Yüklenici İnşaat Firmalarında Kalite Sistemi

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Tarih
1996
Yazarlar
Koca, Berna Işıl
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Son yıllarda dünya ülkelerini saran kalite yönetimi rüzgarının firmaların yönetim ve üretim faaliyetlerine olan etkileri gün geçtikçe daha fazla önem kazanmış, kalite kavramı endüstriyel alanda, sistemli bir yaklaşımla firmalarda uygulanmaya başlanmıştır. Endüstride yaşanan bu gelişmelerin ülkemiz şartları içinde inşaat sektöründe de uygulanabilmesi amacıyla, tez konusu olarak kalite sistemi yaklaşımlarının yüklenici inşaat firmalarına uyarlanması seçilmiştir. Bu tezde Kalite konusuna günümüzün perspektifiyle bakılarak, ortaya çıkan yeni yöntemlerin Kalite Sistemi başlığı altında incelenip, elde edilen bulguların yüklenici bir inşaat firmasına uyarlanması amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmanın birinci bölümünde tez kapsamında ele alınan problem tanıtılmakta, problemin kapsamı ve sınırlamalar ortaya konulmaktadır. İkinci bölümde, "Kalite" ve "Kalite Kontrol", kavramlarının geçmişte ve günümüzde içerdiği anlamlarla Kalite sağlama yaklaşımlarının, teknolojik gelişmelerin zorunlu sonucu olarak firma ve ürün bazında "Kalite Sistemi" ne dönüş süreçleriyle içerdikleri anlamlar kısaca anlatılmaya çalışılmıştır. Kalite Sistemini uygulayacak bir firmada oluşacak maliyetlerin sınıflandırılması ve değerlendirilmesi ile ISO 9000 Standartlarının tanıtılması da bu bölümde yer almaktadır. Üçüncü bölümde, Kalite kavramının inşaat sektörünün içinde yer alan gruplar açısından tanımı ve değerlendirmesiyle birlikte, inşaatta kalite ve kalitesizlik üzerine yapılan tartışmalar yer almaktadır. Dördüncü bölümde, yüklenici inşaat firmalarının organizasyonel, yönetimsel ve işlevsel yapısı, faaliyet alanları, içinde bulundukları çevre, dar kapsamıyla irdelenerek beşinci bölümde yapılacak önerilere altlık teşkil etmesi amacıyla bir inşaat firmasının yapısal modeli örnek bir yaklaşımla ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Beşinci, bölümde, yüklenici bir inşaat firması için 'kalite sistemi' yaklaşımının gerekliliği tartışılarak, 2. bölümde genel hatlarıyla tanıtılmaya çalışılan 'Kalite Sistemi' prensiplerinin, 4. bölümde kısaca tanımlanan yüklenici bir inşaat firmasının yapı ve işleyişine uygulanmasıyla, sistemin, yüklenici firma geneline ve yapım projeleri ölçeğine nasıl yansıtabileceği irdelenmiştir. Ayrıca önemli bir problem alanı olarak görülen kalite geliştirme sürecine yönelik görüşler ile, sistemden beklenen yararlar ve karşılaşılabilecek zorluklar kısaca aktarılmış ve tartışması yapılmıştır. Sonuç bölümünde Kalite Sistemine girecek yüklenici inşaat firmalarında etkin bir uygulamanın yapılabilmesi için atılması gerekli adımlar konusunda genel bir değerlendirme yapılmıştır.
The aim of thesis is to give a general approach to the contractor firms in the way of establishing quality system in their organizations. The reason for choosing the subject is there are a lot of economic losses in construction industry that effect the firms' productivity and besides the overall national economical status. For that reason it is thought that establishing and implementing quality system approach may be useful in order to increase overall performance, productivity and to decrease the effects of lack of quality. The quality problems in the construction industry are rarely caused by lack of knowledge nor by the use of unknown techniques or material in the building process. The faults are mostly due to ineffective quality management, insufficient work instructions and lack of using already accessible knowledge. The Quality System should therefore specially take this into account and deal with problems such as organization structure, responsibility and authority, education job training and audits. In the last decade the quality concept has begun to spread the industrial sector and it became one of the most important managerial systems that improves management and production techniques of the firms. Although from the beginning of the 1 980s the term Quality has penetrated to the industrial production area, due to characteristics of construction industry it is difficult to use the approaches utilized in the other sectors in construction. Construction, operates differently than other industries. Employment is at one site for a substantial period of time There is little repetition and few opportunities to learn from earlier mistakes. Consequently, managers and workers must cope with delays, inconveniences and discomforts which weather and climatic conditions can bring. Most construction projects are unique and generally fast moving, organizations are not static and are rebuilt again and again with different design and designers, management teams, materiel equipment and work crews. Nowadays the construction market has simultaneously become narrower and more demanding since client himself is more technical and his requirements have become more global. The supply has risen above the demand and competition has become very aggressive. Regional and national borders are fading away as far as both supply and demand are concern. The new technological resources increase the competitiveness, people have new ways of acting and business organizations and management systems must be able to integrated them very quickly. IX The thesis consists of six parts. The chapter is designed to describe contemporary attitudes against 'qualify' as a managerial and technical instrument in terms of 'quality systems'. The second chapters define the meaning of 'quality' and quality related concepts are given so as to build a theoretic base in order to provide a clear understanding of other chapters of the thesis. In addition, the quality cost concept and the meaning of ISO 9000 Standards are take place in this chapter. The definitions of some main concepts presented in the second chapter are as follows: Qualify As a word, qualify means 'best for certain customer requirements'. In managerial context,quality is a way of managing the organization. Qualify has become the fundamental strategy for competitiveness today. Qualify Control The operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill requirements for qualify. Total Qualify Control An affective system for integrating the qualify development, quality-maintenance and qualify improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enables marketing, engineering, production, and service at the most economic levels that allow for full customer satisfaction (FEIGENBAUM 1 991 ). Qualify System The agreed companywide and planfwide operating work structure,documented in effective, integrated technical and managerial procedures, for guiding the coordinated actions of the people,the machines, and the information of the company and plant in the best and most practicable ways to ensure customer qualify satisfaction and economic costs of quality (FEIGENBAUM 1 991 ). In thesis the qualify system approach was discussed with its managerial and technical aspects. Accordingly the managerial aspect covers through the organization and the technical aspect related with the production process and product. Qualify Management The aspect of the overall management function that determines and implements the qualify policy (ASHFORD 1 989). Qualify Assurance All planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence (ASHFORD 1989). The other subject explained in this chapter is the qualify cost system. For the effectiveness of the qualify system it must be balanced with the qualify cost system. Qualify Costs can be divided into two main groups which are: . Investment Costs that the first costs about establishing the quality system. Activity Costs can be characterized as: Prevention Costs, which include quality planing and other costs associated with preventing nonconformances and defects. Appraisal Costs, which are incurred in evaluating product qualify to maintain established quality levels. Failure Costs, whenever quality appraisals are performed, there exists the possibility for discovery of a failure to meet requirements. When this happens, unscheduled and possibly unbudgeted expenses are automatically incurred. It is possible to divide these costs two categories: Internal Failure Costs, caused by defective and nonconforming materials and products that do not meet company quality specifications. External Failure Costs, caused by defective and nonconforming products reaching the customer. The third chapter of thesis describes the term quality from the view of construction sector. In construction projects the quality can only be achieved by coordination between the three main actors which are called as, owner, designer and contractor. For the success of the construction project, the three of them must establish and implement their own quality systems in their works. Although the main theme of thesis is related with the contractor firms the third chapter gives the basic knowledge about the other actors briefly. In addition, this chapter includes the causes of lack of quality and its negative effects in the construction industry by means of giving same figures from the European construction sector. The fourth chapter is designated in order to explain the contractor firms with their environment, organization, resources, functions, production process and their products. A contractor firm is an economical unit which operates in construction sector. Its products are buildings and the other structures. They take place in the sector with the other two main group actors that called owner- and designer. Contractor firms operate in the construction sector for private or public owners. A contractor firm have the central office and the site offices and may have the branch office outside the country. The resources using by the contractor firms can be divided two groups :. Physical resources are money, human, material and machines,. Conceptual resources are the information systems. The contractor firms uses conceptual resources so as to manage physical resources. According to Mc Leod a firm has three managerial levels, which are:. Strategic planning level,. Management control level XI . Operational control level Strategic planning level is consists of the top managers of the contractor firm. In this managerial level it is made decision about the aims and strategy of the firm by the group members. Management control level is consists of the group directors and department managers. They are responsible for manage and implement the decisions which had been taken in the strategic planning level. The operational level is consists of the projects' managers and supervisors. They are responsible for execute of the decisions in accordance with specific needs of the project's. The functions which undertaken by the contractor firms are:. Central functions Supplying for the new projects Central planning Central purchasing Accounting Marketing Managing the different projects (sites) Quality management Information management Bidding management Equipment management Human Resources management. Peripheral functions (site functions) Construction planning Construction Quality control Machine and equipment functions Procurement and storage Subcontractor management Final accounting Finance Personnel Site administration In the fifth chapter of thesis it is tried to describe a general approach on quality system that could be implemented by the contractor firms. With this aim quality system is divided two categories which are:. Organizationwide (firm) quality system. Project quality system Organizationwide quality system is the global quality system of the contractor firm which relates organization, management, documentation, training and audits. Its borders are determined by the strategic planning level. Matching Feigenbaum's approach quality xu system can be analyzed as managerial and the technical subsystems in a contractor firm. The organizationwide quality system means the managerial quality system. Its components are: Organization ' Documentation Training Audits Inspection The project quality system matches with the technical quality system. Its components are:. Project Quality Planing, Identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them. Project Quality Control, Monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance. Project Quality Assurance, Evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards. In addition this chapter concludes the implementing phases of the quality system for the contractor firms in this chapter. This phases can be summarized as follows: A preliminary phase including planning activities, identification of problems, establishing working groups, identification of problem areas for priority of work, setting preliminary quality objectives and policies. A development phase, including registration of processes, documentation of procedures, organization structure, information of personnel, editing of the quality documentation Implementation phase, implementing and revising the quality system The system must be continually supervised and evaluated by management. The last chapter is the conclusion part. It is presented the final recommendations about quality system in the scope of the contractor firms which are willing to establish and implement this concept. They can be summarized as follows. The management has to made up its mind to develop and implement the quality system. The quality system can not be a magic tool unless it is managed as a whole The system takes the power from its integrity. The quality system must be improved in accordance with the strategy, aims, organizational and cultural structure of the construction firms, Xlll The quality system, in the other hand, means that the effective control of the firms in different managerial levels. There may be a lot of subsystem in the quality system as organization, documentation, audits, training and information systems, For the success, they must be managed in coordination as a whole. For the contractor firms it may be an important tool to use and improve the expertise of the background activities in effective manner. While the contractor firm improving the quality system must recognize the personnel needs and expectations. Because whatever the system improved the users are people. In order to train the firm's personnel all the necessary resources quantitative and qualitative must be allocated. Training is one of the main concepts of quality system.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
Anahtar kelimeler
Kalite sistemi; İnşaat işletmeleri, Quality system ;Construction enterprises
Alıntı