Kırsal Kalkınma Politikalarının  adıyaman Kırsalına Olan Etkisinin tütün Tarımı Üzerinden Değerlendirilmesi

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Tarih
2015-03-20
Yazarlar
Çil, Değer
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Özet
Bu çalışmada Adıyaman bölgesinde; 2000 yılı itibari ile tütüne yönelik uygulanan politikalar kapsamında tütün üreticilerinin ekonomik yapılarında meydana gelen değişimler, tütün üretiminin bölgede yarattığı istihdam düzeyinin yıllar itibariyle değişimi, kırsal nüfus yapısı incelenmiştir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, Türkiye’de kırsal kalkınma kavramının geçmişten günümüze incelemek ve kırsal kalkınma politikalarının, üst ölçekli kararlar ile uygulama ölçeği arasındaki farklılıkları, benzerlikleri ortaya koymak ve gelecekte izlenmesi gereken politikalarda dikkat edilmesi gereken konularda öneriler geliştirmektir. Bu kapsamda, kırsal kalkınmanın kuramsal, kavramsal açıklaması yapıldıktan sonra üst ölçekli plan kararlarında ne zaman, nasıl yer aldığı ve kırsal kalkınma politikalarının uygulama ölçeğindeki Adıyaman kırsalının hangi yönüyle ele alındığı anlatılmıştır.  Çalışma alanı olan Adıyaman kırsalında analizler yapılmış bölgenin sosyal ve ekonomik kaynakları ortaya konulmuştur. Adıyaman ilinin temel geçim kaynağı olan tarım ve tarım ürünleri arasında da en çok istihdam ve gelir getiren tütün tarımının bu bölgedeki önemi ortaya konulmuştur. Türkiye'de kırsal kalkınma ile ilgili alınmış kararların, Adıyaman ilinde tütün tarımı yapılan kırsal alanlarda oluşturduğu sosyoekonomik değişim incelenmiştir. Ayrıca tütün tarımını etkileyen uygulamaların sebepleri araştırılmış ve bu sebepler karşında Türkiye'de kırsal kalkınma ve tütün ile ilgili geçmişten günümüze yürürlükte olan ve olmayan kanun, yönetmelik, genelge ve tüzükler ile Türkiye Beş Yıllık Kalkınma Planları incelenerek, Türkiye'deki bu konularla ilgili alınmış olan kararlar ortaya konulmuştur.  Tütün tarımı yılın 12 ayında istihdam sağlanabilen bir sektördür ve bu sektörün çalışanı kırsal alanlarda yaşayan nüfustan meydana gelmektedir. Dolayısıyla kırsal kalkınma açısından değerlendirildiğinde tütünün hem sosyal hem ekonomik hem de ekolojik özelliklerini barındırmasıyla kırsal kalkınma aracı olarak nitelendirmemiz mümkündür. Kırsal kalkınma aracı olan tütünün doğal kaynaklarının bir ürünü olmasından dolayı yeniden üretilebilir ve kısa vadede bölge kalkındırılabilir. Çalışmanın sonunda kırsal kalkınma politikaları tütün üzerinden değerlendirilerek; Türkiye'deki tütün tarımının uluslararası politikalardan etkilendiği bunun soncunda Türkiye'de alınmış olan ulusal kararların yereldeki tütün tarımı ile geçimini sağlayan Adıyaman kırsalına birçok olumsuz etkileri olduğu görülmüştür. Yerelden tamamen bağımsız olarak alınan üst ölçekli kararların Adıyaman ili örnek alanında Adıyaman kırsalına olumlu bir etki yaratmadığı aksine olumsuz etkiler yarattığı ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Sonuç olarak çözüm önerileri ve uygulama politikaları geliştirilmiştir.
Development is an unlimited and infinite dynamic process that has economic, social and cultural aspects. “Rural Development” concept is included in the “development” phenomenon which has a general meaning and scope but “rural development” is a concept involving a specific area and groups as well as being widely recognized and being a focus of interest in developing and developed countries all around the world. However, there is no rural development distinction or definition recognized globally. This concept has been used in different ways and for different purposes and thus defined accordingly. The United Nations published a report about global population expectations in 2006 and announced that the world’s population is expected to be more than 9 billion by 2050. Agricultural sector becomes vitally important in order to meet food requirements of rapidly increasing population.  Sustaining agricultural activities and continuity of production is directly associated with life standards offered to producers and their families living at the locations where they produce. Rapidly increasing population, industrialization and depleted but not renewed resources force humanity to act consciously and collectively for the future. Environmental, global pollution, drastic immigration trends; soil contamination, limited potable water resources and disadvantaged population groups concern each society and individual. These issues cannot be singlehandedly resolved by local communities and nations. These issues require global efforts, strategy and they can only be resolved through global approaches and national priorities. Rural development efforts become important at this point. In order to determine and implement rural development policies all around the World and Turkey; relevant national authorities as well as the World Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations (UN), World Bank (WB), European Union (EU) and such other organizations set rural development strategies and goals on national and international level as well as preparing regional and local integrated plans to achieve these goals. International conferences and symposiums are held from time to time in order to announce these plans taking joint action to the countries all around the world and to conclude agreements. These plans address physical and social factors of rural areas as well as pooling for implementing these plans or allocating resources from the country’s overall budget. These resources allocated are used as different instruments such as incentives for supporting, preserving rural development policies, improving competitive capacity, income generation and sector development as well as subvention.  This thesis studies Rural Areas in Adıyaman and discusses rural development policies in Turkey by taking Adıyaman as example. Cultivation of tobacco has been the most important activity of Adıyaman’s economic life for so long and has helped all other sectors in the city but upper scale decisions will put a stop to these activities. Following the decisions made in Turkey about cultivation of tobacco, unemployment rate in Adıyaman increased and economic & social life have gone through drastic changes.  Mixed economy in Turkey was replaced by free market economy after the 1980, following January 24, 1980 resolutions. Thus, the country started to pursue a neoliberal policy after 1980 by downsizing the state and targeting privatization of State Economic Enterprises (SEES). This policy liberalized market in each aspect and distanced the state from entrepreneurship; the goal was to accelerate private entrepreneurship. However, economy has started to move towards the route determine by global prices. Accordingly, Turkey’s tobacco policy went through a transition period; the state was the tobacco monopoly until 1986 but Act 3 numbered 3291, enacted after 1986, eliminated the state monopoly on tobacco and tobacco market gradually became available to the foreign capital. This process started with the efforts of applying free market economy in the 1980s and then accelerated the process of privatizing TEKEL (Turkish Tobacco and Alcoholic Beverages Monopoly) following the financial pressure of IMF and the World Bank (WB).  This study focuses on changes experienced in terms of economic structures of tobacco cultivators as a result of tobacco policies implemented in Adıyaman Region after 2000 as well as yearly changes of employment level created by cultivation of tobacco in the region and structure of rural population.  The purpose of this study is to examine rural development concept in Turkey from past to present and to establish differences and similarities between rural development policies, upper scale decisions and application scale and to advise on issues to be considered in terms of future policies. In this context, theoretical and conceptual definition of rural development are provided and then time and manner of applying upper scale plan resolutions are explained as well as stating which aspect of Adıyaman rural is considered on rural development policy application scale.   This dissertation of 6 sections is based on the following hypothesis; “Cultivation of tobacco provides the highest number of employment and generates the highest level of income among all agricultural activities and products which are the mainstay of rural areas in Adıyaman and thus tobacco might be reproduced in the Adıyaman as a means of rural development tool and the region might be developed in the short term”.  The first section explains the purpose, method and scope of study. The second section addresses hypothetic issues; growth and development theories (balanced, unbalanced, dependency), regional and rural basic theories (regional growth, rural development) are explained and the infrastructure of rural development policies, theme of this thesis, is established. This section initially defines the concept and then studies how rural development takes places and which concepts are associated with it.  The third section explains rural development concept which is the theme of this study (importance and goal of rural development, tools and practitioners of rural development policies) and rural development policies in Turkey (pre-planned era, planned era and EU process). Rural development activities in Turkey can be divided into 3 periods. These are pre-planned era, planned era and EU process. Rural development was considered as community development during the pre-planned era and thus the efforts evolved in that concept. State support was available on all aspects of rural development during Pre-Planned Era. Then, the state planning organization established in 1963 started the planned development era. Five-year development plans announced by the State Planning Organization handled rural development as a branch of agricultural sector and tried to eliminate any shortcomings. As for the EU process; Turkey was announced to be an EU Candidate State at Helsinki Summit in December 11, 1999. Thus, several plans and strategies were to be prepared through the course of relationships with EU so that Turkey can benefit from the Union’s programs offered to EU Candidate States. Following this planning period, Turkey started the process of preparing strategy certificate on rural development.    The fourth section analyzes rural areas of Adıyaman, the focus of this study, and establishes the social and economic resources of the region. Comparative analysis focusing on the Southern Anatolia Region and nearby cities is available. Analysis of Adıyaman province (geographical location, economic structure, natural structure, soil characteristics and use of land), synthesis and assessments are discussed. Cultivation of tobacco is the resource that creates the highest rate of employment ad creates the highest level of income in the region among all agricultural activities and agricultural products, which are the mainstay of Adıyaman province, and this study establishes the importance of this sector in the region. The socioeconomic changes experienced in the rural areas of Adıyaman, where tobacco is cultivated, as a result of rural development resolutions passed in Turkey is studied. Besides, causes of practices having impact on cultivation of tobacco are investigated and laws, legislations, communiqués and bylaws in force and not in force in Turkey from past to present on the matter of rural development and tobacco as well as Turkey’s Five-Year Development Plans are studied in the light of these causes and resolutions implemented in Turkey in these areas are discussed.  The fifth section discusses cultivation of tobacco in Adıyaman which is area of study. Socioeconomic influence of tobacco on the rural areas of Adıyaman is examined and this impact is studied in terms of rural development. Cultivation of tobacco is a sector that can employ workers 12 months a year and the workers of this sector are people living in rural areas. Thus, it is possible to say that tobacco can be considered as a rural development tool since when we study tobacco in terms of rural development we can see that it has social, economic and ecologic characteristics. Tobacco, a rural development tool, is a product of natural resources and thus it can be reproduced and help development of the region in the short term.   The sixth section is the conclusion and suggestions part of this study. This section discusses rural development policies through tobacco; it is observed that cultivation of tobacco in Turkey is under the influence of international policies and thus national resolutions enacted in Turkey have several negative impacts on local cultivation of tobacco and rural areas in Adıyaman suffer the consequences. It is concluded that the upper scale plan resolutions made entirely independently from the local area does not have any positive contribution to Adiyaman province, rural areas of Adıyaman reviewed on this study but has negative impact. Solutions and policies to be practiced are suggested as the conclusion.   Books published on this subject, newspaper articles, online resources, magazines, articles, reports published by public authorities and statistical data are used as resources of this study.  The study began by reviewing studies, articles about this field as well as reports published by public authorities, establishments and nongovernmental organizations of this sector and by determining the data that might be possibly used on this study. Data from studies made by relevant institutions and establishments are compiled as the second step.  Rural development and rural area concepts are defined in the light of regional and rural development theories and the impacts of upper scale development policies practiced in Turkey on the city studied herein are discussed.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2015
Anahtar kelimeler
Kırsal kalkınma, Rural development
Alıntı