Halkalı toplu konut alanının kullanım sonrası değerlendirilmesi

Eti, F. Nigar
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu tezde, Türkiye'nin Ankara Eryamanla birlikte ilk uydu kentlerinden biri olan Halkalı Toplu Konutlarının kullanım sonrası değerlendirilmesi CPost-Occupancy Evaluation] incelenmiştir. Bununla amaçlanan ise konut sahiplerinin hoşnutluk düzeyini belirlemek, konutları makro planlama, teknik, fonksiyonel ve davranışsal açıdan incelemek ve çıkan bilgiler ışığında yeni standartlar oluşturmaktı r. Bu amaçla tezin I. bölümünde konuya giriş yapılmış, yapılmak istenenler ve izlenilecek yöntem açıklanmıştır. II.bölümde ise Türkiye'de kentleşmenin en hızlı yaşandığı şehir olan İstanbul'daki konut sorunu ve planlama ilkeleri, 1839 yılından günümüze kadar, çeşitli dönemler halinde ele alınmıştır. III.bölümde ise konut üretimine hız kazandırmak ve belli bir sistem içine oturtmak, altyapı, konut, sosyal tesisler ve çevre düzenlemesi bütünlüğü içinde yeni kentsel çevreler üretmek amacıyla kurulan T. C. Başbakanlık Toplu Konut idaresinin görevlerine yer verilmiştir. Ayrıca, toplanan fonların kullanımı, kredilerin kullandırılma yöntemleri ve toplu konut satışlarındaki hedef kitlenin seçimi ve izlenen yöntem bu bölümde incelenmiştir. Son olarak ise idare'nin Türkiye çapında gerçekleştirdiği toplu konutlar ve projeler yer almıştır. IV. bölümde Halkalı Toplu Konut alanı ve Kullanım sonrası değerlendirilmesi ele alınmıştır. öncelikle toplu konut alanında kullanım yoğunluklarının belirlenmesindeki yöntem ve yoğunluklarının ne olduğu belirtilmiştir. Daha sonra kişisel gözlemlere dayanarak, teknik açıdan bir değerlendirme yapmak amacıyla kişisel kontrol listeleri hazırlanarak, bunlar dörtlü bir derecelendirmeyle değerlendirilmiştir. Ayrıca, yine kişisel gözlemlere dayanarak belirlenen kritik noktalar ışığında hazırlanan görüşme formuna ve buna verilen yanıtların tablolar yardımıyla dağılımına yer verilmiştir. Bu bölümde en son olarak dağılım tablolarının değerlendirilmesi yapılmıştır. V. bölümde ise dağılım tabloları yardımıyla elde edilen bulguların ışığında makro, planlama, teknik, fonksiyonel ve davranışsal açıdan bazı önerilere yer verilmiştir.
Considering accelerated urbanisation ©ncountered in TurJcey, arising of a great demand f ör housing is an expected result. Further, due to technical and organisational insuffiences, this situation resulted in harder problems. To solve this problem, the goverment tried a number of policies. Since the deficit in offered housing has alvays been greater than supply of the same, a number of regulations have been enforced by the goverment. As a result of establishment of Prime Ministry Department Of Housing Affairs, construction works have been accelerated. Offering of flats that were constructed in Halkalı. Eryaman, îzmit Yahyakaptan för sale under reasonable payment terms by Department of Housing Affairs, was an oppurtinity for low earning people to have a flat with insfrastructure, enviromental arrangements and healthy enviroment. This was in turn for solving the problem of accomadation. This thesis deals with Post Occupancy Evaluation of Halkalı Mass Housing. Halkalı zone was selected as a reference, for making a comparasion between types of blocks. in addition to that, some disadvantages of several blocks are listed. This paper aims to establish standarts by evaluating and rewiewing these housing zones wi,th regard to macroplanning, technical and functional conditions. The type of housing mostly preferred by the users and the result of this were assessed. For that purpose, in the I.section of this thesis, an introduction and the method as to how to make these comparions were given. This method is thought as another field of speciality, which is making useful recomendations for architects, researchers, landlords, and managers, which in turn helps to obtain further benefits. Post Occupancy Evaluation measures the perf orrnance of a housing facility as technical, functional and behavioral elements. x Among those, technical elements are related with life needs, health, fire safety. acoustic, illumination, structure, security ete. Secondly, the functional elements are related with the positive relations betveen house and user. These are varitions in occupation, organisation, spatial relations, storage e.t.c. The last group i.e. behavioral elements are related with psychological and social needs. Among them are, density, social relations, private life, symbolism, enviromental cognition, meaning e.t.c. The second section handles the problem of accomadation and planning policies in İstanbul, a metropolis facing withsignificant number of such problems. This investigation was made for various periods from 1838 to date. The reason of deficit and the effects of the policies folloved to solve this problem will be examined. To this extent, development plans for five years and theme of regulations and application there of will be explanied. As a result of ali such studies, the follovdng conclusions are dravm: a. Serious bottlenecks for supplying new housing were observed after 19SOs b. Demand for housing could not be supplied by legal constructions. The problem of housing in Turkey is due to increase of population and urbanisation. in addition to those,such complexity and hardness of the problem of housing is due to technical and organisational deficiences and bottlenecks in offering supplements. 3rd section covers the duties of Prime Ministry Housing Affairs Department which was established to construct new urban enviroments having entire facilities, infrastructure, and social facilities. Utilization of funds collected to form a resource for construction of housing aones, and the method of collecting are explained with the terms and conditions to extend housing laons. Further, determanition of social group to whom such loans shall be extended and method of this extension is reviewied. The housing zones and projects shall be explained as a conslusion hereof. xi As a result of applications mentioned in that section, the sector of construction has been activated by Housing Zones Act and Housing Loans, but, the deficit of housing which expanded due to the increase in population, is stili a great problem. in spite of this fact, this regulation was helpful to establish a base för solution. But, a considerable improvement in housing sector was provided by mass housing legislation and mass housing loans. Some of the positive results and obligatory regulations of this legislation are as follows:. Obligatory regulation för enviromental arragements in mass housing zones for which loan facilities were awarded, Construction material used in constructions must be certified TSE- Institute of Turfcısh Standarts,. Infrastructure for the housings must be started before superstructure and it must be completed in a certain schedule, which in turn provides a decrease in the cost, Balancing of demand and offer for housing, to prevent surplus and deficits and provide continuity in production, Coordination of authorities vithin the whole country cause to increase in qualification of architectural planning, Providing more utilasition area in less square meters, Method of construction must be integrated with architectural desıgn, and suitable construction method with regard to finance deficit must be selected, Climate and topography must be taken into the account in selecting housing sones, Management costs must be taken into account as well as investrnent costs, 4 th section deals with Halkalı Housing Zone and Post Occupancy Evaluation. First, the methods for determining levels of occupancy and such levels are explained. Thereafter, depending upon personal observations, checklists, were prepared and those shall be assessed by a xii four scale grading. Assurnptions which were deemed critical as for technical and functional respects and verified by the intervievs. Within the technical evaluations, temperature, acoustic, odor, ıllumination, proximity to views and construction elements such as slabs and ceilings are assessed. in addition to that, windows, doors and materials utilized in the constructions are examined. As for functional respect, magnitudes of space,- spatial relations, storage facilities, flexibility and maintenance and repair costs are evaluated. in behavioral evaluation, the housings were appraised with regard to adjective pairs that were dealed in meaning differentation. The social relations of users and enviromental impact is also evaluated. Subsections give the method and the targets of this field study. in connection therevith a sample form is attached. Following that, the distribution of recieved results are shown in tables. The distribution tables that were prepared with regard to information obtained by the field study which are evaluated in four sections i.e. with respect to issues related with macro planning» technical, functional, and behavioral elements. These sections also include floor plans, overall housing plans, photos showing general views of block housings, housing types and total number of houses, applied in ist Phase of Halkalı Housing Zone. 5th section gives some recomandations regarding macroplanning, technical, functional, and behavioral issues. While offering such solutions.critical issues and personel checklists, which were established as performer evaluations. Selection of construction sones which will possibly cause problems, especially the ones near waste zones are considered in this section, and such troubles were explained with the ones that will possibly arise due to neighboring illegal housing zones. Each of the recommandations for technical, functional and behiovaral views points are handled with regard to the matters appearing in the interview forrn. The last section bearing the name "Consluions" includes judgements reached by considering the whole study. As a resul t of this study, we may conclude that although rrıass housing approaches surrounding the xiii the metropolis as a satellite town is decrasing housing demand.but diffecentation of users at the same site and housing ovmership according to different policies have been selected as critical points especially in these quantitative approaches.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1994
Anahtar kelimeler
Bina bilgisi, Toplu konutlar, İstanbul-Halkalı, Building information, Mass houses, İstanbul-Halkalı