Kentsel Alanlarda Kamu Kullanımlı Merdivenli Sokaklar : Beyoğlu İlçesi Örneği

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Tarih
1998
Yazarlar
Köse, Evin
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Kamusal alanlar kentte yaşayan insanların çoğu tarafından bilinen, kamusal kullanımların olduğu alanlardır. Kamusal alanlar ve bu alanlarda yaşananlar, bir kentin tanımlanması açısından çok önemlidir. Sokaklar ise kent içerisindeki en yaygın kamusal alanlar olmaları nedeniyle hem fiziksel birer tasarım elemanı olarak hem de sosyal etkileşimin yaşandığı yerler olarak özel bir yaklaşım gerektirmektedirler. Bu çalışmada amaç, kamu kullanımlı kentsel alanlarda taşıt trafiğinin söz konusu olmadığı merdivenli sokakların kamusal alanlara ve dolayısıyla kentsel yaşama canlılık katmaları yönünden incelenerek sokak mekanının algılanması ve tipolojisi ile ilişkisinin incelenmesidir. Bu doğrultuda birinci bölümde çalışma hakkında genel bilgiler yer almaktadır. İkinci bölümde ise öncelikle kamu kullanımlı kentsel mekanlar incelenmiştir. Farklı yaklaşımlarda ve ölçeklerde mekan kavramı tanımlanarak mekanın algılanması, kent kimliği ve kent imgesi incelenmiştir. Ayrıca mekanın şekillenmesi ile ilgili olarak mekanın algılanması çerçevesinde insan-çevre etkileşimi üzerinde durulmuştur. Daha sonra tarihi gelişim süreci içerisinde kent dokusu ve kamusal mekanlarda yaşanan değişimler incelenerek, kamusal mekanların şekillenmesinde etkili olan faktörler ve tasarım kriterlerine değinilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde kamu kullanımlı kentsel mekanlarda sokaklar incelenmiştir. Bu bölümde öncelikle sokak kavramı tanımlanarak tarihi gelişim süreci içerisinde sokakların kullanımı ve tasarımında etkili olan faktörler incelenmiştir. Daha sonra sokak dokusunu meydana getiren bileşenler ve dokulardaki farklılıklara değinilmiştir. Sokakların tasarımında dikkat edilmesi gereken özellikler ve düzenleme ilkeleri açıklanarak sokak mekanının algılanmasından bahsedilmiş ve farklı sokak tipleri ve kullanım biçimleri incelenmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde çalışmanın amacıyla ilişkili olarak yapılan örnek alan çalışması ile ilgili bilgiler yer almaktadır. Bu bölümde örnek çalışma yapılacak alanın sınırlarının nasıl belirlendiği, bu alan içerisinde yapılan tespitler, tespitlerde kullanılan yöntemler açıklanmıştır. Beşinci bölüm ise sonuç ve öneriler bölümü olarak, tespit çalışmalarından elde edilen sonuçlara yönelik değerlendirmeleri ve bu değerlendirmeler doğrultusunda geliştirilen önerileri içermektedir.
Public places are the most commonly used areas in a city. Containing activities which bring people together, public places are places where public life is supported. Public places and the activities which take place in public spaces have a great importance for defining the city. Various factors such as natural features, changes in social and cultural life, and development in science and technology have been effective on the form of public places. The importance of public space differs relataed with the different spatial approaches in different periods of time. But common use of the public spaces remains the same. Public places are spaces where social ineraction takes place among peple. For this reason creating and designing public spaces, need a special approach which involves social process. The way that people use public spaces and how often they use the space are the factors which determine the publicity of a space. As public use and public life are important for revitalizing the urban space and urban life, aim of this study is to analyze the street space (stairways which are physically closed to vehicular traffic) for supporting public life and urban life in relation with perception and physical typology of the space. In the first part of the study, there is a general information about the whole study; the aim of the study, theoretical background, and the case study. In the second part of the study, public spaces are examined through urban space. To create socially successful public spaces, it is important how the space is considered so that the term of space must be defined in a wide platform. Different definitions of the term of space in different approaches take place in the second part of the study. The term of "space", is defined in different ways in all sciencs and disciplines related with the environment, such as geography, sociology and planning. Space can be defined as "container of physical objects", "an arrangement among non-spatial events" or "an area surrounded by plane surfaces". Different conceptions of the term of space mostly depends on the way of the user interest and relationship with the space. Especially at the urban scale, the term of "space" includes various components; physical space, social space and time. Urban space is not stable; it is dynamic. For this reason "time" is a component of the urban space as important as social and physical properties of the space. In addition to its length, width and height, "duration in time" is also necessery to define an object. Variety of the content of the term "space" also leads the way how the public spaces should be examined. Perception of the space is also important for the use of public places. One percieves his environment, than environmental cognition takes place and he develops his behaviour through his perception so that there is a two way interaction between perception and environment of man. Perception is important also for developping the image an identity of an urban space. Image and identity are useful factors in defining an urban space. To get a successful result for public life, an urban open space should alsohave the property of being a "place". A space can be a "place" with all the properties giving the space its identity, such as natural, cultural and social components. vm Design of a place should reflect the place identitiy. A successful public place designing process should also take care of the properties of public life. Physical comfort, participation and spatial inventions are useful to support public life. Design solutions for public places should include also user needs and expectations Perceptual properties should also be carefully examined. Moreover an organization should be devoloped to make the application of the design product possible. In the third part of the study, streets are examined as a part of public spaces. In this part of the study, firstly the term of "street" is defined and the use of streets and design criteria for streets through history is examined. Streets are basic units for both public life and public spaces. Streets are not only physical components of design process, but also social aspects of urban life. Streets are places where most of the outdoor activities take place during the day.For this reason streets are public places where social interaction takes place. Streets are public places where the results of different spatial approaches of different periods can easily be observed. Factors which determine the form of the public places have been affective also in forming street space. Effects of different approaches in different periods of time, can easily be observed through the street space. It is known that there were no streets in the Neolitic settlement Çatalhöyük so that the pedestrian circulation took place over the rooftops. Related with the growth of the settlements streets have been formed and they have been the circulation areas of the settlements. Factors such as transportation, public health and public safety have directed design of streets. Pavements and floor covering have been used to emphisize the difference of streets from each other. According to the requirement, there have been formed many different types of streets such as waterways, bridge streets, srairways, covered streets and boulvards. There are different forms and different uses of streets in different parts of the city. Waterways are streets formed of water canals or rivers used for transportation in a city. Determinants of waterways are the water itself, pedestrian parts along the waterways, buildings lined alonged the waterway and bridges over the waterway. Bridge street is another example of different street forms. Bridge streets have been formed by building houses or shops over the bridges. Stairways are streets which are used by pedestriansbecause of physical properties. Stairways are practical solutions especially where the slope of the area is too much. Boulwards are the wide streets which have come up related with the increasing population and the growing city. In addition to their physical characteristis, the way the street is used is also determines the form and the design of the streets. A street in a residential area is more different than one in a commercial area. Streets in residantial areas are important especially in protecting neighbourhoods. Streets in residential areas are places where chidren play, and housewives and old people spend most of their time during the day. In neighbourhoods, streets should be safe enough for children to go to school or market without adults. How much the streets are used by cars and how much used by pedestrians is an important factor in neighbourhood units. Streets should be healthy and livable places. There should not be too much noise or crowd so that people should easily communicate with each other. IX For this reason while designing a street space, designer should consider about the user requirements and user perception. The fourth part of the study is conist of the case study of the subject. In this part firstly criteria in choosing the area and methodology of the research and results are explained. Related with the aim of this study, a case study has been done on stairways in Beyoğlu. The reason to do the case study on stairways is that they are pedestrian streets because of physical characteristics so that there is no need to discuss about pedestrianizing, or not. The case area is defined with İstiklal Street, Gümüşsüyü street and the seaside. İstiklal Street is a kind of a natural boundary because of being a "ridge". Gümüşsüyü Caddesi is another boundary because of connectig İstiklal Street to the Beyoğlu Municipality border. Seaside is the other natural boundary. After determining the area, stairways and land use properties have been established. Land use study has been done through the whole area at the first step to see the ditrubition of functions in the area. 55 stairways were established within the area. They were given numbers from 1 to55. As a result of land use analysis, it is seen that 13 of these streets are in business district and 42 are in residential area. 42 residenial streets are analyzed in physical characteristics both vertically and horizentally. In horizental, stairways are grouped according to the position of stairs in the street, street width, street direction, other streets connected to the stairs, and continuty of the street. And in vertical they are grouped according to the types of determinants of the street space, relationship between start-point and end point of the street, and type of the elements creating change in the width of the street. After analyzing stairways vertically and horizentally, number of persons using each street in an hour is established. The aim of establishing the user density of these streets is to see which streets have a more frequent use. On 42 streets, number of people passing through the street in an hour is counted in four different periods through a week; week day in the morning and in the evening (when people use streets frequently between home-work), weekday in the afternoon, and weekend in the afternoon. The user density of each street is the avarege of the four diferent results. According to the results, it is familiarly seen that 16 streets have a higher density than others. 84 persons (which is the 5% of the total naumber of people who use the 42 streets in one hour) were interwieved. Interviewed people are higher than 18 years old and equal number of gender. Related with the aim of the survey users were asked to define the street space, possitive and negative elements of the space and proposals for the street space. As a result of the survey, it is found that most of the users (%56) define the street space using elements of cultural environment. %48 of the users evaluate the elements of cultural environment as possitive components of the street space. And %99 of the users evaluate the elements of the man-made environment as negative components of the street space. As a result it is seen that users did not use elements of natural environment for defining the street space or as apositive element of the street space, but natural elements take a great place among the proposals of the users. XI As a result of the survey it is also found that there are relationships among some variables. There is a relationship between frequncy of using the street and reason to use the street. People who use the street to reach a distant point on or near the street, use the same point to define the street. There is another relationship between the elements used to define the street and negative-possitive elements of the street space. It is seen that especially possitive elements of the street space are used by people to define the street space while negative elements are used mostly in determinig proposals for the street space. Although there is not a relationship between user proposal for the street space and user gender and age, there is a relationship between education of the users and proposals for the street space. People who are educated at university degree mostly offer, to increase the elements of natural environment and different activities on street. As another result of the study, there are relationships between typology of the street and possitive elements of the street, typolgy of the street and its negative elements, tyoplogy of the street and proposals of the users for the street space were established. As a final result of the whole study it is established that the aim and the way of people to use the space, also determines the defining elements of the street space and its possitive and negative evaluation by users which cause peole use the street space or not. Designing a street space as a public place needs a design approach consist of both physical and social aspects. Street space should involve the user requirements and user expectations from the street space. Components of the design process should be evaluated throgugh elements of natural environment, social environment, and man- made environment.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
Anahtar kelimeler
Merdivenli sokak, İstanbul-Beyoğlu, Stairs street, İstanbul-Beyoğlu
Alıntı