Bütünleşik Kıyı Alanları Yönetimi Ve İstanbul Örneği

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Tarih
2013-01-06
Yazarlar
Uçlar, Sevcan
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Kıyı alanları sahip oldukları doğal, sosyal, kültürel ve ekonomik potansiyellerle en çok tercih edilen alanlar olmuş, bunun sonucu olarak tarih boyunca yoğun insan faaliyetlerinin merkezi haline gelmişlerdir. Hızla artan nüfus ve kıyılardan her türlü toplumsal kümelerin yararlanma hakkı olması kıyılar üzerindeki baskıyı giderek arttırmış, sınırlı bir kaynak olarak kıyılar zamanla zarar görmeye başlamış ve doğal değerlerini kaybetme tehlikesiyle karşı karşıya kalmışlardır. Kıyılardaki yoğun kullanımların neden olduğu çevre sorunlarıyla mücadele etmek amacıyla dünyada ulusal ve uluslararası girişimler başlamıştır. İlk olarak kıyılardaki çevresel kirliliğe engel olmak amacıyla1972 yılında ABD’de ortaya çıkan “kıyı yönetimi” kavramı zaman içinde derinleşerek, yerini daha kapsamlı ve çok yönlü bir yönetim anlayışını ifade eden “bütünleşik kıyı alanları yönetimi” kavramına bırakmıştır. Bütünleşik kıyı alanları yönetimi dünya ülkelerinin yasal ve yönetsel mevzuatlarında yeni yeni yer edinmeye başlayan bir süreçtir. Buna karşın, özellikle Avrupa’daki birçok ülke bütünleşik kıyı alanları yönetimi konusunda ulusal strateji planlarını hazırlamış durumdadır. Bütünleşik kıyı alanları yönetimi kavramının öncüsü olan ABD’de ise çok daha yerleşmiş bir kıyı yönetim sistemi ve buna paralel sıkı bir yasal mevzuat ile idari yapılanma olduğu bilinmektedir. ABD ve Avrupa ülkeleriyle karşılaştırıldığında Türkiye’nin bütünleşik kıyı alanları yönetimi konusunda henüz emekleme aşamasında olduğu görülmektedir. Türkiye’de kıyı yönetimi konusunda uluslararası antlaşmalara paralel olarak başlayan bir takım girişimler olsa da, bütünleşik kıyı alanları yönetimine ilişkin bir ulusal strateji geliştirilmiş ya da yasal-yönetsel mevzuatta kıyı yönetiminin yer edinmesine ilişkin bir çalışma yapılmış değildir. Bu nedenle şimdiye kadar kıyı yönetimi adı altında yapılan projeler beklenen başarıyı gösterememiştir. Son dönemlerde özellikle Avrupa ülkelerinden örnek alınarak Türkiye’nin seçilen bölgelerinde Çevre Bakanlığı tarafından yaptırılan bütünleşik kıyı alanları yönetim programları ise hem idari yapılanması hem de yasal mevzuatı yeterli ölçüde tanımlanmadığından tam olarak uygulanamamaktadır. Tez çalışmasında Türkiye’nin bütünleşik kıyı alanları yönetimi konusundaki yetersiz durumu dünya ülkelerinden seçilen örneklerle karşılaştırmalı olarak gösterilmiş, Türkiye’nin en önemli kıyı kenti olan İstanbul’da kıyı planlamasının eksikliğinin yarattığı sorunlar ortaya konmaya çalışılmıştır.
Coastal areas have become the most desired areas due to their natural, cultural and economic potentials, and as a result these areas have become the focal point of dense human activities. Approximately 50% of the world s population living in coastal areas is a clear indication of this. Their natural resources, transportation opportunities, qualities as a suitable environment in terms of defense and communication, coasts are not only the edges of water; they are also indispensable focal areas for human settlements. The fast growing population has increased the pressure on coastal areas and these places, which should be accepted as limited resources, have started to face harm and the potential danger of losing their natural values. Even though it is defended that coastal areas should be utilized for public benefit legally and administratively, and that every member of the public should make use of these areas, this opinion stays mostly at theoretical level and cannot be widely implemented. As tourism sector brings coastal areas to the foreground, and people realize the merits that coastal areas offer, the economic value of these areas have further increased. The interest towards coastal areas has condensed and coastal areas have started to be rapidly occupied. The fast growing population in the coastal areas has increased pressure on these places, which should be accepted as limited resources and these places have started to face the potential danger of losing their natural values. Central and local administrations see coastal areas solely as a tool for economical development, and the main objective is mostly to get the biggest profit in the short term. This situation plays a determining role on the depletion of coastal areas. As the coastal areas started to take irreversible damage, some coastal countries have taken action to prevent further harm and the concept of “sustainability” for coastal areas has come to order. Various policies have been developed to limit the usage of coastal areas, prevent irreversible damages, to respect the common good in usage, and prevent coastal speculations, and coastal zone management has been the main tool in implementing these policies. National and international attempts to overcome the harms caused by dense usage of the coastal areas have started. The concept of coastal zone management has occurred to deal with the environmental pollution at coastal areas. First it emerged as “Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972” in the USA and eventually started to surface in the international area. In the eras where attempts to preserve the coastal areas have been initiated in the world, Turkey the legislative reguation of the coastal areas consists of additional clauses to the 6785 development law. Over time, approaches suggesting socioeconomical development concurrent with the protection of coasts were developed, therefore the concept of “sustainability” which appeared during the same era, was included in coastal zone management. In 1980, Turkey has sided with the 1976 “Barcelona Convention for the Protecting of the Mediterranean” which resulted from “Mediterranean Action Plan” as its first international participation about the coasts but had no coastal law at the time. Through the process, local scale studies started being performed over the world and Turkey passed its first coastal law in 1984. In Turkey, the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) has been in progress since 1987. Coastal zone management , which initially surfaced to counter the environmental pollution at coastal areas has evolved over time and has been replaced by integrated coastal zone management” concept which is both more versatile and more comprehensive. While the concept of “coastal zone management” only refers to one-sided management actions, “integrated coastal zone management” refers to a multi dimensional management process that includes socioeconomic concerns, natural heritage and sustainability. Compared to coastal zone management, integrated coastal zone management comprises all sectors that are related to coasts. While coastal zone management tries to find solutions for only a few specific problems, integrated coastal zone management aims to direct then progress for all actions regarding the coastsal areas. The requirements of integrated coastal zone management are generally gathered under three headings: institutional and organizational structure, legal and administrative framework and financial resources. To create a successful coastal zone management process, these three headings must be set up solidly. Integrated coastal zone management is a progress that has recently started to find place in the legal and administrative regulations of countries. On the other hand, many countries, especially those in Europe, have prepared their national strategic plans regarding integrated coastal zone management. In Turkey there is no developed national strategy or legal and administrative regulations regarding integrated coastal zone management, however there are several attempts parallel to international talks. Therefore, developed projects cannot fulfill the expectations and requirements. The legal and administrative structure of Turkey and the general approach to the planning process in Turkey play an important role on this. The importance of coasts has only been on the agenda of Turkey for 40 years. There was no prerogative for coastal areas; worse still coastal areas were seen as worthless and barren lands not suitable for agriculture. When tourism started to come into prominence as a sector, economical profit of the coastal areas and new employment opportunities created by them have been understood and a rapid flow of capital towards the these areas started. In this period, there were no restrictions on the acquisition of property on the sea side and these areas were privately acquired. At that time, not only was there no legal tool to prevent the acquisition of property on these areas, there was an encouragement for the acquisition of property because of the economic benefits. These encouragements caused unconcerned invasions in coastal areas. Growing interest on coasts and increase in land speculations made it necessary to generate a legal solution for the coasts in Turkey. Preparation of a legal framework started following the international enterprises about the protection of coasts. After a few attempts during the preceding years, the Coastal Act of 3621 was finally accepted in 1990. Although it is criticized that the Coastal Act of 3621 is quite insufficient and limited, it was critical that finally a coastal act was gained. But during the following years there has been no change that would extend the scope of Coastal Act of 3621 as was expected, instead, recent changes and additional clauses on the coastal act are converting the coasts to vulnerable areas. In this thesis study, a few examples from the world have been examined including France, Germany, England, Greece and the United States of America to consider the present situation of Turkey about coastal zone management. When the present situation of Turkey is analyzed with all its aspects and compared to the examined countries, the problems causing the failure of the coastal zone management process are determined as follows: lack of upper scale approach, lack of data, inadequacy of legislation, confliction of authorities, lack of plans and lack of control, inadequate monitoring and enforcement. Comparison of the examined countries has showed that none of the world’s countries have been fully successful in the coastal zone management process but there are good examples that can be inspiring for the process of coastal management in Turkey. Despite being significantly behind many European countries, coastal area management in Turkey is showing progress. As it has been seen in approaches to integrated coastal zone management over the world, the concept of integrated coastal zone management has only recently started to find place in the legal and administrative structures of countries. But at least, awareness about the coastal areas being natural heritages and that they must be protected for the new generations has increased. Almost all of the developed countries and many of the developing countries have been in the process of preparing their national strategic plans about the coasts and trying to insert the coastal zone management into their administrative and legal structure. Turkey is lagging behind in following these progresses. As being Turkey’s most important coastal city, İstanbul has not taken in an integrated approach with its coastal areas so far. Istanbul is Turkey s largest metropolitan city and the largest coastal city as well with its geographic location, dense population and the economic vibrancy. For this reason, coastal lands of İstanbul are very valuable both economically and culturally. There are many organizations and many regulations that have objectives regarding to the coast of İstanbul and generally the objectives which have the most economic profit prevail. Besides, authority over the coast of İstanbul has a very complex hierarchy and is not clearly defined. Decisions on the coasts of İstanbul generally come from upper authorities regardless of the holistic approach. Coasts of İstanbul are suffering from the lack of an integrated and comprehensive plan. High land speculations also prevent the preparation of an integrated plan or program. While there are many attempts for the preparation of coastal zone management programs in most parts of Turkey, İstanbul, the most significant coastal city of Turkey, has always been neglected. However the coasts of İstanbul are not only a natural heritage but also a deeply rooted historical and cultural heritage. This thesis study aims to project the inadequate state of Turkey in terms of integrated coastal zone management. First the situation in Turkey about the coastal areas will be explained with its legal, administrative and planning aspects from past to present, and then comparisons with selected countries will be made. After examining the world’s selected countries at national level and local level, all of the plans, programs or processes prepared in Turkey under the name of coastal zone management up to now will be mentioned shortly. And then İstanbul, as the largest coastal city of Turkey, will be addressed concerning its the coastal policies. Consequently, the problems resulting from the lack of coastal planning will be determined for both Turkey and Turkey’s most important coastal city, İstanbul.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2012
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2012
Anahtar kelimeler
kıyı alanları yönetimi, kıyı alanları, kıyı planlaması, kıyı mevzuatı, bütünleşik kıyı alanları yönetimi, coastal zone management, coastal zones, coastal planning, coastal legislation, integrated coastal zone management
Alıntı