Ulaşım Projelerinde Ekolojik Ve Sosyal Etkiler 'istanbul Üçüncü Köprü İncelemesi'

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Tarih
2014-07-11
Yazarlar
Varlıer, Nefise Nazlı
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Özet
Çalışmanın konusu, büyük ulaşım projelerinin oluşturduğu etkiler ve bu etkilerin ölçülme yöntemlerinin incelenmesidir. Çalışmada, ulaşım projelerinin önemi ve ulaşım projelerinin kısa dönemli ve uzun dönemli olmak üzere oluşturduğu etkiler, çeşitli kaynaklardan örneklerle açıklanmıştır. Ulaşım projeleri, ekonomik, ekolojik ve sosyal açıdan birçok etki oluşturduğu için, etki değerlendirmelerinde incelenecek kriterlerin belirlenmesi karmaşık bir işlemdir. Çalışmada, gözden kaçabilecek noktaların en aza indirilmesi ve ulaşım projelerinde şeffaflık ve hesap verebilirlik ilkelerinin sağlanması için yabancı ülkelerde uygulanan çeşitli gösterge setlerinden örnekler verilerek, bir proje öncesinde ele alınması gereken faktörler bu şekilde anlatılmıştır. Çalışmada, ulaşım projelerinin etkileri örnek incelemesi üzerinden gösterge analiz yöntemi ile açıklanmıştır. Ulaşım projeleri sebebiyle oluşan etkiler, proje alanına yakınlık veya geçen süre gibi çeşitli etkenlerle değişiklik göstermektedir. Oluşan etkilerin tesir büyüklüğü açısından karşılaştırılabilmesi ve uzun vadede oluşacak etkilerin de ele alınabilmesi için çalışmada 'dolaylı etki analizi' ele alınarak, ulaşım projelerinin oluşturduğu etkiler kapsamlı bir şekilde ele alınmaya çalışılmıştır. Çalışmada sosyal etkiler ve çevresel etkiler iki ayrı başlık altında ele alınarak; projelerin oluşturduğu etkiler ve bu doğrultuda uygulanması gereken değerlendirme unsurları ele alınmıştır. Ulaşım projelerinde oluşan uzun dönemli etkiler, tahmin edilmesi daha güç olmasından ve kentsel alanların şekillenmesinde büyük önem taşımasından ötürü ayrıntılı bir şekilde incelenerek dolaylı etki analizinde izlenmesi gereken adımlar anlatılmış; Washington'da uygulanan bir doğrudan, dolaylı ve kümülatif etki değerlendirmesi durum çalışması incelenmiştir. Çalışmada ulaşım projelerinin etkilerinin incelenmesi amacıyla yapımına 29 Mayıs 2013 tarihinde başlanan Üçüncü Köprü Projesi ele alınmıştır. Üçüncü Köprü'nün ayaklarının bulunduğu Garipçe ve Poyrazköy, demografik ve ekolojik açılardan incelenmiş; Garipçe ve Poyrazköy halkı ve muhtarları ile görüşmeler yapılmış; bu iki alanda fenomenolojik görüşme, etnografik gözlem ve anket tekniği uygulanmıştır. Buradan elde edilen sonuçlar, Birinci ve İkinci Boğaz Köprüleri'nin kentsel yayılıma etkileri; Beykoz Belediyesi, Sarıyer Belediyesi, Boğaziçi İmar Müdürlüğü, Sarıyer Orman Müdürlüğü'nden alınan verilerle birleştirilerek, dolaylı etki analizinin kalitatif basamağı uygulanmıştır. Bu şekilde Üçüncü Köprü Projesi'nin İstanbul için oluşturacağı etkiler belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır.
The topic of this thesis is the evaluation of the short and long term impacts of large scale transportation projects especially in the context of the 3rd Bridge Project in İstanbul. Transportation projects have economic, ecological and social impacts; therefore, it is a complex task to define the criteria that will be used for impact assessment. In this thesis, the importance of transportation projects has been analyzed and explained using various resources. The indicators sets in transportation projects were used to avoid overlooking the relevant issues and to create transparency and accountability; therefore, in this thesis, selections from these sets are used to explain the factors that should be taken into consideration for the project in the preliminary stages. Indicators selected for the ‘‘Indicators Analysis Method’’ were chosen from the environmental and sustainable development indicators by OECD, UN, Victoria Transport Policy Institute and SUTRA (Sustainable Urban Transportation).  In the study, several qualitative and quantitative tools were used to address the transportation effects in a comprehensive way. The initial research process steps were: forming the study content, identifying the study area, doing the preliminary work about the effects of transportation projects. After the preliminary work was completed; research about the formal sources and worldwide standards, the fieldwork, integration of qualitative and quantitative outputs and the data analysis were conducted. The problem was stated as "big transportation projects’ adverse effects on the environment and the social structure" and the hypothesis was determined as "The Third Bridge Project could create reasonable foreseeable significant effects on ecological and other natural resources and social structures in the whole city, specifically on the axis of Garipçe and Poyrazköy where the pillars of the bridge stood." The qualitative data of the thesis is gathered from the comparative case analysis from the first and second Bosphorus Bridges’ impacts, phenomenological meetings, ethnographic observation and household surveys and interviews with governors of Garipçe and Poyrazköy. The quantitative data of the thesis gathered from the ‘‘Indicators Analysis Approach’’ and ‘‘Trend Extrapolation – Build-Out/ Carrying Capacity Analysis from some authorized organizations in İstanbul Metropolitan Region’’. Transportation systems have been shaped according to the infrastructure, demographic properties, politics, land uses, economic conditions etc. and have impacts related to livability and quality of life. Construction and the operation of the transportation projects have environmental, economic, socio cultural and health effects which can be divided into short term and long term impacts.    Indirect Effects Analysis process was explained based on the report of National Cooperative Highway Research Program; "Desk Reference for Estimating the Indirect Effects of Proposed Transportation Projects" as a guidance document due to lack of adequate research in the field of direct and indirect impact assessments in Turkey. And the social analysis process in transportation projects was explained based on The World Bank’s research; "Social Analysis in Transportation Projects: Guidelines for Incorporating Social Dimensions into Bank-Supported Projects." These two studies were used as guiding reference tools for the Istanbul 3rd Bridge Project’s impacts assessment and for further studies. In this thesis, the impacts of transportation projects were explained through indicators analysis approach. Indirect effects analysis consists of both social and environmental issues; therefore, the social and environmental impacts are covered under two different headings. The short term effects of the transportation projects and the criteria for their evaluation are identified. The longer term effects are harder to estimate and they have a higher significance on the transformation of urban spaces, therefore, a greater emphasis has been placed on the long term impacts, supported by an exemplary case study of Indirect and Cumulative Effects Assessment, SR 502 Corridor Widening Project, that has been implemented in Washington. The construction for the Istanbul 3rd Bridge Project started on May 29 in 2013 without an impact assessment study. The case study consists of the research of the 3rd Bridge Project in order to determine and evaluate the effects of transportation projects. The 3rd Bridge is situated between Garipçe and Poyrazköy; so the two residences have a rather intertwined connection with the bridge. Therefore, these locales were analyzed demographically and ecologically. Interviews were conducted with the residents and the governors of the two towns. In addition to the interviews, techniques such as phenomenological meetings, ethnographic observation and surveys have been used. The results obtained from these locales, integrated with the urban expansion data of the First and Second Bridges and the data obtained from the Municipalities of Beykoz and Sarıyer, Boğaziçi İmar Müdürlüğü (Boğaziçi Directorate of Public Works) and Sarıyer Orman Müdürlüğü (Sarıyer Directorate of Forestry), form the qualitative step of the Indirect Effects Analysis. This case study serves as an important tool to assess and estimate the potential impacts of the 3rd Bridge Project on the city of İstanbul. Findings for the thesis - "Ecological and Social Effects in Transportation Projects: A Review of The Istanbul 3rd Bridge Project" - are, The Third Bridge Project will increase the urbanization on the northern side of Istanbul where most sensitive habitats are found. The various ecosystems and the ecosystem services in the northern forests are at the risk of roadkills, habitat loss and fragmentation, disturbance, degradation of species and wildlife. Water basins, and natural, cultural and archeological conservation areas are under threat by the Third Bridge construction and the induced growth effects. The social structure on the routes of Third Bridge has the possibility of change due to involuntary resettlement. With the encroachment alteration and induced growth effects, these residences can change into gated communities.   This study provides an understanding of multidimensional structure of transportation projects and a guide reference for the environmental and social impact assessment steps in transportation projects. This study aims to fill a void in the field of direct, indirect and cumulative impact assessment studies in Turkey and construct a basic framework for further studies.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2014
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2014
Anahtar kelimeler
Ulaşım projeleri, etkiler, etki değerlendirme yöntemleri, çevresel sürdürülebilirlik, katılım, dolaylı etki analizi, kümülatif etkiler, sosyal etki değerlendirmesi, çevresel etki değerlendirmesi, Transportation Projects, Impact, Impact Assessment Methods, Environmental Sustainability, Participation, Indirect Effects Analysis, Cumulative Effects, Social Impact Assessment, Environmental Impact Assessment
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