Bursa'da Fransız Katolik Kilisesi Restorasyon Projesi

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Tarih
Yazarlar
Şebin, Esin
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Tezin konusu Bursa Osmangazi ilçesi, Hocaalizade Mahallesi, Rakım Efendi Sokak' ta bulunan, kayıtlarda "Fransız Kilisesi" olarak geçen kilise için restorasyon projesi hazırlanmasıdır. Bursa'daki azınlık kiliseleri işlevlerini yitirmiş, tabiata açık ve bakımsız durumdadır. Azınlık kilise mimarisinin örneklerinden biri olan, kent merkezinde bulunan ve XIX yy. sonunda yapıldığı bilinen Fransız Katolik Kilisesi araştırma konusu olarak seçilmiştir. Çalışmaya, yapının 1 / 50 ölçekli rölövelerinin hazırlanması ve hasar tespitlerinin yapılmasıyla başlanmıştır. Yapının terk edilmiş olması ve uzun süre kullanılmaması, dolayısıyla bakımsız kalması bazı mimari özelliklerini yitirmesine neden olmuştur. Fransız arşiv verilerine ve yapıda mevcut izlere dayanarak, aynı dönem Katolik kiliseleri ile karşılaştırma yapılarak yapının restitüsyon önerisi hazırlanmıştır. Bugün Bursa'da ikamet eden Katolik cemaatin varlığına rağmen kentte faaliyet gösteren hiçbir kilise bulunmamaktadır. Çağdaş koruma anlayışına göre de yapının özgün işlevini sürdürmesi tercih edilen bir yol olması nedeniyle yapının "kilise" olarak kullanılmasına yönelik restorasyon kararları alınmıştır. Restorasyon projesi yapının mevcut durumu esas alınarak ve yapının özgün mimari özelliklerini bozmadan uygulanabilecek biçimde hazırlanmıştır.
The nineteenth century French Catholic Church, the subject matter of the present study is located in Bursa, Osmangazi district, on Hocaalizade Avenue, Rakım Efendi Street. The French Catholic Church is an example minority churches from the Ottoman Period. The purpose of the dissertation is to prepare the restoration project of the church for the safeguarding of the original architectural features of the building. Bursa is located on the south-east of the Marmara Sea and situated on the northern skirts of Uludağ. Due to its geographical location and arable lands, Bursa had been preferred as a settlement area since prehistoric times. Bursa is the first capital city (1326) and a prominent textile centre of the Ottoman Empire. Bursa continued its character as significant imperial city from the fourteenth century up to the former part of the nineteenth century. When the seat of the Empire was moved first to Edirne then to Istanbul, Bursa remained an important religious city and a regional commercial centre especially for silk trade. Imperial, religious and commercial architecture of Bursa since 1326 displays the development of the early Ottoman architecture. During The Tanzimat Reformation Period some administrative reorganisations and developments in cultural life were realized in order to create social equality among the Muslims and minorities. The architecture of the city also reflected the modernizations a result of the reformations. From 1861 to 1907, rapid development, reconstruction and modernization had occurred in Bursa. Foreigners also contributed to the city's new construction movement during this period. Europeans gradually took control of the silk industry. Another attempt to show their presence in the city was to build new schools, orphanages, hospitals and churches. During this period one of French missionaries, "The Filles de La Charite", established a small French church in the eastern part of the city. This church that was xi established in 1880 is the subject of this study. In 1881 the same mission, added a shelter, an orphanage, a girl's school and an infirmary to the church. The church of the Filles de La Charite can be accepted as an extension of the Lazarist mission. Lazarist mission which is also known as "Vincentists", was established in 1625 by Vincent de Paul. Filles de La Charite was the first missionary organisation to function in The Ottoman Empire after the Tanzimat Reformations. The "Filles de la Charite" mission was established by St. Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marillac. Nuns of the mission also had hospitals and opened schools in Istanbul in 1634. Between 1857 - 1924 nuns of the Filles de La Charite worked in Bursa, in 1860 due to the some unexpected events they had to return to Istanbul. In 1875 nuns returned back to Bursa. However, Lazarist nuns once more had to go back to Istanbul. In 1886 Asomptionist priests came to Bursa, they have worked there until 1925. Assomptionist organisation, was established by Mere Eugenie de Jesus in 1840, who had later established another organisation, named Augustins de L' Assumption in 1845. After they had stayed for a little period in Istanbul with Vincent De Paul's nuns in Saint Benoit, they tried to build a school, a hospital and orphanages in Edirne. Augustins de L' Assomptionists functioned in Kumkapı, Fenerbahçe, Bursa, Gelibolu, Eskişehir, Konya, Edirne and Karaağaç. We learn from Edmond Dutemple, who was positioned as the French Ambassor in Bursa at the time the church was opened to worship, that The French Catholic Church was built in 1880, in 1881 an orphanage and girl's school run by the Filles de la Charite were opened next to the church. It is known that the church was part of a complex of buildings which included a school and a hospital but unfortunately only the church building survived to this day. The church was internally decorated in 1927 by Assomptionist Priest Prosper Lamerand and a Russian painter. The church was still active in 1948 but the service was minimal and the building in poor condition. As Kazım Baykal states The French Catholic Church building did not resemble other churches in Bursa which were in use around 1949. The building next to the church which was originally the school building was used by "Tekel" (State Monopolies) for storage purposes in 1951. In 1955 there was an offer to use it as an orphanage but such a wish was not fulfilled. The school building was later demolished and on its space, to the south of the church, a Tuberculosis Dispensary building was built in 1965. Finally in 1978 the present used as a dormitory building was built. In 1960 the church was closed to worship, but after being repaired it was briefly used in 1973. Since then the church is closed and was never opened for worship again. The church survived a minor fire in 1989. In 1991 and 1996, there were attempts to restore the building and to use it as a church but these were never realized. In 1986 the building was listed as cultural heritage, today the abandoned building is on the grounds of the dormitory of the "Vakıflar" organization. Since 1992, the building is under the care of "Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü" (The General Directorate of Pious Foundations). The church is built in rubble stone and brick masonry, local travertine was used for the quoins. The building is rendered externally in lime plaster. The general facade organisation of the building is quite simple with some articulation on the entrance and the windows. Corner towers with octagonal plans and windows with pointed arches are the Gothic features of the building. The clover shaped motifs on the parapet wall which is a common feature of Catholic Churches are seen on this building as well. Internally floral and geometric patterns are painted on plaster surfaces. The thesis consists of nine chapters. The first chapter contains a general introduction and information on the aim and the methodology of the work. On the second chapter a historical picture of the Ottoman Empire in thel9th century, the general description of the term "minority", social and administrative conditions of the minorities, minority religions and the activity of missionaries; the rights which were given to minorities in the 19th century are given. The third chapter consists of information on Bursa. The geographical and topographical conditions of the city, the importance and the place of the city throughout the history; situation of the minorities within the general population in the city. The fourth chapter gives the information on the "church" as a building type. A definition of the ritual system of the church is given; architectural evolution of the church until the 19,h century is summarized and information on the parts that form the church are given. On the fifth chapter, the location of the church within the city, the history of the building and descriptions of all the spatial units of the "French Catholic Church" are given in detail. The elements and features of the facades and the roofing are studied. Techniques, materials, architectural style and the decoration of the building are determined and presented in 1/50 scaled drawings. The drawings also shows the deteriorations and the changes the building has undergone throughout years. The sixth chapter is composed of a comparison of the French Catholic Church with other examples of Catholic churches what were also built in the 19th century. The comparison is based on the location of the churches within the complex, the plan features, the facades, the materials and techniques, the architectural style and decorations, the structural system of the buildings. Although the church is in Bursa, it is compared with the other churches in Istanbul, as it is the only example of the French Catholic churches in Bursa. The seventh chapter contains the proposal for reinstating the original situation of the building, which is based on the traces found on the building, the comparison of the building with contemporary Catholic churches and the information derived from documents. The proposal is described and presented in 1/100 scaled drawings. The building was in disuse for a long time, as a result of such neglect it lost some of its architectural features, however, by the same reason its original features remained unchanged. Therefore there not great problems in reinstating its original state. In addition, this chapter includes the descriptions of non-existing parts of the building, additions and changes to the floors, doors, windows, roofing system and decoration of the building. The eighth chapter contains the proposal for the restoration and re-use of the church. Considering the fact that there are some Catholics still living in Bursa and that all the churches in the city are closed and derelict, it is decided to use the building as a church in its original function. Hence the restoration project involves the function which would not destroy the original effect and value of the building. The restoration techniques are determined in accordance with the contemporary conservation principles. The church which lost its function, can be reused by the Catholic faith for which the building was originally built and who would in turn provide for its repair and maintenance of the building. XIV It is also considered that the cultural variety created by the co-existence of the people from different religions, languages did give a cosmopolitan character to Bursa. Such an important aspect of the cultural life should be protected, thus the restoration and re-use of the church will also contribute to the cultural context of the city. There are four other churches in Bursa, this work is hoped to set an example for and a basis for the repair and restoration of these buildings as well.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
Anahtar kelimeler
Bursa, Fransız Katolik Kilisesi, Kiliseler, Restorasyon, Bursa, French Catholic Church, Churchs, Restoration
Alıntı