Turizm sektöründe çok amaçlı yatırım planlama

Sağlam, Ayşe
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Birinci bölüm turizmin dünya ekonomisini anlatan "bir girişten oluşmaktadır. ikinci bölümde turizmle ilgili genel kavramlar verilmekte, sayılarla turizmin ekonomik önemi vurgulan maktadır. Gelişmekte olan ülkeler için bir uluslararası turizm modeli verilmektedir. Son olarak Türkiye açısından durum incelenmekte ve dünyada değişen turizm anlayışına örnekler verilmektedir. Üçüncü bölüm yatırım planlama yöntemlerini açık lamaktadır. Probleme tek ölçütlü ve çok ölçütlü olmak üzere iki açıdan yaklaşılmıştır. Yöntemler tanıtıl dıktan sonra, karşılaştırılmıştır. Dördüncü bölüm turizm yatırım projelerinin özel liklerini anlatmaktadır. Yatırımlar için yapılabilirlik etüdünün nasıl yapılması gerektiği ve yapılabilirlik etüdünün şekli anlatılmaktadır. Ayrıca Türkiye'de önce likli yatırım sektörü olan turizme verilmiş pek çok teş vikler, yatırım indirimleri vardır. Bunlar açıklanmak tadır. Bir turizm yatırımının geçmesi gereken yasal yollar anlatılmaktadır. Beşinci bölümde 2 yeni araştırma tanıtılmaktadır. Turizm sektöründe son yıllarda gerçekleştirilen araştır malar önemli iki yöntem hakkındadır. Altıncı bölüm uygulama bölümüdür. Kuşadasında yapılması planlanan bir kompleksin yapılabilirlik etüdü ve çok yönlü değerlendirilmesi bu bölümde bulunabilir. Son bölüm bütün çalışma için bir sonuç bölümüdür.
Shortly tourism is defined as the whole of ac tivities aimed at meeting the needs of people travel ling outside of their places of residence. International tourism, as an export sector, can be an important sector in a national economy. Tourism industry basically refers to passenger trans portation, accomodation, travel organisation. It ge nerates foreign exchange earnings and streng thens locak economies. Countries like Spain, revenues from the international tourism industry. Like any other economic activity, international tourism must be ma naged in accordance with sound marketing principles in order to make it as productive as possible. Hgnce, a marketing mix strategy, including service planning, pricing, promotion, distribution, service differen tiation, and market segmentation is essential for suc cess. Demand for tourism is the principal pillar of tourism and is influenced by external factors, like political unrest, fluctuation of exchange rates in international markets, energy shortages, unfavourable weather conditions, special interests, social, cultu ral and physical proximity etc. The economic impact of tourism investment ex penditure is important due to its scope and results. Comsumption expenditures by foreign and domestic tou rists will create new waves of income through the multiplier effect.' ? However, there will be costs of tourism development, depending on changes affected ' In- the economic character of regions, geopraphic conditions, and whether the destination has a developed ' economy or not. The basic aim of developing countries is to earn foreign exchange. Net revenues on the to urism account are condidered with in the invisibles _ vııı - section of balance of payments accounting, and help to close the deficit in the current account-.- The number of interestional tourists was 286 million in 1987. This means an increase of 17 %. 70 % of world tourist arrivals are recorded in Europe, with 20 % In USA and 10 % in the rest of the world. 1/3 of international tourism originates from four countries (PRG,TJSA, Britain Prance) and 71 % of in ternational tourists originate from the OECD countries. The number of foreign visitors coming to Turkey has more than doubled from under 1,5 million a year in the early 1^80* s to almost 4 million in 1988. Earnings from tourism have increased even more from a declared figure of well under $ 500 million in the early 1980's to well over $ 2 billion in 1988. The significance of this growth is evident from the fact that Turkey's trade deficit has been running sin ce 1982 at a steady g 3-4 billion. In tourism investments decisions are made in every phase from the establishment.to winding up. The successions of present companies operating in compact competition enviranment depend on decisions raade managers and the accuracy of these decisions. Decision making is accepted as an important operational function in modern business administration. There are a lot of objectives in most decision making problems, that is, for many such problems the decision maker. wants to attain more than one objec tive while satisfying the constraints dictated by environment, processes, and resources. But it is not possible to reach- every objective at the same time, so methods giving a preferred solution have been improved such methods are called multiple objective decision making methods. The purpose of this study is so solve problems by using multiple objective decision making rules. This study is composed of saven sections. Section 1 is theintroduction. It gives some basic explanations about the study. It explains why this kind of a study is necessary especially in Turkey and the general purpose of the papers. - IX - Section 2 is about a general international tourism model for developing countries. It also aims at developing policy recommendations for competitive strategies in the global tourism market. It discusses the components of a tourism systeiaaarid interactions among these components, as well as system.- environment inter faces. In other words, an open-system approach to international tourism will be utilized to demons t rat e the dynamics of this particular sector. Most tourism studies simply apply general «s&rketing prin ciples and approaches to the tourism sector without considering the sector-spesific characteristics. Alt hough general marketing concepts are universal, situa tional characteristics say require unique approaches. Just as the sale of defense related products is dif ferent from thesale of consumer products, so tourism marketing requires some special approaches that differ from other marketing techniques. This section attempts to address sector-speeific marketing issues and offer a comprehensive, unified, alternative model. Section 3 is about general invesrâent planning rules. Firtly the investment cos.cept is defined and charecteristics are explained in a detailed manner. The goods and the services realised through public invest ments are clearly defined and their features are exp lained, showing great differences in respect to each other. On the other hand the outputs and services which can not be determined in terms of quant itiy and money, differ from each other. Most of the factors involved with the evaluation problem as well as the.;goals and parameters which are determined by the decision maker, change continously. Related herewith the benefit and the cost, the social discount rate together with shadow prices and social alternative costs can be mentioned. Evaluation problem involving various technical limitations at project level faces limitations resulting from economical and social conditions at aacroleuels At the same time the some problem involues uncertainty in inputs and outputs of the system and risk originating from variations in the value concepts of the society. Single criterion method used for solving the evaluation problem is investigated in respect to its characteristics and advantage over other methods. The methods related to the determination of the discount rate are presented. Single criterion methods depending on discount technique, field different results in evaluation. One of the methods is the internal rate of return and is mostly critisized. The method of not present value and its various eltenratives i.e. benefit- - x - cost rate methods are the most accepted ones. The conditions of using deterministic methods are explained for the case of risk. Project "expected value" raust be determined by risk analysis according to the law of pro bability. The evaluation should be carried out by using "decision criteria". Social goals and its characteristics required in today's projects are explained aptt the necessity or sulticriterioa evaluation is emphasized. Three well known approaches are discussed according to their common aspects and characteristics in the above mentioned content. The common characteristics of these methods is that they try to solue the multicriteria and multi-di- mentional evaluation problem with single criteria. The methods determine "social cost of inv«stftent" and "shadow price of foreign currency and unskilled labour" making only use of economic evaluation. The result of economic evaluation is interpreted and modified by using them, according to social goals. The assumption of the methods are determined and investigated. In general, it is determined that the evaluation in Turkey is beeing basede on single economic criteria and the benefit-cost analysis is the selected method. In section 4 tourism investment methods are studied. In first part of this section, it is men tioned about features of tourism investment projects. Second they are investigated from the economic, tech nical, financial aspects. Then laws about incitements and the form how you can invest in tourism are told. By using these rules it is improved a new model of investment planning in tourism sector. It can be found in the sixth section. But it sused decision criteria with these rules in the model. Section 5 is about new approaches in tourism sec tor. There are two acticles. One of them belongs to John E. Fletcher. This article suggests a different way by using input- output analysis for tourism invest ments. Input-output analysis is now widely used to examine the economic impact of tourism. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the usefulness of this analysis, to study the economic impact of tourism. It looks at the practical applications of this method of analysis and draws on examples of tourism-based input" output models to demonstrate the flexibility of this type of model and the level of detail which can be ac hieved. The methodology is examined in greater depth, reviewing some of the more recont developments and suggesting additional modifications to the model frame work in order to bring the input-output model closer to reality. The other article belongs to Stephen L.J. Smith. It is ©bout regional analysis of tourism resources, - xi - The scientific identification and analysis of tourism regions is an important task in touris® planning. Although some authors have developed and applied dif ferent methods for regionalization the subject is still under-researched. This article describes a procedure for defining tourism regions on the basis of country- level resource patterns. Pour basic structures are identified in these patterns "urban tourism", "outdoor recreation", "cottaging/boating" and "urban fringe to urism". These four structures empirically give rise to six different types of countries. The spatial pat terns of these country types reveal a complexity that is masked by the existing, simplified tourism regions defined by the provincial government. The article concludes by relating tourism resource patterns to two measures of the economic importance of tourism. Urban tourism resources appear to be the most significant determinant of total county tourism receipts, while cottaging, boating resources are theiaost important determinant of the relative local magnitude of tourism as an industry. In the sixth section, a new approach is inves tigated in the tourism investment projects. The prob lem is thought in the dimension of multiple criteria. There will be a sample about multiple decision making in tourism investment projects. In the last section there will be a'- final about the investigation in the sixth section and implications of this study is told in this section.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1990
Anahtar kelimeler
Turizm sektörü, Yatırım planlama, Yatırım projeleri, Tourism sector, Investment planning, Investment projects