Gelenek kurguları, Darülelhan ve aktörlerı̇nden Rauf Yekta Bey

dc.contributor.advisor Doğrusöz Dişiaçık, Nilgün
dc.contributor.advisor Ergur, Ali
dc.contributor.author Taşdelen, Duygu
dc.contributor.authorID 414142003
dc.contributor.department Müzikoloji ve Müzik Teorisi
dc.date.accessioned 2023-01-16T11:50:25Z
dc.date.available 2023-01-16T11:50:25Z
dc.date.issued 2021-08-26
dc.description Tez(Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, 2021
dc.description.abstract İTÜ Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, Müzikoloji ve Müzik Teorisi Anabilim Dalı, Müzikoloji ve Müzik Teorisi Programında doktora tezi olarak hazırlanan bu çalışmada; dönemin değişen koşullarında Türk müziğinin aktarım, icra ve nazariyat geleneklerinin Darülelhan aracılığı ile nasıl şekillendirilmeye çalışıldığı, kurumun dönemin Türk müziği üretim ortamına etkileri, aktör olarak Rauf Yekta Bey'in içinde bulunduğu sosyo-kültürel koşullar ve Rauf Yekta Bey'in gelenek anlayışını oluşturan unsurlar incelenmiştir. Osmanlı Devleti'nde büyük dönüşümlerin ve karşıtlıkların yaşandığı 19. yy.da, modernleşme ve modernleşmenin rasyonelleştirici etkisi ile yaşanan askeri, siyasi ve toplumsal değişmenin izleri, Türk müziğinin kültürel üretim sahasında da görülmektedir. Türk müziğinde özellikle aktarım, nazariyat ve icra geleneğinde değişmelerin yaşandığı bu süreçte, değişmenin modern eğitim kurumları eliyle yeniden inşâ edilmesi, Türk müziği eğitiminin kurumsallaşması ihtiyacı ve fikri gündeme gelmeye başlamıştır. Bu amaçla açılan ve hem Osmanlı Devleti'nin son dönemlerinin hem de yeni kurulan Türkiye Cumhuriyeti'nin resmî müzik eğitim kurumu olan Darülelhan'a, dönemin müzikal beğenisini ve üretimini yeniden inşâ etmede önemli bir misyon yüklenmiştir. Osmanlı Devleti'nde Batılılaşma süreci ile başlayan, Türk müziğinin çeşitli alanlarındaki dönüşümün Darülelhan'da verilen eğitim ve sanat faaliyetleri ile kurumdan mezun olan öğrenciler aracılığıyla şekillendirilmeye çalışılması amaçlanmaktadır. Kurumun yönetmelikleri incelendiğinde, Türk müziği eğitiminde 'bilimsellik' ve yazılı kültür vurgunu yapıldığı görülmektedir. Kurum için belirlenen temel amaçlar, dönemde hâkim olan pozitivist ve rasyonalist düşüncenin Türk müziği alanına yansıması gibidir. Oluşturulan fasl-ı umumi heyetlerinin çalışmaları ve konserleri ile kurumdaki müzik anlayışının mesleki sosyalleşme yoluyla yaygınlaştırılmaya çalışıldığı da anlaşılmaktadır. Ancak kurumun 1916 yılında başlayan ilk döneminde maddi yoksunluklar, Dünya Savaşının etkileri gibi nedenlerle Darülelhan planlandığı şekilde faaliyet gösterememiştir. 1923 yılında Şark ve Garb müziği şubeleri ile eğitime başlanan ikinci yapılanma döneminde ise Darülelhan'ın, Avrupa'daki muadilleri gibi 'asri' bir kurum olarak faaliyet göstermesi amaçlanmaktadır. Hem sanatsal etkinliklerle hem de kurumda yapılan çalışmalar ile bu dönemin, ilk dönemden daha verimli olduğu söylenebilir. Bu dönemde yapılan faaliyetler ile kurumun amaçlarının daha çok örtüştüğü görülmektedir. Yapılan konserlerden, nota kullanımından, yayın faaliyetlerinden anlaşıldığı üzere Türk müziğinin aktarım ve icrasında değişmeler gözlemlendiği gibi; Türk müziği ile ilgili ilk kez bilinçli şekilde -Türk müziğinin kayıt altına alınması ve alanda sistemli ilk çalışmaların gerçekleştirilmesiyle- literatür oluşturma amacının da gerçekleştirildiği görülmektedir. Dönemin kültür dünyasındaki belirleyiciliği ve Türk müziği geleneğinin yorumlayıcısı ve üreticisi olarak önemli bir tarihsel özne olan Rauf Yekta Bey'in biyografisi yeni belgeler ve kaynaklarla yeniden inşâ edilmiştir. Gerek gelenek anlayışını anlamlandırmada gerekse aktör olarak konumunu belirlemede yapılan biyografik inşâ ve sosyolojik değerlendirme önem taşımaktadır. Osmanlı modernleşmesinin yaşanmakta olduğu bir dünyaya doğan, çokkültürlü bir ortamda büyüyen ve Batılı bir eğitimden geçen Rauf Yekta Bey; Türk müziği çalışmalarına Zekai Dede'nin meşk yöntemine dayalı eğitimi ile başlamış ve Şeyh Ataullah Efendi, Şeyh Celalleddin Efendi ile sürdürdüğü çalışmaları ise kendisinin rasyonel ve pozitivist bakış açısını güçlendirmiştir. Tez çalışmasında, -geleneğin söylemselliği göz önünde bulundurularak- Rauf Yekta Bey'in gelenek anlayışını anlamlandırmak ve gelenek-modern arasındaki konumunu belirlemek üzere süreli yayınlarda yazdığı yazılardan ve teori çalışmalarından Türk müziğinin çeşitli alanlarındaki fikirleri incelenmiştir. Türk müziğinin aktarımı, müzik teorisi, tarih yazımı, terminoloji tartışmaları, geleneğin sürekliliği ve çoksesliliği hakkındaki görüşleri üretimlerinden yola çıkarak değerlendirilmiştir. Besteci olarak Rauf Yekta Bey'i incelediğimizde, kendi deyimiyle 'eski ve yeni tarz' besteleri bulunmaktadır. Eski tarz olarak tanımladığı Mevlevi Ayini, kâr gibi türlerde makam-usul kullanımı ve yapısal özelliklere bağlı kaldığı görülmektedir. Bununla birlikte şarkı, nakış beste gibi türlerde değişmeye açık bir bestecilik anlayışı göstermiş ve özellikle marş, opera denemesinde çeşitli makamsal, ritmik ve yapısal arayışlara girmiştir. Rauf Yekta Bey'in, özellikle 'milli musiki' tartışmaları içinde, Türk müziğinin savunucusu misyonuyla pek çok polemik yazısı kaleme aldığı görülmektedir. Bu polemik yazılarının temel amacı değişen toplumsal yapıda Türk müziğini konumlandırabilmek ve ona bir değer atfedilmesini sağlamaktır. Rauf Yekta Bey, Türk müziğinin çeşitli alanlarının geleneğinin savunuculuğunu ve sürdürücülüğünü yaparken ideolojik olarak gelenekçi bir bakış açısı ile fikirlerini şekillendirmemiş; geleneğin dönüşebildiğinin, aktarımının ve hayata geçirilmesinin hayatın ve toplumsal sürecin seyri içinde gerçekleştiğini görebilmiştir.
dc.description.abstract This study prepared as a dissertation at the ITU Graduate School, Musicology and Music Theory Program reviews the efforts to shape through Darülelhan the teaching, performance, and theory traditions of Turkish music under the paradigm shift of the era, the effects of the instituion on the Turkish music production environment of the era, the socio-cultural environment of Rauf Bey as an actor, and elements comprising Rauf Yekta Bey's understanding of tradition. Traces of the military, politicial, and social changes stemming from modernization and the rationalizing effect there of are witnessed also in the cultural production field of Turkish music during the 19th Century which was a time of great transformation and contradiction in the Ottoman State. During this process which was witness to changes particularly in the traditions of teaching, performance, and theory; the idea to necessity of the construction of the change through modern education institutions, and instituionalization of Turkish music education started to be become prominent. The Darülelhan which was established for this purpose and which served as the official music education institution in both the late Ottoman State and the newly founded Republic of Turkey was charged with an important mission in rebuilding the musical taste and production of the times. It was attempted to shape the transformation in various fields of Turkish music, which started with the Westernization process in the Ottoman State, through the educational and cultural activities at Darülelhan as well as the graduates of the institution. A review of the institution's regulations shows an emphasis on written culture and 'being scientific' in Turkish music education. The fundamental goals set for the institution are a reflection of the positivist and rationalist thinking dominant at the time on Turkish music. It is also understood that the instituion's understanding of music was attempted to be spread through professional socializing by way of works by groups comprised of musicians from outside the institution called 'fasl-ı umumi heyeti'. It was aimed for the institution to perform as a 'modern' institution similar to its counterparts in Europe during its restructuring in 1923 when the institution started education activities in two branches for Eastern and Western music. It can be said that this era was more productive than the previous one in terms of both artistic activities and works carried out at the institution. Greater convergences between the institution's goals and activities implemented is observed during this period. The concerts held, use of notes, publication activities all point to changes in the teaching and performance of Turkish music along with which the aim of creating Turkish music literature in a concerted way for the first time by recording Turkish music and through the first systematic efforts in the field is also observed to have been fulfilled. The biography of Rauf Yekta Bey who was an influential figure in the cultural sphere of the time as well as a historically important agent as an interpreter and producer of Turkish music tradition has been reconstructed in light of new documents and sources. Currently available documents and resources provide information beyond previous studies. A review of Rauf Yekta Bey's personal archive which was made available to researchers, documents in the Prime Ministry's Ottoman Archives, and periodicals from the era have necessicated the rewriting of Rauf Yekta Bey's biography. Documents from his personal archive have been used in context for the first time for a biographical study. The reconstruction of his biography and the sociological evaluation play an important part in making sense of his understanding of tradition and identifying his position as an actor. It is observed that the seeds of Rauf Yekta Bey's understanding of tradition and his world of ideas have been sown during his childhood. The biographical narrative obtained from the archives give us an idea of the environment in which he grew up. These memoirs give information as to his school, childhood, and cultural surroundings as well as data to make sense of Rauf Yekta Bey's world of ideas. Details about his work life in Divan-ı Hümayun until 1922 show that he strived to continue his production in Turkish music despite challenges while continuing his job. It is understood from correspondences that his work at Divan-ı Hümayun was very time consuming and that he tried to continue his research on Turkish music in what little leisure time he had. It is observed that even though he had an important position in the discussions on Eastern and Western music during his employment at Darülelhan and was one of the most fervent advocates of Turkish music, the experienced process and issues at the institution have pushed him to applying to the conservatory in Egypt. It is known that Rauf Yekta Bey assumed a duty on the Classification and Identification Council and gave concerts at Türk Ocağı after his employment at Darülelhan. It is also observed that his efforts on writing and copying gained impetus during the same period. A review of newspapers and periodicals of the era has yielded details about this particular period in Rauf Yekta Bey's life. Information not available in previous resources was used in an attempt to shed light on this period in his life. Information on his participation at the 1932 Cairo Congress which is an important indicator of international representation and his duties there have also been presented. Born into a world of Ottoman modernization, raised in a multicultural environment and a product of Western education, Rauf Yekta Bey started his work Turkish music with a training on Zekai Dede's Meşk system and the work he has conducted with Şeyh Ataullah Efendi and Şeyh Celalleddin Efendi has bolstered his rational and positivist outlook. Given the discursivity of traditions, Rauf Yekta Bey's ideas on various fields of Turkish music have been scrutinized through his articles in periodicals as well as his theoretical work to make sense of his understanding of tradition and to identify his position between traditions and modernity for the purposes of this thesis study. His views on the teaching of Turkish music, music theory, historiography, terminology discussions, the continuity and polyphony of traditions have been extrapolated from his productions. Rauf Yekta Bey has played a major role in the transition from oral tradition to written not just by reviewing studies which came before him and recording the repertoire but also through his work on theory. His theoretical works have been published in the "Turkish Music" chapter of the Encyclopédie de la Musique and the Turkish Music Theory, also known as Gavsiyye, which he wrote as a textbook at Darülelhan as well as in periodicals. The chapter of "Turkish Music" which was written under harsh conditions of the era is a publication aimed at explaining Turkish music history and theory to Westerners. The Turkish Music chapter is significant both in that it presents a scientific narrative as perceived in the West and in relation to Rauf Yekta Bey's international representation. When we examine Rauf Yekta Bey as a composer, we see that he has compositions in both 'the old and new styles' as he himself puts it. It is observed that very of his teachings and compositions have been published in various periodicals and yet they have not been classified and handled in compilation. Various resources echo that Rauf Yekta Bey had around fifty compositions. Archive studies have uncovered the names of 40 works and notations of 22 works belonging to Rauf Yekta Bey. Lyrics of three of the works the notations of which were discovered have been translated from Ottoman Turkish. The names of two of the works translated have not been encountered in previous studies. It is observed that he adhered to structural characteristics and use of makam-usul in styles such as Mevlevi Ayini and kâr. That being said, he was also a composer open to change in styles such as song and nakış beste and experimented, in his attempt at anthem and opera, with various makams and went on rhythmic and structural journeys. Rauf Yekta Bey is perhaps one of the most important actors in the discussion of tradition in the Republican period. A review of Rauf Yekta Bey's articles in periodicals show that his articles before the Republican period focus on biography, theory, and music history whereas those in the Republican period focus on 'national music'. Rauf Yekta Bey has penned numerous argumentative articles around the 'national music' debate with the mission of advocacy of Turkish music. The main goal of these articles was to be able to position Turkish music in the changing social structure and to ensure a certain value was attributed thereto. The non-exclusion of Turkish music within the frame of the Western cultural policies of the Republic, the fact that it can be revised to adapt to social change but that this should not cause a loss of authenticity are his most fundamental discourses in these discussions. He believes that this new tradition imposed from the top down would not fit the realities of the people and would not find any reception. Supporting his views with quotes from significant names who have done studies on Western music, Yekta has both shown his proficiency of Western music literature and attempted to prove that his ideas were warranted. It is observed that he had a moderate approach to Atatürk and the revolutions of the Republic and had no criticism of the politics of the Republican era even though he had harsh criticisms of individuals. He has established his advocacy of the continuity of Turkish music on nationalist discourse in the discussions on national music which found basis in the nationalist rhetoric and assessed this continuity as 'a necessity of the principles of the republic'. Raised as an Ottoman intellectual, Rauf Yekta Bey was at a modern and positivist position with his theoretical works and works on transitioning to written culture in the late Ottoman era and yet his advocacy of Turkish music tradition in the Republican period and his views on the polyphony of Turkish music have often led to him being positioned – by advocates of national music - as 'conservative' and even 'member of a generation past'. He is remembered in Turkish music circles as part of a third group which would import from European music what it could to give Turkish music `a modern color' besides one which defended Turkish music with a traditionalist approach, another which defended European music for either political or cultural reasons. This thought also shows that he assumed a role of `compounder' with a modern understanding. He has expressed in his writing a great discomfort at being remembered as a conservative and defines himself as 'the most liberal servant of our music'. Rauf Yekta Bey, while on one hand advocating for and sustaining the traditions of various fields of Turkish music, did not shape his ideas with a traditionalist point of view and was able to see that traditions can transform and that their teaching and performance takes place within the course of life and social process.
dc.description.degree Doktora
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11527/20641
dc.language.iso tr
dc.publisher Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü
dc.sdg.type none
dc.subject müzik
dc.subject music
dc.subject Türk müziği
dc.subject Turkish music
dc.subject müzik eğitimi
dc.subject music education
dc.title Gelenek kurguları, Darülelhan ve aktörlerı̇nden Rauf Yekta Bey
dc.title.alternative Construction of tradition, Darülelhan and one of its actors Rauf Yekta Bey
dc.type doctoralThesis
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