Şehirsel Mekan Biçimlenme Özelliklerinin Yaya Hareketi Üzerindeki Etkisi: Yeşilköy-köyiçi Örneği

Gündoğdu, Meltem
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
İnsanlık tarihinde, göçebelikten toprağa bağlı yaşama geçişle başlayan, yerleşim dokusu, antik çağdan günümüze kadar gelen şehirsel biçimlenme iie birlikte, işlevlerde de değişme ve çeşitlenme görülmektedir. Şehirsel biçimlenme içinde, işlevsel farklılaşma oluşmakta, işlevsel farklılaşma ise yaya hareketine seçenekler sunmaktadır. Bu seçenekler ise başlangıcı şehirsel biçimlenme özelliklerine dayanan doğal hareket ağını oluşturmaktadır. Bu görüşü temel alan, "Doğal Hareket" kuramı, şehirsel biçimlenme özellikleri ile hareket arasındaki bağıntıyı analiz etmektedir. Klasik kuramda, yaya hareket ağı yanlızca arazi kullanım özellikleri ile açıklanmaktadır. Doğal hareket kuramı ile sadece arazi kullanımı ile açıklanan yaya hareketinin biçimlenme özelliklerinin de analizi yapılabilmektedir. Bu yöntem, tasarımda temel belirleyici bir yöntem olarak değil, ancak tasarıma "yardımcı bir araç" olarak kabul edilmelidir.
Urban patterns were formed within time by compelling effects of as natural, environmental economic and caltural factors. Within such formation of urban configuration properties, functions are also transformed as anlogous to altering conditions and according to degree of function a pedestrian movement of varying patterns is incepted.ln terms of pedestrians which trendy motion is from the source to target, the extant move ment of urban grid offers altering courses. Within the existing grid some of the roads are unique and superior to others in corparison in terms of canalizing pedestrian movement, in short, these are fowere by pedestrians. Existing theories; relating patterns of movement to urban form characterise the problem in terms of flows to and from "attractor' land uses. The new 'configurational' paradigm in which a primary property of the form of the urban grid is to privilege certain spaces over others for though movement. In this way it is suggested that the configuration of the urban griol configuration itself. XII This correlation which is proven by B.Hillier within the margins of the theory of Natural Movement, was also empirically verified in regards of various urban incidents "Space Syntaxes the methold for analizing the configuratinal properties of the griol anol corraletes them with movement. This has dear implications for urban design suggesting that if we wish to design for well used urban space, then it's not the local properties of a space that are impartant in the main but its configuratinal relations to the larger urban system. This is the summery of " Natural Movemnet " Theory; in Urban systems configuration is the primary generator of pedestrian movemen patterns, and in general, attractors are either equalisable or work as multipliers on the basic pattern established by configuration. This is not to say that in all situations the greater proportion of movement is generated by configuration. On the contrary, it will often be the case that the multiplier effect of attractors far exceeds the effects of configurations. But important thing; configuration is the primary generator. Movement generated bythe grid configuration is so basic, the term of "Natural Movement" is said for it. Natural Movement is fundamentally a marphological issue in urbanisn, a functional pruduct of the nature of the grid, not a specialised aspect of it. As such the guestion of movement, and of space use in general, annot be separated form the guestion of urban form itself. XIII The "Space Syntax" method technigues of configurational anaysis is to anatize the local and globalstructure of the urban grid and observe space use and movement. The space syntax method could analize the untidy systems which are found in the real world of settlements. There is a problem to analize deforme settlements. İn this model first, open space map are made, and then on this map passing through all lines, the axial map are made. The "axial map" also can be constructed outumatically by computer. At a piece of urban grid that is located within the reach, morphological characteristics darifying connection of an alley or emparium with its immediate milieu, or configuration characteristics measuring the practicability of reach form the whole system to such alley or emporium, are represented by three individual " parameters". These parametres are measured from the axial map. The simplest are describe the local properties of a mode in the graph. "Connectivity"; measures now many other nodes are directly accessible from it, "Control.Value"; measures the degre to which a node "Control' access to and from the whole system to such alley or emporium, are representes by three individual "parameters". XIV The most important global measures is called "integration" which measures the mean depth of every other line in the system from each line in turn relativised with respect to how deep they could possible be with that number of lines. In the space-syntax method, an observation technique is used in which observers walk at about 4 Km/h along lines, and count the people they pass who are moving or static on the same line. That is people crossing the line rather than walking along it are discounted. While corralating istatistical calculations are used between the volues of all configuration parametres and natural movement observing. At equivalent of y=a+b,in Lieu of x, the pedestrian movement observation value, and in lieu of y, as configuration parametres, connectivity, control and integration values are placed and links are limited by plain correlation. In this theses, first, evolution of urban form and movement is analized from the antiquity to this time and seen natural cultural, economic and social effects are important on taking form of urban grid. After this, configuration properties of urban grid and effects to the movement are analized by describing B.Hillier's " Natural Movement " theory and " Space Syntax " Method. XV Then, this theory applicated to the selected study case "Yeşilköy - Köyiçi " Consequences again shows, if to desing well used urban space, in the maian it's configurational relations to the largers urban system are important This study is not a basic method of analysis in assessment of powerful relation between space organization and social lifes. By means of theoretically and empirically proving effects of existing correlation between configuration of space and pedestrian movement and effects of configuration characteristics over pedestrian movement, it was substantially clarified that, for urban design not only the domestic faculties of space but also global characteristics as configuration, ought to be duly taken in to consideration. The aim is to create optimum and the most rational design. Hence, evaluation of new methods and studies ought to be duty taken in to consideration.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Kentsel mekan; Kentsel tasarım; Yaya alanları; İstanbul-Yeşilköy-Köyiçi, Urban space ;Urban design ;Pedestrian areas ; İstanbul-Yeşilköy-Köyiçi