İstanbul'da Otopark Problemi ''şişli-beşiktaş Örneği''

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Tarih
1996
Yazarlar
Özel, Sinan A
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Kentlerde, motorlu taşıtların sayısının büyük bir hızla artmasının karşısında trafik tıkanıklıkları ortaya çıkmakta, bu da ulaşımı kötü yönde etkilemektedir. Motorlaşmaktaki büyüme, caddelerde trafik akışının artımı, otoparklarda yer bulamayan otomobillerin görülmesiyle kendini göstermiştir. Bugün özellikle büyük kentlerde otopark alanı bulmak ve otopark tesis etmek büyük bir problem olarak karşımızdadır. Bunda en büyük etken olarak, planlarda otopark alanı olarak ayrılan alanların, başka fonksiyonlara tahsis edilmiş olması; otopark alanı ayrılması gereken binalarda belediyelere otopark için gerekli miktarın ödenmesi ile, otopark yapımından vazgeçilmesi gösterilebilir. Otopark ihtiyacı tam olarak hesaplanmayan yerlerde daha sonra otopark yapmaya çalışmak çok büyük ekonomik yük getirecek, hatta bu amaçtan vazgeçmeye kadar gidilecektir. Bunu için yeni yapılaşmalarda otopark yeri bırakmak mecbur tutulmalı, yeni gelişen alanlarda yapılan parselasyon planlamasında otopark yeri ayrılmalıdır. Otopark alanları planlanırken, plan içinde kapasite çok iyi hesaplanmalı, otoparklar yürüme mesafesi içinde kalmalıdır. Çalışma, İstanbul'da otopark durumunu incelemek, özellikle planlama ve uygulama etaplarında ayrılan alanları belirlemek, yeterli olup olmadıklarını göstermek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Tezde, trafik yoğunluğu fazla olan Şişli ve Beşiktaş yöreleri araştırma alanı olarak seçilmiştir. İstanbul'un önemli Merkezi İş Alanlarından olan iki ilçe, İstanbul bütünü içinde önemli ulaşım akslarını bünyesinde bulundurur. İstanbul'u etkisi altına alan hızlı şehirleşme onun parelelindeki ulaşım ve otopark problemi en üst düzeyde Şişli ve Beşiktaş'ı da etkilemektedir, istanbul'da meydana gelen bu kadar yoğun değişikliğe karşın, otopark alanlarına olan ihtiyaç yıllarca göz ardı edilerek çözümü hemen hemen olanaksız sonuçlarla yüzyüze kalmamıza neden olmuştur.
The transportation problem, that is growing steadily in big cities and as a consequence cause parking problem, is one of the most important concepts that must be solved. The increasing number of motor vehicles in big cities of the world causes traffic congestion's and by this way influences the transportation negatively. The growth in motorization shows itself as an increase in the traffic flow and as motor vehicles that can not find empty places in car parks. Now pedestrian ways and squares are being occupied by motor vehicles where before people can walk freely. From another point of view we can say that motor vehicles are getting dominant in peoples' activities, residences and business life. This process has effect the structures of modern cities. Today, to find a parking area and to construct car parks is a big problem that we face in big cities. The main factors of this problem are the usage of areas, that are assigned for car parks in plans, for different functions and abounding of car parks in buildings that have to contain car parks by paying the required money to the government. Today this problem causes cities to become places that can not be lived comfortably. Trying to construct car parks on areas for which the needs are net planned before will require an important economical source and this may even cause the cancellation of the construct. For new buildings, there must be an obligation for car parks and for newly developing areas the plans must contain places for car parks, While planning car parks the capacity must be well calculated and the car park must be within walking distance. This research has been carried out for the purposes of investigating the parking conditions in Istanbul, especially at the states of planning and applications, determining the reserved areas and showing whether these areas are enough or not. For the Şişli and Beşiktaş areas were chosen as research areas because of the high traffic flow density at these areas. Throughout the second chapter transportation and parking concepts in planning are investigated and necessary definitions are given. We can list these as follows: Transportation is the change of place of people, goods, energy and news. Traffic is the movement of people on motorways as pedestrians or in a vehicle, of trains on railway, of ship on maritime lines and of planes on airlines. It is a round trip. A vehicle is a means of transportation that can be motorized or not, special or purpose, or rubber tired tractor. A pedestrian is a person on motorway that is either moving or not. (Persons on vehicles are not in this category. Traffic flow is the total amount of vehicles and pedestrians that crosses a certain part of a motor way. Traffic capacity is the maximum number of vehicles that a certain part of an motorway can handle special conditions are sophisticated. We can list definitions of parking areas as follows: Parking according to the traffic laws, parking is a way of stopping that is not caused by traffic obligations. Capacity, total number of marked spaces provided within a car park. Circulation aisle, an aisle used to gain access to parking aisles from entry and exit points of a car parking facility. Parking module, parking aisle including a single rank of parking spaces on both sides. On street parking is the parking of vehicles on streets where it is appropriate This method is the easiest and cheapest way of parking as compare to other methods. There are two different locations for on-street parking; kerbside and center of the road. Further, parking may be arranged at various angles to the kerbside. The most common form of kerbside on roadways is parallel parking. It has fewest impacts on through vehicles and requires less lane width than other parking angles. Angle parking can accommodate up to twice as many vehicles along a kerb than parallel parking. xi The maximum advantage is given when 90 degree parking is used. The decision of whether to use angle parking may be based on consideration of:. width of road. traffic volume. type of traffic. speed characteristics. vehicle dimensions. turnover expected. nature of the neighborhood or abutting landaus. road functional classification. Off-street parking systems often form an interface between the road network and other landuse. The parking facility would be best located between the main access route and the landuse served. Location of the parking system should consider the major roads on which traffic approaches the area as well as the streets immediately adjacent to the proposed area. A good parking lot should meet certain standards of design, location and serviceability:. It should not detract from the attractiveness of the surrounding area. It should harmonize with adjacent land developments.. It should have utility or workability and attract customers. If the lot is operated by attendants, the motorist should expect courteous and efficient service. If the lot offers self-parking, parking stalls should be comfortably large, plainly marked and easily accessible.. It should be designed to coordinate its use nearby traffic flow. Entrances and exits should be on mirror streets or in alleys The proper location of new general purpose parking facilities is essential if they are to provide the required service. The amount of existing parking should be taken into account when determining the need for new parking. Parking facilities are provided for many different people who may be participating in a diversity of activities. Some of these activities may be short term in nature, others may require a longer Outside car parks are based on the principal of keeping the vehicles out of the city center by forcing them to park on these car parks. Outside car XII parks has the chance of occupying wide area since the value of the land is cheaper as compared to the city centers. By the use of outside car parks, the car parks at the center whose load is reduced are left to people who needs short parking periods for shopping. By this way the traffic congestion at the center is also reduced. Large expanses of asphalt as required for car parks are unattractive and create a very uncomfortable and exposed environment. Trees should be planted in the car park wherever possible to provide shade during summer, shelter from the rain, to reduce wind velocity and reduce the visual impact of large expanses of car parks and asphalt. Adequate lighting at night. Design of lighting should be consistent with the requirements of the drives to drive and maneuver attention needs to b given to surface grading and the extent of surface inundation during periods of heavy pavement marking, direction and information sign need to be periodically cleaned and vandal or accidental damage required. The previous discussion has treated demand and supply separately. This is appropriate in some cases, but in urban regions of high demand the relationship between and supply and demand need consideration. The determination of the demand for parking is the first step in the design of facilities. Questions such as "Where should the parking places be located?" Or "should the full parking demand be catered for?" Or "Can the parking demand be changed?" Are considerations of parking policy. In general parking can be seen in terms of 4 objectives:. Vehicular movement; the use of road for moving vehicles should take precedence. This particularly applies to arterial roads..Public transport; parking policy can be used to support public transport. Good public transport and its utilization reduce the overall need for parking. On the other shift toward public transport. Parking spaces at local railway and other transit stations are needed to support public transport policy..Local environment; parking policy can aid in improving local environmental conditions. Limitation of parking can improve the aesthetics of an area, reduce amount of traffic attracted to an area, ensure parking for local residents..Urban development; can be effected by making some development more or less costly. Similarly the supply of parking can make some area more or less attract for development. XIII In the third chapter the car parks at Şişli and Beşiktaş municipalities are investigated. Today it is difficult to say that there are researches about car parks. The open and closed car park areas are arranged according to these researchers. Car park areas took place in the municipal construction plans when these plans are made about an area. Generally these areas must be partitioned according to the selected such that are not based on any calculations. A research has been carried out in order to determine the car park needs Şişli and Beşiktaş municipalities. Within this research the areas that are reserved as car parks by the local governments, these capacities and types are determined. On the other hand the functional areas, and their car park needs are determined and this amount is compared with the existing car parks.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
Anahtar kelimeler
Otopark, İstanbul-Beşiktaş, İstanbul-Şişli, Car park, İstanbul-Beşiktaş, İstanbul-Şişli
Alıntı