ERP sistemleri ve tedarik zinciri yönetimi / Muzaffer Özgür Cevdet

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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu çalışma - ERP Sistemleri ve Tedarik Zinciri Yönetimi - ERP sistemlerinin temel özelliklerini incelemekte, tedarik zinciri yönetiminin günümüzde kazanmış olduğu öneme ve ERP sistemlerinin tedarik zinciri konusundaki eksikliklerine işaret ederek, SAP'nin bu konuda geliştirdiği çözümü tanıtmaktadır. Günümüzün rekabetçi iş ortamında son derece modern iş yazılımlarına ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) olarak adlandırılan bu yazılımların en önemli özellikleri, sağladıkları yüksek entegrasyon düzeyi, sahip oldukları fonksiyonellik ve esnekliktir. ERP sistemleri, üretimde gerçekleştirilen tüm aktiviteleri yönetmek için arayüz sağlamaktadırlar. Son zamanlarda bunlara, müşterilerle etkileşim ve tedarikçi ve satıcılarla ilişkileri yönetmek için ek fonksiyonellikler eklenmektedir. Ancak bu sistemler tedarik zincirini tam olarak desteklemek üzere tasarlanmamışlardır. Bu nedenle arz, talep, işgücü ve kapasite değişikliklerine hızlıca cevap verebilmek için gerekli modellere sahip değillerdir. ERP sistemleri organizasyon içinde bilgiyi entegre etmekte, ancak tedarik zincirinin farklı halkalarında ve farklı sistemlerde bulunan bilgiyi entegre etmekte yetersiz kalmaktadırlar. ERP sistemlerinden farklı olarak, tedarik zinciri sistemleri, zincirin farklı halkalarında ve farklı sistemlerde bulunan bilgiyi entegre etmekle yükümlüdürler. Lider konumdaki ERP satıcıları, tedarik zinciri yönetimi pazarındaki potansiyeli farkederek, kendi tedarik zinciri çözümlerini geliştirmeye başlamışlardır. SAP de bu konuda önde gelen firmalardandır. SAP'nin tedarik zinciri çözümü R/3 paketinin yeni versiyonlarına entegre edilecek, eski versiyonlara da add-on olarak eklenecektir.
In today's business arena, competition is marked by volatile demand, decreased customer loyalty, shorter product life cycles, and mass product customization. Tomorrow's winners will be those businesses that can most effectively gather vital information and quickly act upon it. These companies recognize that tight interaction and coordination among the members of their supply chain will be a key ingredient to their continued success. The objective of the supply chain is to support the flow of goods and materials from the original supplier through multiple production and logistics operations to the ultimate consumer. Supply chain management is the planning and control of this flow to speed time to market, reduce inventory levels, lever overall costs, and, ultimately, enhance customer service and satisfaction. The time has come when companies no longer afford to look at their operations in a vacuum. What they now need is the ability to- collect and timely information over the entire supply chain. By analyzing this information, they can better understand how changing conditions affect their businesses. Making informed business decisions this way helps organizations accomplish their business goals while also helping them use information for competitive advantage. This study - ERP Systems and Supply Chain Management - investigates the shortcomings of the ERP systems in supporting an extended supply chain and introduces the solution which will be available in one of the most popular business application software packages:SAP's R/3. Few companies buy Enterprise Resource Planning, or ERP, software just to save money. It is really the integration of companywide information. Using ERP software from companies like SAP, Baan, Oracle, and People Soft, and a raft of smaller companies like Cincom Systems and SSA, managers hope to extract more information from integrated systems and thereby achieve greater efficiency and profitability. The integration is the most important feature of the ERP systems. But there are a number of other characteristics like functionality, flexibility, modularity, multi-site management capabilities, multi-sectoral management capabilities, supporting different manufacturing environments, fast and convenient access to information, team orientation, smooth flow of information, reengineering. Integrated packages cover a variety of functional modules, including manufacturing, general accounting, distribution and logistics, and human resources. They reduce need to reconcile data across modules, support more detailed drill-down analysis, and allow for consolidation of system tunning, backup, and other maintenance activities. ERP systems provide a full set of development tools for clients to use to develop their own transactions, screens and even databases. Though these tools are available, the following points should be borne in mind before deciding to develop nonstandard functions. 1 The high cost of the license fees that ERP users pay reflects the amount of development work. 2.The problem that you have come across has almost certainly already occurred with some other client, somewhere else. 3.Where a number of an ERP package clients have come up with a business requirement, it has been incorporated into the basic system. 4.Your company is unlikely to have many unique problems. The concept of integrating lies at the heart of most organizations' effort to improve business processes. Modern ERP systems are designed to accomplish this and to provide organizations with a system for planning, controlling and monitoring an organization's business processes. ERP systems achieve high levels of integration by using a standard mechanism for communications, developing a common understanding of what the shared data represents, and establishing a set of rules for accessing data. XI Similar to ERP solutions, supply chain solutions also must integrate information consistently. Unlike ERP systems, supply chain systems must cope with the complexity of integrating information from any number of disparate information systems anywhere along the supply chain. An ERP suite provides a single interface for managing all the activities performed in manufacturing - from entering sales orders, to coordinating shipping and after-sales customer service. More recently, ERP systems have begun to incorporate functionality for customer interaction and managing relationships with suppliers and vendors, making the system less inward -looking. By tying multiple plants and distribution facilities together, ERP solutions have facilitated a change in thinking that has its ultimate expression in the extended enterprise and better supply chain management. But ERP has never meant to fully support supply chains. ERP solutions are transaction centric. As such, they do not provide the computerized models needed to respond rapidly to real-time changes in supply, demand, labor, or capacity. The major weaknesses of this type of system are as following: a) The assumption that lead times are known constant, b) The assumption that system requires fixed routings, c) The sequencing logic that prioritizes orders only by period or date, d) The assumption of infinite capacity, e) The fact that the process of regeneration takes considerable time. ERP vendors have taken steps to address capacity planning requirements. But capacity planning is addressed only serially within ERP. Rough-cut capacity planning identifies resources needed to meet the MPS (Master Production Schedule); capacity requirements planning validates the material plan within MRP. These are the failings that advanced planning, a key supply chain technology, is meant to address. Advanced planning uses a dedicated server and in-memory processing, combined with special algorithms, to generate production plans cognizant of material, capacity, and other constraints as they are at that moment. Processing speed allows for XII flexibility in planning and lets users run simulations that base delivery promises on actual production conditions (WEIL 1998). The chain begins when the raw material is extracted from the earth and ends when the product is reused or disposed of in a landfill. Supply chain management aims to integrate and manage the entities and operations in between - from suppliers to customers, from the procurement of materials to product design to post-consumer recycling, and from warehousing goods to distributing product to customer order fulfillment to accounting. Supply chain management is complicated, because, with few exceptions, no one person or department in the corporation has total ownership or responsibility for all of these elements (BAATZ 1995). The short-term goal is often simply to reduce unnecessary inventory and speed up production and responsiveness to consumers. But the long- term strategic goal is much more far reaching: to meet customer needs with the right product delivered to the right place on time, thereby gaining market share and increasing profits. Today the battle is not between my company and my competitor, it's between my supply chain and my competitor's supply chain. Responding to the perceived inability of current ERP systems to fully realize the requirements needed for supply chain management, a range of software vendors have entered the market with decision-support applications. Leading ERP vendors have reacted to the growth of the supply chain management software by developing their own supply chain functionality, or by buying or partnering with leading supply chain vendors. One of the ERP vendors developing their own supply chain functionality is SAP. In the coming months comprehensive supply chain functionality will be built into new R/3 releases and made available as add ons to existing R/3 versions. These solutions will feature powerful new computing techniques and will represent a dramatic improvement over supply chain solutions currently available in the market today. SAP customers have chosen to install R/3, SAP's client/server suite, in more than 1 5.000 sites worldwide. R/3 is accepted as the standard in key XIII industries such as oil, chemicals, consumer products, and high technology and electronics. One of the SAP's greatest advantages is its full integration. A well- integrated system can be a great aid in helping the company run efficiently. SAP's integrated nature has to be one of the greatest reasons of choosing it. Real-time processing is another key feature of SAP: Real-time processing is the technology of today. The combination of a fully integrated and real-time system can offer businesses a competitive edge, and contribute significantly to high efficiency and good customer service. There can be nothing worse than investing huge sums of money in new systems and technologies only to find business growth and expansion stretching them to their limits in a short time. SAP's huge R&D effort and testing of existing SAP systems in operation guarantees the ability of the system to meet the large volumes of processing required by major companies. SAP offers comprehensive functionality for all standard business needs. With integrated industry-specific business processes, SAP meets the individual requirements of numerous industries. Consequently, SAP is implemented as a combination of standard business functionality and additional business processes typical of a specific industry. The SAP business framework architecture delivers the flexibility to allow corporations to add new functionality and capture customer specific functions using components with standardized interfaces. SAP recognizes that. components developed in close cooperation with SAP customers often provide valuable functionality for a wider range of customers and therefore offers these components and services in the form of SAP Customer Solutions (ASAP WORLD CONCULTANCY, BLAIN and others 1996). SAP believes that seamless integration of all supply chain activities - the interface between the decision support (planning and optimization) and the execution of business processes - is essential for achieving the highest level of performance in supply chain solutions. SAP's product vision involves combining the advanced intelligence resulting from the R/3 business processes with intelligence gathered from the xiv extended enterprise to build a memory resident model of the supply chain. This model will then be used as the basis for the advanced decision support required for effective supply chain management. SAP's product strategy encompasses all aspects of supply chain optimization, planning, and execution. The underlying architecture is Business Framework, which leverages SAP's expertise in execution excellence, maximizes the use of interfaces to extend the enterprise and incorporates revolutionary new technology to satisfy the need for real-time decision support. Moving forward, major development efforts will focus on the area of decision support. SAP Supply Chain Optimization, Planning and Execution (SAP SCOPE) initiative includes the SAP Business Information Warehouse, SAP Sales Force and Automation and SAP Advanced Planner and Optimizer as well as business-to-business commerce via the Internet. SAP's Advanced Planner and Optimizer (APO) will be built on SAP's Business Framework to improve information flow and incorporate real-time collaborative decision support, advanced planning and optimization into R/3. APO will consist of a powerful memory-resident analytical engine and specialized data objects that will be configured to offer four new areas of functionality: Supply Chain Cockpit, Forecasting, Advanced Planning and Scheduling, and Available to Promise (SAP AG 1997). SAP Sales Force and Automation enhances the mission-critical areas such as account profitability and promotions, as well as custom displays, sales activities, and catalogs; suppliers, distributors, wholesalers and manufacturing can share information seamlessly via the Internet with SAP Web-enabled technology. In Turkey SAP's R/3 package has an important place. The number of SAP customer increases from day to day. Henkel Turyağ realized the first SAP implementation in Turkey. Now there are 45 customers 31 of which use R/3 in their operations actively. It is expected that in 1999 SAP's sales in Turkey will grow up to 200 % and will become about 20 million dollars. Having in mind that in 1997 the xv total ERP market sales were 15 million dollars, it is not difficult to realize the importance of SAP in Turkish ERP market.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998
Anahtar kelimeler
Bilgisayar yazılımları, Malzeme ihtiyaç planlaması, Tedarik zinciri yönetimi, Computer softwares, Material requirement planning, Supply chain managemen