Endüstriyel pazarlama planlaması ve Türkiye'deki uygulama

Candemir, Yaşar
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu tezde, otomotiv servis sektöründe talebi olmayan bir ürünün talebinin yaratılması için uygulanan endüstriyel pazarlama planlaması detaylı olarak incelenmiştir. Hedef pazar bölümlendirme, farklılaştırma ve konumlandırma, Carbon Clean prosesinin rakiplerine göre üstün olmasını sağlayan önemli özelliklerdir. Ürünlerin Mamul Hayat Eğrisi'nde detaylı olarak fiyat ürün, dağıtım ve tutundurma alt karması stratejileri belirlenmiştir. 5 Nisan 1994 ekonomik kararları, otomotiv sektöründe özellikle fiyat stratejilerini olumsuz yönde etkilemiştir. Satış hacminin sürekli olması nedeniyle kullanılan solventin kar marjları, yukarıdan aşağıya cihaza göre % 10 fazla tutulmuştur. Firmanın mevcut dağıtım kanalları, hızlı olarak işlemesine rağmen satış hacmi düşük ve pazarianması güç olan bu prosese isteksiz davranmalarından dolayı çalışma ruhu bazında Carbon Clean'e uygun değildir. Tutundurma alt karmasının üyelerinin etkinliği (reklamcılık, doğrudan pazarlama, satış geliştirme ve halkla ilişkiler), satış gücüne göre düşüktür. Bu tür endüstriyel ürünlerin pazarianmasında en uygun yol doğrudan pazarlamadır. Ürün teknik bilgiye sahip şahıslara tanıtıldıktan sonra uygulamalı olarak tanıtılabilir. Mevcut çalışma şartlan devam ettirilebilirse, proses en geç 1995 sonunda tüm hedef pazara ulaştırılmış, rakipler hedef pazara girmeden önce en ücra servise tanıtılmış olmalıdır.
An automotive service equipment that is used for maintenance is investigated in terms of industrial marketing planning. Elektro Dizel Motor Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş. was founded in 1969 as the distributor for the internationally recognized British based company, Lucas Industries pic. In 1986, following the acquisition of the majority of shares by Lucas group, the name of the company was changed to Lucas Servis Ticaret A.Ş.( LST). Today Lucas gives warranty and aftersales service throughout Turkey with 165 authorized workshops to Lucas fuel injection equipment fitted to trucks, tractors, light commercial vehicles, buses and off-road vehicles either manufactured in Turkey or imported from various countries. It has always been the policy of the company to maintain a strong service organisation backed up by a sound warranty system to provide the best aftersales service. As existing methods being not sufficient to decrease environmental pollution, LST has brought a new concept to Turkey which is called Carbon Clean. In about 30 minutes, the revolutionary Carbon Clean system will help to restore performance, driveability and fuel milega, while lowering harmful exhaust emissions. Once substituted tor engine's fuel supply and return system, Carbon Clean's patented fuel pressure regulation system will help you to clean any type of fuel injection or carburated system, and is equally sufficient with gasoline, diesel and alternate fuels. be In addition, Carbon Clean's specially formulated cleaning solvent has been independently tested and found to be safe and effective. The bottom line is added customer satisfaction and more profits for services. Easy to use, Carbon Clean takes the place of the engine's fuel supply and return system. Once connected to the engine, the Carbon Clean solution is passed through the fuel rail, injectors or carburetor jets, into the intake parts and, ultimately into the combustion chamber. As the solution passes through surfaces, power-robbing gum and contaminant deposits are dissolved and either burned during the combustion process or passed harmlessly through the exhaust Many industrial companies have not yet adopted to the intensified information requirements for effective marketing in the 1990s. Three developments render the need for marketing information stronger than at any time in the past * From local to national to global marketing : As industrial companies expand their geographical market coverage, their managers need more market information than ever before. * From buyer needs to buyer wants : As buyers' income increase, they become more selective in their choice of goods. * From price to nonprice competition : Nonprice marketing tools are product differentiation, advertising, sales promotion, etc. Middle sized industrial companies do not pay enough attention to the developments written above although most of them have a well organized internal record system and a marketing intelligence system. Most of the managers give vital decisions without making a complex marketing research. Competitive analysis is so essential for industrial marketing. Knowing one's competitors is so critical to effective marketing planning. A company must constantly compare its products, prices, channels and promotion with its dose competitors. In this way, it can identify areas of competitive advantage and disadvantage. The company can launch more precise attacks on its competitors as well as prepare stronger defences against attacks. LST has only one direct competitor : Wynn's machine is 2/3 cheaper than Carbon Clean machine. On the other hand, its solvent is a little bit more expensive. As there are many uneducated service owners, during sales and demos, Carbon Clean's diagnostics must be explained in detail in addition to its cleaning features. There is no face to face competition as there are hundreds of authorized workshops existing only in Istanbul. As Lucas is nationally known in fuel, brake and electrical systems of vehicles, a few workshops bought Lucas' process only by trusting the superior sales, after sales and service facilities of the company. Parallel to consumer markets, it is not so easy to build a reputation in industrial markets. Target marketing calls for three major steps. The first is market segmentation. Segmentation variables are identified, such as the different buying groups of an industrial product Then the market is segmented, such as the benzine and diesel service sector. All details of the resulting segments have to be developed. Second is the market targeting which consists of evaluating the attractiveness of each segment and selecting the target segments. Especially benzine service sector has given a direct and sudden buying response to Carbon Clean which made salesforce work harder as LST is an after sales company of diesel fuel equipments. The last is product positioning in which the company identifies possible positioning concepts for each target segmets and selects, develops and communicates the chosen positioning concept An industrial company can differentiate its offer from other competitors by product, service, personel and image. LST has all these differential advantages against its competitors. This is obtained by an English company which investigated Carbon Clean for about 1.5 year, supported by a multidecision making salesforce. According to this background, this process will be positioned as "the best product" amoung its competitors. xi A company can add new products through acquisition and / or new-product development The acquisition can take three forms. The company can buy other companies ; it can buy selected patents from other companies like in Carbon Clean ; or it can buy a license or franchise from another company. During a products life, a company will normally reformulate its marketing strategy several times. Not only do economic conditions change, but In addition, the product passes through new stages of buyer interest and requirements. As an example, severe economic decisions given by government in 5.4.1994 had negatively affected sales like in all other automotive companies, so that LST had to change its price strategy in growth stage. 6P decisions in introduction, growth, maturity and decline stages has to be identified carefully in the changing environment A market research in price is also necessary in price elastic industrial markete as it is the only element in the marketing mix that produces revenue ; the other elements produce costs. In selecting a pricing method, company must consider the customers' demand schedule, the cost function and competitors prices. LST has only considered the cost function, so that had problems in selling machines rather than solvent with which solvent has to be used. In industrial markets, price discount and allowances such as cash discounts, quantity discounts, seasonal discounts, etc. are usually used in most companies. During Carbon Clean's sales, cash discounts, leasing and hiring machines has been decided to be a benefit for consumers. Marketting channels can be viewed as sets of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption. Especially in industrial markets, zero-level or one-level channels are preferred, because the problem of obtaining information about the end users and exercising control increases with the number of channel levels. Like in LST, industrial goods manufacturer or distributor can use its salesforce to sell directly to industrial customers. Or it can sell through distributor's representatives or its own sales branches directly to industrial customers. While distributing a new product to existing and new customers, managers has to concentrate on the possibility of using existing channel members as it may xii not fit to the new product groups like in Carbon Clean process. Promotion mix consists of advertising, sales promotion, public relations and personel selling. Personel selling is more effective than others in industrial markets as sales representatives must convince the potential customers during sales visits or demos. Customer wants to see and feel the benefits of the product before purchasing. Direct marketing enforces salesforce. Advertising, sales promotion and public relations have less effect on communication in industrial markets as their customers do not have a direct relation with its suppliers. In all promotion mix elemente, planner first has to decide on the type, timing and frequency in order to get the most reaction from target market Industrial markets differ from consumer markets as both customers and suppliers are technically oriented. During purchasing and selling, they pay too much attention to the industrial features of the product In Turkey, most of the industrial companies deal less with marketing management than companies in consumer markets. Industrial companies that understand the importance of marketing management in details will be a pace forward than others.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1994
Anahtar kelimeler
Otomotiv endüstrisi, Pazarlama, Piyasa analizi, Automotive industry, Marketing, Market analysis