Mimarlıkta Söylemin Temsili Belirlemesi Ve İki Yirminci Yüzyıl Örneği: Pürizm Ve Neo-plastisizm

Gürer, Tan Kamil
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Bu çalışmanın amacı, mimari söylemin, mimari temsili belirleyici bir faktör olduğunu ve mimari temsili okuyabilmek için onu, söyleminin kavramlarıyla incelemek gerektiğini ortaya koymaktır. Bunun yanında, çalışmada mimari temsilin işlevlerinde görülen değişiklikler de vurgulanmaktadır; bundan da öte, zihinsel faaliyetin ürününden bağımsızlaşarak, temsili ürününe bağımlı hale geldiğini ve bu haliyle yüzyılın son yıllarında temsilin ürününden yeni otonom bir alan olarak farklı bir gerçekliğe sahip olduğunu göstermektir. I. Bölüm 'giriş bölümü' olup, bu bölümde konunun genel bir tanıtımı yapılmaktadır.. II. Bölüm'de temsil ve söylem kavramlarının tanımlarına yer verilmektedir. Bu kavramların mimarlığa yansımaları incelenerek mimari temsilin türleri ve işlevleri belirlenmektedir. III. Bölüm'de mimari temsilin tarihçesi kısaca incelenerek mimari temsille düşünce (söylem) arasındaki ilişki belirtilmekte ve bu konuda daha önce inceleme yapmış olan kişilerin görüşlerine yer verilmektedir. IV. Bölüm'de çalışmanın kapsamı, yöntemi ve modeli ortaya konulmuş ve bir sonraki bölümde incelenecek olan ürünlerde (mimari temsillerde), temsili belirleyici niteliğe sahip söylemlerin kavramları, iki mimarlık eleştirmeninin çalışmalarına dayanılarak ortaya konulmaya çalışılmaktadır V. Bölüm'de Yirminci Yüzyıl içerisinde görülen söylemlerden Pürist ve Neo- Plastik (De Stijl) söylem seçilerek, bu söylemlerin kısa bir tanımları yapılmaktadır. Ayrıca söylem içerisinde belirginleşen uygulamacıların mimari temsilleri yöntem bölümünde belirlenen ve bu söylemlerin çerçevesini çizen kavramlara dayandırılarak incelenmekte ve kavramların mimari temsilleri nasıl şekillendirdiği araştırılmaktadır. VI. Bölüm'de çalışmanın sonuçlan tartışılmaktadır.
In this work, it is asserted that architectural discourse is a determinant factor for architectural representation. To interpret the architectural representation, we must investigate the concepts of that discourse. On the one hand, developments which are seen in the functions of architectural representation are emphasized and on the other hand, to point out the autonomy of architectural representation which has a different reality as a new genre separating from its product in the last few days of Twentieth Century, in this way, to deal with mental activity in a dependent manner to its representational product, becoming independent from its built object. An architectural representation as drawing is, foremost, an instrument of clarification of the architectural product, its purpose is to make a statement about a structure which is to be built, to describe certain of its characteristics - size, location, form, construction, material, etc. - whether using representational smilitudes or symbolic signs. However such a drawing, though ostensibly to communicative ends, might be composed, in principle it can be converted into other scales, other techniques, other colors and so forth; and it can fulfill its purpose, in certain phases and working contexts, even when it is imprecise, unclear, unfinished This statement implies different communicative functions of the architectural representation and could be defined, based on the works of Roman Jakobson, like linguistic phenomena, in three ways: 1. To the extent that they represent a state of affairs, the representations are signs for something. 2. If they provide information about particular characteristics of the drawer, they are an expression of his education, his handwriting, perhaps even of his temperament, even of his mood on a given day. 3. Thirdly, representations refer to an observer they want something, they challenge the observer to use them, and this generally means producing, comparing, measuring or remembering something according to the information they provide. One can distinguish, thus, between three functions of representations: a. Representational b. Expressive c. Appellative The classification which was defined according to Jakobson has constituted a base for this study to examine the samples of discourses of Purism and Neo- Plastisism. Representations which has an appellative character are interpreted in this work. Moreover, an architectural representation is a mean for organizing information. In design or any complex planning task, the representation used can strongly influence the result obtained. When an architect draws on paper a sketch, a line and puts on a word. Then, he is representing a thought or a partial design idea to himself. This representation is a symbol that his mind will absorb, re form, and react to. this reaction will cause to represent new ideas, images and old ideas in different ways. Thus, architectural ideas develope by means of representation. Final representation is the signifier of the final architectural idea, object or reality-to be. Architecture, arises from a representation of an architectural idea that in turn results from the interaction between representations of the designer's mind and representations on paper. Representation allows thought and design to take place. Finally we can say for representation that, graphical representations are one of the tools of scientific inquiry and a form of discursive activity. Without appropriate symbols most ideas and concepts could not be expressed or even thought of. XI Architectural discourse as a determinant factor is another researched topic in this work. A discourse is a formation that consists of all that are expressed, represented or meant, around some objects. A discourse in general, includes entire scientific writings related with a doctrine, a theory, or expression of an idea which has written or uttered. Furthermore, discourse is all the beliefs, rules, values, conceptual and experimental means shared by a scientific community. It offers a life style and style of grasping phenomenons of the world, and how to assimilate and direct them. With the arising of new facts, if the discourse can not satisfy them, it replaces with the new one. But adopting a new discourse is just possible with the radical changings against the different new facts. Like the definition given above, architectural discourse as a whole is being formed by architect's utterances, writings, drawings and built products. Then, it constitutes the intellectual domain of entire architecture. Each architectural discourse has a few concepts in its own. These concepts direct the architecture and other subjects. Even, this property can be seen in architectural representation as determinant. Discourses of Purism and Neo-Plastisism were selected for our purpose to indicate how the architectural discourse determines the representation. To find out the concepts of Purism and Neo-Plastisism, It is examined the works of Alan Colquhoun's "Modernity And The Classical Tradition", and Kenneth Frampton's "Modem Architecture, A Critical History". From the work of Alan Colquhoun's "Modernity And The Classical Tradition", chapters of "Composition Versus The Projecf and "The Significance Of Le Corbusier" are selected and examined and the work of Kenneth Frampton's "Modern Architecture, A Critical History", chapters of "De Stijl: The Evolution And Dissolution Of Neo-Plastisism 191 7-31 ", Te Corbusier And The E'sprit Nouveau 1 907-31 ', and "Mies van der Rohe And The Significance Of Fact 1921-33" are examined. According to examination, concepts of Purism and Neo-Plastisism as follows; Concepts of Purism, - Pure Forms XII - Symmetry / Asymmetry - Rationalism - Influence of Cubism - Influence of Russian Elementarism Concepts of Neo-Plastisism, - Composition - Dynamism -Asymmetri - Influence of Russian Elementarism Related to Purism, Le Corbusier's and Mies van der Rone's architectural representations were selected and examined according to concepts of Purist discourse. It is seen that both Le Corbusier's and Mies van der Rohe's drawings have simple, very clear, percepts in a first sight character and they have expressed their ideas in drawings with least line. Russian Elementarism is used in drawings as an organizing element of representation's composition. In Neo-Plastisism different property can be seen. Influence of Neo-Plastic Art especially under the effects of Piet Mondrian's and Theo van Doesburg's works, architects of De Stijl used color in their drawings as a mean for perceving the space in a new way. Theo van Doesburg's axonometrics are good examples of this development. In his drawings, objects were composed in a diagonal way to increase the dynamism of the representation. These representations resemble to the Neo-Plastic paintings then it can be seen that there is a mutual relations between painting and architectural representation. In the Results of the examination, architectural discourse appears as a determinant factor for architectural representation. Discourses, can be defined with its concepts. These concepts become determinative mechanism for the style of presentation of the object on two-dimensional plane. Grammer of language which is arised from the properties of used tools in this mechanism is essential. Depending on this presentation capasity of used tools when utilizing by architects is also essential. XIII Architects who work in different architectural discourses develope an individual one but the discourse developes in the possibilities of grammer of language in used representational means. At last, to understand the architectural representation, it must be examined according to concepts of discourses. By doing this, new seeing ways can be developed by architects to use in design process.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Mimari söylemler; Mimari temsil ; Neo-plastizm; Pürizm, Architectural discourses ;Architectural representation ;Neo-plastizm ; Purism