Kırklareli İlinde Yaygın Olarak Kullanılan Halk Oyunları Ezgilerinin Ritmik Yapılarının İncelenmesi

Kadıoğlu, Mehmet Erdinç
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Bu çalışmada folklorumuzun en renkli dallarından birini oluşturan halk oyunları, fazlaca sahip olduğu tür özellikleri, müzikleri ve ritm zenginlikleri açısından incelenmeye çalışılmıştır. Tez konusu kapsam itibarıyla dört ayrı bölümde ele alınmıştır. Birinci bölümde şu anki Kırklareli ili topraklan üzerinde yaşayan insanların bu topraklara nerelerden ve ne şekilde geldikleri tarihsel hatlarıyla incelenmiştir. İkinci bölümde Ritm hakkında genel bilgiler verilmiş ve ritm notasyonunun nasıl yazıldığı açıklanmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde ise Kırklareli ilinde yaygın olarak kullanılan vurmalı çalgılarımız tanıtılmış ve bu çalgılarımızın yöredeki çalmış teknikleri konusun da bilgiler verilmiş ayrıca bu oyunlarda kullanılan ezgilerin melodik ve ritmik özelliklerinin yöre oyunlarına ne şekilde yansıdığı anlatılmıştır. Dördüncü bölümde yöredeki yirmibeş oyunun figür-müzik ve ritm ilişkileri incelenmiştir. Bu çalışma "Kırklareli ilinde yaygın olarak kullanılan halk oyunları ezgilerinin ritmik yapılarının incelenmesi" konunun daha pek araştırılmamış olması ve arz ettiği üstün potansiyel ile araştırılmaya çok müsait bir alan teşkil etmesidir. Ayrıca melodinin altına ritm yazma konusundaki çalışmalar içerik açısından önemli bir bölümü teşkil etmektedir.
Folkloric dances is one of the mest lively branches of our national folklore. Turkish Nationel Dances, enriches our folklore with different charzcteristîcs throu ghout the country, aesthetic quaties and along with the love, joy and their combination our folkloric dances become more and more lively, it's possible to find these regional differentiations and riches in every province, in every country. İn the Trakya region, a characteristic structural form is seen in both the dances and in the music. When the folkloric dances of this region are examined they are seen to have o very rich repertoire. During this work the national folkloric dances, which form a lively branch of our folklore, is examined according to richness of music and rithms they have, and according to the typical specifications they're already known to have too much. The subject of the thesis is held in your different parts according t its contents! In the first part historically the foundation of the country of Kırklareli, its copture by the Ottoman, its being invaded by different times and its participation in the motherland and being induded in today's national borders have been all examined. The lands of Kırklareli have provided location and inhabitance places since prehistorical times. There exist not so much information about the prehistory and first eras of history in Kırklareli. Its supposed to be induded in the inhabittance areas of the Odris which one the most important tribes of Trak tribes (4200 - 4000) B.CTrak tribes ha named the lands they've settled as Trakya Although it's realized that Traks are the oldest inhabrtted nation in Kırklareli and its regions, it's not certainly knoco whom Kırklareli founded by. Kırklareli was captured and participated in the Turkish Ottoman Empire from the Byzamtium by Demirtaş Pasha during the sovereignty of Sultan Murat I at the date of 768 (1362) During the Ottoman Era; Kırklareli was the centre of one the 26 widely- spread Rumeli (European) States the capitol of which used to be Sofia. After heformations Kırklareli become the centre city to one of the six sub-states of the State of Edirne. In the republican era when all the substates were named as country. Kırklareli became the provincial capital, its name which had been Kirkki- lise since then, was changed in to be Kırklareli on Decembre 20, 1 924. The invasions that Kırklareli has even seen. The first one of these invasions is the one made by the Russions in 1877. The second invasion is the Bulganon invasion that occured during the Balkan Wars. During this invasion, the city was ocaipied by thulgarians for nine days and later on they were disareted from the citl, After the First World was the city and its surroundings were occupied by the Greeks. The transfer and the mdusion of Kırklareli into the motherland happened after it was recaptured by Turks on Novembre 1 0, 1 922 two years after it was occupied by the Greeks. In the second part, informations about the Rithm, Measure, Tempo, Beat and Stress and their explanations have been given, and in addition, explanations on the rithm notation written on the two - lines have been made! In the third part, the percussion instruments which are widely used in Kırklareli Country and the technics for playing these instruments have been explained. 1. Drum (s) : It's a very essential rithm instrument and a national instru ment played with Zurna (Schrill pape). And in Trakya another type of drum named as orta boy (middle size) is more widely played. The diameter of these drums is 45 cm. and the with is 30 cm. The Skin used on this instruments is the male or the famale goatskin. And as the wood used on the instrument, walnut wood, hornbeam wood, pine wood is preferred. As the playing technic, generally a stick is used. At the beats called yek beats, the yek sound is obtained by the tril of the stick. 2 - Dümbelek (Small drum): We can easily see that it used to be made of earth, and later it started to be made of Copper, Aliminium or Brass.The type of skin which is most preferably used is again the male/of/female goat skin. As the playing technic, a system names as "fiske" (flick) system or the system of playing with a stick are the most preferred systems. 3 - ZİL (Cymbals): İt is a rithm instrument used along with tteh "darbuka and "def" in the region. Being made of metal, it's played by putting the middle fingers and thombs through the rubbers going through the holes in the middle of the cymbals, and by hitting them together. 4 - DEF (Tambourine with cymbals): it's one of the rithm instruments, the most widely used one during the women's folkloric dances in Trakya, İt is seen to be specially used during the dances, and especially along with the songs in the folkloric dances colled Kına. Def is a rithm instrument with a witth between. 5 cm to 8 cm and it's made of a hoop one side of which is covered by a skin and has a drameter of 20 - 35 cm. According to the playing technics, we can examine in 3 ways. In the first technic called Klasik (Classic), the düm, sound is obtained from the skin, with the right hand, and the tek sound is obtained by hitting the left and right hand fingers on te Zil (cymbal).ln the second technic a wrist - swinfing technic is used. As the third technic, a system hy hitting the edges of the def. (inst). located in the left hand palm. In the fourth part the folkloric dances in the area are examined aecording to their figures, music, and rithm relations. When thinking about the formation ol the figures of the folkloric dances, we'd better go book to the times when people used to make some figuratine movements along with the sounds ariginated by hitting the rocks and sticks together. This guess may lead us to such a thesis like "The figures of the folkloric dances have formed along with the rithm, and later with participation of the music, a trio of rithm-melody-dance has formed." starting from this point of view; although some dance figures are parallel with the rithm, we can come to such an idea like it doesn't harmonize with the music. Whatever the real reason is, being parallel of the trio of rithm-melody-da- nee with eaeh other and the subject of harmonization may sometimes cause problems in the performances of the folkloric dances today. And the solution on this problem is to examine the thrio all together and make a conscious choice. By comtparing the dance figures with the measure or sentence of the music, two results are obtained finally. The first situation is the one, when the figures harmonize with the unit in music or with sentence of the music. We named this type of dance figure as a "regular figure" In the second situation the dance figures go further more than the unit time or the measure and even sometimes more than the of the music but after a certain number of repetetions they come together and harmonize again. Use can call this type of figure as "imegular figure" When examining the rithmic structures of the melodies that are mostly used in the country of Kırklareli, in order to see howthe melodic and rithmic specifi cations of the melodies reflect on the regronal folkloric danees and in order to see the regulations and irregulation between them more clearly it was strickly needed to write down the dance figure like the music notes. But on this subject, still a sttled and a sufficient nootation doesn't exist. In order to see the rithm-music-figure structures of the dances examined in this thesis, a system has been used.On this subject, starting frrom the principles of the Roumainetsion system, this system has been adapted to the Turkish National Folkloric Dances. This system does not depend on the basis of the centre of gravity of the human body. The use of the left foot (L) and right foot (L) symbols which can be accepted as the alphabeth of the system and with which the figures can be written down in more details, in different types and in different times, forms the symbollic written system of the dances taking place inthis thesis. The majority of the configurations used in the 25 folkloric dances exami ned in this thesis, are Yayalı Kerem, müstezat and Garip configurations. If we try to form a breakdown of the tempos mostly used in these 25 folkloric dances elamined by us, it is going to be seen that the majority of the tompos will be 9 and 7 tack tempos 2 tact tempo - 1 unit 3 tact tempo x 4 tact tempo- - 4 units 5 tact tempo - x 6 tact tempo - x 7 tact tempo 5 units 8 tact tempo - x 9 tact tempo - 1 2 units 10 tact tempo - 2 units
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1993
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1993
Anahtar kelimeler
Müzik, Ezgi, Kırklareli, Ritim, Türk halk oyunları, Music, Melody, Kırklareli, Rhythm, Turkish folk dances