Sandviç Kompozitler Ve Mimarlıkta Kullanım Olanakları

Yıldırım, Banu
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Kompozit malzemelerin yapılarda yaygın olarak kullanımı, yirminci yüzyıldan itibaren teknolojinin gelişmesi ve buna bağlı olarak yeni üretim sistemlerinin ortaya çıkmasıyla gerçekleşmiştir. Türkiye'de henüz yeni gelişmekte olan kompozit malzemeler, yapılarda ve özellikle teknolojik alanlarda çok daha yaygın bir şekilde kullanılmakta ve bu kullanım sonucunda birçok sorunun daha ekonomik ve rasyonel bir biçimde çözümlendiği görülmektedir. Bu yüzden kompozit malzemeler, çevremizde ve yaşamımızda birçok nesnenin üretilmesinde kullanılmaktadırlar. "Sandviç Kompozit Malzemeler ve Mimarlıkta Kullanım Olanakları" adım taşıyan bu tez beş bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölümde, tez konusunun açıklanması, tezin amacı, yöntemi ve elde edilen sonuçlar kısaca verilmektedir. İkinci bölümde, kompozit yapı malzemelerinin değişik yazarlarca tanımları esas alınarak oluşturulan yeni bir kompozit malzeme tanımı, yine değişik yazarlarca ortaya konan kompozit malzeme sınıflandırmaları, kompozit malzemenin gelişimi, kompozit malzemelerin genel özellikleri, kompozit malzeme teorisi ve buna bağlı olarak kompozit malzemenin üretimiyle geliştirilmesi gereken performanslar, gereksinim nedenleri ve kompozit malzeme olma kriterleri ele alınmıştır. Ayrıca literatürdeki çeşitli kompozit malzeme sınıflandırma sistemleri, mimarlık dışında kullanım alanları ve üretim yöntemleri açıklanmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde, bir kompozit sınıflandırma sistemi baz alınarak, alt açılımları sunulup, teker teker açıklanmıştır. Dördüncü bölümde, tezin esas konusu olan sandviç kompozitler ele alınmış, bugüne kadar literatürde sadece bu ad altında verilen açılımın kullanım açısından yetersiz olması dolayısıyla, sandviç kompozitlerin kullanımına yönelik yeni ve uygulanabilir bir sınıflandırma sistemi önerilmiştir. Bu öneriye parelel olarak da mimarlık alanında uygulamalarına ilişkin detay çözümleri sunulmuştur. Beşinci ve son bölümde, önerilen sandviç kompozit sınıflandırması ile sandviç kompozitlerin yapıda kullanımının ne kadar yararlı olduğu konusu açıklanıp, öneriler sunulmuştur.
Since the existence of the human being, natural materials such as wood, stone, baked soil, were used in the construction and some traditional architectural styles, construction and designs were formed according to these materials. After ninetieth century, as the production systems of materials had improved, new materials were produced such as steel, concrete and plastics and these materials brought new possibilities of design. Among the development of the technology, according the needs, different materials were mixed and a term composite materials had been born. However people used composite materials in ancient times, such as sun dried-brick, wide spread usage of composite materials in construction industry was realized after they had been produced by industrial methods. Especially in the twentieth century, because of the development of the technology, these materials are now very important for modern architecture. Composite materials are being used in so many areas in other countries, but in Turkey they are recently known. In this thesis, sandwich composite materials are studied and a new classification of sandwich composites is proposed and usage of them in architecture is examined as the classification of the sandwich in the literature is not sufficient. The first section includes the aim, content, the methods of the study and the resultsobtained from these studies. As mentioned before, composite materials are being widely used in construction and especially in technological areas, most of the problems could be solved in a more economical and rational way. It could be seen that, the investigation on these materials in our lives and environment were produced by using these modern materials. In this thesis, composite materials were studied within their different properties and the group called sandwiches has been newly classified for as to make them more usable according to its' application by stating the subsets of sandwich composites. Our aim is; to clarify the application possibilities and details of composite materials, giving the appropriate usage of them by a new classification. The method of the thesis is; hypothetic-deductive method based on the investigation of the existing attitude. In the second section, the definition of the composite material according to different people is given. These definitions had taken different properties of composite materials. Some of them were made according to only one property of composite materials and some of the definitions were made according to the two or more properties of composite materials. Taking all these definitions, at last final definition was made as a definition of the composite materails thinking it will be the most useful one to be used in architecture. The development of composite materials: As mentioned before, since the existence of human being, a lot of natural materials were being used in construction and some basic styles were formed. After, technology developed and different production systems were formed which were explained in this section also. By the help of these methods, materials who have improved properties and higher charecteristics were produced. But if we go back to the previous times, we could see that composite materials were being used in that times. For example, mud and clay were used in drywall construction. Sun dried brick is the first composite material which was formed by adding straw sweepings in mud People firstly, hardened sun dried brick withs straw sweepings and vegetable fiber to prevent sun dried brick wall against cracking. Latter, first aggregates, were used by Romans. Cement and concrete were the best known composite materials in different constructions. In our times types of composites materials are raising. After 1940's with the scientical researches, plastic based stickers had developed. By this way different materials could be mixed together. After this development, CTP (glass reinforced plastics) were used. These materials had become the widely used composite materials. Nowadays these composite materials are being ysed in different areas. After this development, CTP (glass reinforced plastics) were used. These materials had become the widely used composite materials. For example antennas of radar, boat, car, moth of aeroplanes, and other elementes are produced bu using glass reinforced materials. Among all these composite materials, gass reinforced materials are the easily ones to gather and that have the lower cost. Latter, development, theory, criteria of being a composite is explained. As a theory of composite, we can say that, the materials were insufficient to supply our needs so as the composite materials were produced. They are consist of M continous phase and a disperse phase. This mixture is called "matrix". The proportions of the continious and the disperse phase differs according to the properties of the composite materials. By the production of the composite materials some properties of the materials are aimed to be improved. These are mechanical performances, security, durability against chemicals, cost and some physical properties. For a material to be called as a composite it has to be: 1- man made 2- composed of two or more existing and separate materials, with the purpose of obtaining properties of each materials 3- different components brought together three dimentionally and must be made to obtain properties, that none of their components may posess alone. In this section also the general properties of composite materials are explained. These sufficient mechanical resistance, impermeability, rigidity, plaster conservation, non-putrefaction, inodorousity and cheapness, etc. Different classification systems are given in this section according to different people. Both only one of them was taken as a base in the third section whicih is much more useful in architecture. For this classification the composite materials are divided into three groups: These are agglomerates, fiber reinforced composites and laminated composites. Composite materials are being manufactured by different methods. General production process was explained. Bu also the techniques ofeach production methods were searched and supported by the drawings. These are e leaky mould technique, high-pressure compression moulding, autoclave moulding, vacuum-box, spray up, filament winding, pultrusion, resin injection and hand lay-up processes. However they are different methods, they have the same idea as a base. The fibers and the matrix of the composite materials are mixed by various ways such as using high-pressure and high temperature, vacuum, spray, winding, pultrusion, injection or lay- up. At the end of all these methods, we gain a high performance composite materials. However we are especially interested in the usage of composite materials in architectural area, they are used in different industries, such as mechanical engineering, aircraft engineering, space structures, wind turbines, marine craft, applications in surgery, vehicles, musical instruments, sports equipment. xu In the third section, the mentioned classification is detailed and every composite that is a subset of the classification is widely explained. The classification is as follows:. Agglomerates -cement binder agregates -sinterleşmemiş composites -bituminous binder composites -rigid foam composites -cement binder with heavy agregates -magnesy binder wood sawdust or cork. Fiber reinforced composites -cement binder composites -polimer binder composites -asphalt binder composites. Laminates All the sections are again grouped to a lower level and every materials that belong to these classes are explained. In the fourth section, a new classification for sandwich composite materials is offered. Taking the properties and functions of the sandwiches as a base, sandwich composite materials can be classified according to the functional priority and physical priority. Functional priority includes isolation (water, heat), acoustics, partition walls, impermeability of light, cladding materials, different functions. Physical priority includes two subsets. One is symmetric and the other is asymmetric sandwich composite materials. These two groups are divided according to the application areas such as walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, claddings,different decorations and partition walls,. Also in this section, there are several details as drawings whicih could be applicated to the composites materials that have been seen in the pictures. These details also differ according to the wall, wallcladding, floors, roofs, ceilings, partition walls and diffrerent cladding elements. All the drawings are supported with the pictures that match. And finally the fifth section shows, the application possibility of the composite materials and the advantages in building industry according to the functions of the materials. XUl By the help of this new classification and the details, the solution of the problems in building industry is much more easy because the study gives the all information that is needed and the people could easily solve the problems with these details by using the drawings and know these materials. In most of the designs, these materials could be used and the details could be developed. As a result, this thesis becomes the important knowledge about composites and gives all the information widely.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
Anahtar kelimeler
Kompozit malzemeler, Kompozitler, Composite materials, Composites