Orta Öğretimimizdeki Halk Oyunları Etkinlikleri Üzerine Gözlem ve Öneriler

Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Türk Halk Oyunlarımız geçmişten günümüze kadar yaşattığımız ve çocuklarımızın geleceğe taşıyacağı en köklü kültürümüzdür. Yöre insanımızın duygu, düşünce, istek ve coşkulan büyük bir incelikle oyunlarımıza yansıtılmıştır. Oyunlarımızda milletçe yaşadığımız bu yoğun duyguları küçük yaşlarda çocuklara benimsetebilmek ve milli kültür bilincini oluşturabilmek için bu çalışmaların ders olarak orta öğretim düzeyinde başlatılmasında yarar görülmektedir. Çünkü folklor ve folklorun kadrosu içersinde yer alan halk oyunları insanları birbirine yaklaştıran, dünya kardeşliğini ve dostluğunu pekiştiren en etkili pozitif bilimlerden birisidir. Halk oyunları kişinin topluluğa katılmasını ve işbirliği yapmasını, grup disiplinine uyumlu bir şekilde hareket etmesini sağlayan bir etkinlik ve sanat dalıdır. Bu dönemde öğreneceği şeyler, hayata bakış açısını olumlu yönde etkileyecektir. Folklorun ve halk oyunlarının bu olumlu özellikleri göz önüne alınarak öğrencilere olumlu nitelik ve özellikler kazandırmak, yetiştiricilerin sorumluluğundadır.
Folk dances have taken an important place in people's life since old ages. The people who lived in prehistoric times had to survive : They were to protect themselves against wild animals, to hunt them, to fight between themselves. After all these diffucult and dangerous events, they cheered up making various body movements such as jumping to celebrate their victory. This is the initial and primitive form of dance. Then feelings and reasons creating the dance developed with music. As a result of this the dance varied to different forms. Becoming a tradition, dance in Turkish society is a very important cultural reservoir. Turkish Folk Dances, in our principal cultural entity, which is a way of living for us, represent us from the past up to now. Folk dances long since been a vitally important element of community life, hitherto preserving their cementing effect of people. The primitive people gave a struggle to survive in a hostile environment vulnerable to predators in the midst of abundance of dangers. Take a cave man as a quintessence, after a trying show of struggle with often unfriendly nature as long as the day light lasts, returning to their home victoriously bearing their hunt could not take themselves to express the inner reflection of joy to overcome and prevail over the external world; there, such boosting energy of joy gave birth of dance or play-dance, clumsy jumping around and coarsely joking was then, of course, yet unequivocally, in the course of the time promoted itself to be one of the highly matured human expression. VI Such innocent mixture of dance-play it gradually become a disciplined form of art by combination of music and aesthetics, multiplying and diverting in type and kind under influence of all material or spiritual events and conditions. In Turkish societies too dance was a national treasure, enriched by traditions and become a vast wealth of people to enjoy millenniums to come. In modern times folk dances also a means of lively expression a reciprocal exchange of ethnic identity, creed and beliefs, relationship to nature, communal and inter-personal relations, as combined with music availing the elements of culture passed on to progeny. It's under the respontibility of the specialists to protect this entity propelly, to teach it and make it survive, by guarding it truly in accordance with it's origin. The fact that the instructors and trainers of Turkish Folk Dances are cocious and have broad knowledge and protect this cultural inheritance. Play an important role in transfering these dances to the future generations properly. Our Folk Dance which is a part of our national culture havent's been thought and, developed as it's needed and it hasn't been possible to make use of them sufficiently as it hasn't been handled in our country in a systematic way for a particular purpose and hasn't received the required approach and contribution in the basis of the state. It will be proper to say that while the folk dances are being tried to be survived and developed by the particular attempts and efforts of those who are fond of them, the contributions of some people. Associations, schools and universities helped for the development of it during this period. Because of the deficiency of scientific studies, our dances have degenerated an begun to disappear. Folk dance is one of the most important factors which reflects people's style and their beliefs combining with music and help to transfer along generations and introduces our cultural values to new generations. The contribution of folk dances to the international cultural an artistic VII affairs is already known. In our period which the means of communication have so much the developed, the joining and uniting aspect of folk dances will only be possible with the success of scientific study and education. The individual acquire its most' important qualities from the community, for, the community constantly effect the person, infuse to him/her its language, dialect, values, morals, esteemed means of behaviour patterns, etc. Thus, the person almost always become socialised according to directions of the community its lives in. In another words, socialisation occur specifically for a given individual in a given community at a given period of time. For instance; a new born Turkish baby gradually becomes socialised by learning Turkish language, Turkish national customs and tradition and overcoming Turkish ideals. Social environments forming a socialised individual in a community many in number. Each environment contributing to learning process of the individual has such qualities. The first social environment of an infant is his/her family. The first educators of the inquisitive little creature are the loving parents which followed by environment of friends, school, occupation, religious and political environments of interest. There and then the raw individual gradually mature and his/her personality attain full statue. Although the environments may be similar to each other the personalities growing in them be entirely different, for the obvious fact of differing capabilities and insight of people. In addition, no one being effected from the same environment in the same way and degree. That means, there can be no living persons whose social lives completely identical to each other. The individual is born not with an established personality but as a tabula rasa nurturing basic qualities to become one, then, the culture takes over to work on such person, and procedure of socialization takes place. Adolescence is a period of a person in which he/she changes and grows up physically and psychological. In this period, they seem joker, self-confident and they look down, on other people. However, their world of feelings is the other way round. This is- the period, teenager has least self-confidence and needs more help. In these ages, it is necessary to have definite dealings for his/her socialization and for consolidating his/her VIM self-confidence. Folk dance is one of these important dealings. In our country, at the beginning of this educational year, "Folk Dances" was accepted as a elective course in elementary and secondary schools. This application is believed to maintain our national cultural values and to keep them up. It lets to concentrate new generations on our cultural products and makes them more social. In addition, this application will be effective on construction and rainforcement of our national unity and cooperation. Folk dances will allow teenagers to be in social relations continuously. Adolescent, who has a huge energy, will be discharged and he/she willkeep him self/her self out harmful behaviors by means of folk dances. So far, it was enough to get a "trainer certificate" from some associations to be a trainer by using relationships,, but it is clear that people who has this kind of certificate, in other word, the people who had no knowledge about stage organizing, taught new arrengements of dances before their authentic forms, chose wrong costumes, ha been harmed our folk dances. This coused to ecrease young people's interest in our folk dances. To prevent these negativeness' and to transfer our folk dances to new generations correctly, "Folk Dances Teachers and Trainers" have to have some personnel characterictics. They are the following : - to love people - to enjoy his/her job - to be humble - to make friendships - to have ability to teach and to illustrate - to have knowledge of anatomy - to be a good listener IX - to have ability at rhythm - to have ability at music - to benefit stage tecniques - to know well the trainees' physical and psychological characteristics. - to play at least one instrument - to know well the regional characteristics - to know the authentic forms of folk dances - to be able to modernize the dances - to have an academic degree - to be patient - to be an researcher - to be conscious - to have formation to be a teacher or trainer. Below are main characteristics of people who want to dance : - to be willing to learn - to be an researcher - to have principles - to have definite physical building and performance. Results of questionnaire indicate the reasons of learning our folk dances. They are the following : - to learn products of our culture - to have new friends - to teach after learning - to join in competitions - to travel - to make sparetimes useful and meaningful - to prove himself/herself Folk dances require ability and knowledge in terms of artistic value. For this reason, training and education should be considered with care and systems, methods and rules should be pointed out. Today, the aim of training of folk dances in a lot of secondary schools is to make the schools known and popular by the public, besides the other things. Course of folk dances, which was put into educational programmes as an elective course by National Educational Ministry, will have been better places by the help of conscious teachers and trainers. As a result of all these research and assessment, determination was made as to the folk dancers are more wholesome in social activities, having more companions, having better and speedier adaptability to new group of friends, less degrees or pyschotism, encountering minimal amount of dilemmas in terms of neurotism and being a much desirable social level of life and high degree of acceptability in comparison to non-performers. XI We came to a conclusion thet, the city inhabitants being adversely effected from environmental pollution, noise, hustle and bustle of the daily struggle are seeking means to get-a way from such physically and psychologically languishing effects of contemporary life in quest of experiencing feeling of belonging to their roots in such cosmopolitan milieu, where folk dancing represents itself as an easy solution to escape tension. By doing so they either assist subsistence of their cultural heritage or better themselves in their respective professions by easement in body and spirit. Such important characteristics of folk dances even more evident onto students. Having busy studying schedules the students commiting themselves to folk dances were proven to be extremely relaxed and get rid all their intellectual fatigue. The knowledge of folklore and folk dances is given in "Personal and Collective Activities" course two hours a week. In this course, teenagers will warm Turkish Folk Dances and will realize their abilities
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1998
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1998
Anahtar kelimeler
Eğitim ve Öğretim, Halk Bilimi (Folklor), Folklor, Halk oyunları, Türk halk oyunları, Öğrenciler, İlköğretim, Education and Training, Folklore, Folk dances, Turkish folk dances, Students, Primary education