing a loss of completeness, the modernism was searching for a non-existing completeness. Modernist architects believe that they can comprehend every complex reality like by breaking a machine or a clock into pieces. For them, an architectural object is also a machine created by articulating functional pieces to each other. The logic of creating the whole by gathering pieces which have been set and broken apart scientifically, brought architecture and design into asystem which cosists of analysis, research, scientific administiration and behav i ora 1 sc i ences. Rationalist way of thinking, like in many philosophers, has also guided modern architects to be seized by the idea that, freedom could be used effectively by putting the objects in order. Postmodernism in the United States, according to a large group, is an easily comprehensible language of consumption of art and architecture and is an initiation of direct communication. The theory of Venturi is, exalting the popular cultural elements and the enviroment which is taking form outside the architect. Inclination of the populist ideology to accept the world as it is, to accept the self-existing and to give a conflicting role to the arcitect as to design what has already been designed, are points that have to be point of. The 2nd group of postmodrnism, if we define it's american namesake as populist and anti intellectual, is first of all intellectual and gradually more el ite. An extreme abstraction, atonal ity, timelessness and a condition of being wit tout a center have taken the place of modernism's enlightenment ideals and utopic design. The center, that was keeping the pieces together, had split XI up and the alienation from capitalism and bourgeoisie has created a degree-zero style. What remains toarchitecture is only this; a post-fuctional architecture. Architects like Rossi and the New York Five prove this deprivation of meaning by giving importance to architecture's inner connections. Like literary works, which give impotance to the text, these architects set up self-reflexive systems of sign. en_US
dc.description.degree Yüksek Lisans
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11527/22284
dc.language.iso tr
dc.publisher Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
dc.rights Kurumsal arşive yüklenen tüm eserler telif hakkı ile korunmaktadır. Bunlar, bu kaynak üzerinden herhangi bir amaçla görüntülenebilir, ancak yazılı izin alınmadan herhangi bir biçimde yeniden oluşturulması veya dağıtılması yasaklanmıştır. tr_TR
dc.rights All works uploaded to the institutional repository are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. en_US
dc.subject Gösterge bilim tr_TR
dc.subject Klassis tr_TR
dc.subject Mimarlık tr_TR
dc.subject Modernizm tr_TR
dc.subject Postmodernizm tr_TR
dc.subject Semiotics en_US
dc.subject Klassis en_US
dc.subject Architecture en_US
dc.subject Modernism en_US
dc.subject Postmodernism en_US
dc.title Göstergebilim ışığında modernizm, postmodernizm ve bir örnek : Klassis
dc.title.alternative In the light of semiotics modernism, postmodernism and an example:Klassis
dc.type masterThesis
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