Müze Ve Sergi Mekanlarında Aydınlatma Prensiplerinin Örnek Uygulamalar Üzerinden Değerlendirilmesi

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Tarih
2014-07-16
Yazarlar
Erdemir, Gökçe
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Özet
Müze ve sergi mekanlarında aydınlatma tasarımı, eserlerin algılanmasının sağlanması ve ışıktan zarar görmesinin önlenmesinin yanı sıra ziyaretçilerin görsel konforunu ve bazı durumlarda içinde bulunulan  binanın da bir eser olarak algılanmasını doğrudan etkileyen bir unsurdur. Günümüz müze ve sergi yapılarında aydınlatma tasarımı giderek daha da önemsenen bir konu haline gelmiştir. Son zamanlarda müze ve sergi yapıları sadece sergileme işleviyle kalmayıp, şehrin kültürel aktivitelerinin merkezi olan ve 24 saat kullanılan mekanlara dönüşmüştür. Bulundukları şehrin röper noktaları haline gelen yapılar, halkı buluşturan kamusal alanlar olmuştur.  Bu çalışmada, müze ve sergi yapılarında aydınlatma prensipleri araştırılarak uluslararası standartlarda sergi objelerinin ışık duyarlılıklarına göre sağlanması gereken maksimum ve minimum aydınlık düzeyi, parıltı değerleri, renksel geriverim indisi gibi kriterler uluslararası standartlardan araştırılmıştır. Ayrıca sergileme mekanı ve bina içindeki diğer bölümlerin de genel aydınlatma sistemleri araştırılmış, objelerin ve mekanın algılanmasına etkisi incelenmiştir. Araştırma konusu olarak seçilen Pera Müzesi Sophia Vari, Sabancı Müzesi Anish Kapoor süreli sergilerinin ve İstanbul Deniz Müzesi Kadırgalar Bölümü’nün aydınlatma tasarımı uygulamaları, bina mimarisiyle bütünleşme, verilmek istenen görsel etki ve sergilenen objelerin ışığın zararlı etkilerinden korunması açılarından değerlendirilmiştir. Sergilerin belirli bölümlerinde farklı şekillerde aydınlatılmış eserlerin üzerindeki aydınlık düzeyi değerleri ölçülerek, standartlarda verilen değerlerle karşılaştırılmış, bunun yanında sergi objelerinin üzerindeki ışık dağılımının cisim algılanmasındaki etkisi incelenmiştir.  Ayrıca günışığı ile aydınlatılan İstanbul Deniz Müzesi’nin Kadırgalar Bölümü’nde aydınlatma simülasyonları yapılarak yılın farklı zamanlarında mekan içindeki ve objeler üzerindeki ışık dağılımı, aydınlık düzeyleri ve parıltı değerleri değerlendirilmiştir. 21 Haziran ve 21 Aralık tarihlerinde ışık geçirgenliği %80 olan standart cam ve filtre kaplanarak ışık geçirgenliği %40’a düşürülmüş cam için yapılan simülasyon sonuçları karşılaştırılmıştır.  Bu çalışmalar sonucunda, sergilenen obje çeşidi, sergilenme biçimi, ziyaretçi algısı ve mekanın mimari özelliklerinin aydınlatma tasarımı ile ilişkisi değerlendirilmiştir. Süreli sergilerin yapıldığı sergi mekanları ile önceden belirlenmiş eserlerin sürekli olarak sergilendiği müze binalarında uygulanan aydınlatma sistemleri karşılaştırılmıştır. Bu değerlendirmelere bağlı olarak mimari tasarım ile aydınlatma tasarımının bir bütün olarak en baştan itibaren düşünülüp uyglanmasının gerekliliği vurgulanmıştır.
Museums are buildings where artifacts or scientific, cultural or historical objects are collected, conserved and displayed for public view through permanent or temporary exhibitions. Museums have varied functions and range of visitors changing from specific purposes and public view. The first museum building that has the function of exhibition in the history is used by an Italian family of ‘Medici’ in middle of 16th century in order to show off their own collections. This was a private collection that can be visited by limited people. After that Luxemburg Museum is opened in order to public the collection of kingdom. On 17th and 18th centuries consideration of museum has become common and common and after that time museums turned into centers of gathering, socializing and continuing educational activities.  In first museum buildings main function was just to exhibit the artifacts. Museum buildings had the standard architecture of square plans and were closed boxes. But in process of time, the aim is far away just function of showing off, had the additional functions of cultural and educational needs of the city.  In the past, lighting was made by just daylight. Sunlight was welcomed to the building by huge top and side openings. Museum buildings has become 7 days, 24 hours active and awake with the effective use of artificial lighting and accepted as cultural complexes from 19th century. In time, they are mentioned not only with the artifacts that had been exhibited, but also with their own architecture. They became the landmarks of the city.  Lighting design is a factor that affects visual comfort of visitors and perception of the museum building as a work of art as well as affecting perception and preserving of an exhibition object. Today, lighting design has become vital issue in museum and exhibition buildings. Lately, museum buildings have not only the function of showing off, but also become the center of cultural activities and transformed into commercial areas that are used all day long. Most of the museum buildings have become the landmark and meeting point of the city, which describes the education, culture and lifestyle of the citizens. Lighting in museums and exhibition areas are designed according to different parameters. In the design process, lighting requirements should be investigated in the sense of exhibition object, perception of visitor and integration with architectural design.  In this study, lighting principles in museum and exhibition buildings are investigated and maximum and minimum values of illuminance, luminance and colour rendering index that should be obtained according to the international standards are given. According to the limit values that are given in standards, results of the calculation and simulations of case studies are compared and interpreted. Furthermore, lighting systems of exhibition area and the other departments in the museum building are investigated and effect of the systems on perception of the object and place is observed.  The first section of the thesis is introduction part. In this section the main purpose of the thesis, literature investigation and hypothesis is mentioned.  On second section, definition of museums is given and information about museum studies and architecture of museum buildings are mentioned. The types of the museums are explained according to the functions. Main parts of the museum buildings are held in three sections which are exhibition areas, circulation areas and other places. The relationship between these parts and their lighting systems are investigated.  On third section, lighting design of museums and exhibition areas held by the user requirements, lighting design parameters, perception of exhibition object and area, natural and artificial lighting are explained.  Fourth section is about lighting design principles in view of the varied parameters which are about the exhibition object and the interaction between architectural and lighting design. Next section includes case studies of three different museums in Istanbul. Lighting design applications of case studies which are Sophia Vari temporary exhibition in Pera Museum, Anish Kapoor temporary exhibition in Sabancı Museum and Boats Section of Istanbul Naval Museum are investigated in terms of integrating with the architecture of building, visual comfort and preserving. Illumination levels of the objects, which are illuminated by varied systems and located in different parts of museum are evaluated and compared with the levels that were given in the standards. Meanwhile effect of the light distribution on perception of the exhibition objects is investigated. In the first part of the study, illumination levels of selected two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects in Sophia Vari, Anish Kapoor exhibitions and Istanbul Naval Museum are measured. While measuring, several measurements on the objects are taken in order to check the uniformity of lighting. 2D objects are measured from top, middle, bottom, left and right points and 3D objects are measured from top, middle, bottom, left, right and back sides. Hence the dimensions of the boats exhibited in Naval Museum are big, the right and left sides of the objects are measured in three parts. As a result of measurements, it can be said that there are different types of lighting systems for museum and exhibition areas changing according to the light sensitivity of object and dramatic effect to be given by the curators. In Sophia Vari exhibition, lighting system is a object based one, which has the luminaries directed to the artifacts and another general lighting system is not used for illuminating around. The main purpose is to emphasise objects and make a dramatic effect with shadows. In contrast, in Anish Kapoor exhibition high illuminances are used and a uniform light distribution among the exhibition area is created. Since the objects are not sensitive to light, it became possible to reach high levels of illumination. In boats section of Naval Museum, general lighting is also not different from object directed lighting. Luminaires are directed to the boats and there is not an additional lighting system to illuminate the space.  Furthermore, lighting simulations on different times of the year of Boots Section in Istanbul Naval Museum which is illuminated by daylight are made in order to investigate the luminance distribution, illuminance and luminance values on the exhibition objects. Simulations are made by the RELUX Suite 2013 program. The dates are chosen as 21st of June and 21st of December and the simulations are held for both dates with the variation of standard facade glass that has 80% of light transmittance and filtered glass that have light transmittance of 40%. The results of the simulations are compared between these four different conditions and given acceptable illumination and luminance levels on standards in the literature part. Especially on boats section, lighting problems of high illumination values that can damage the objects are calculated. Also luminance values are too high in the parts next to the glass facade positioned to the south – southeast. As a result of the study, the relationship between the type of the object and exhibiting, perception of the visitor and architectural features of museum buildings is evaluated. Lighting system of museum buildings also changes according to being permanent or temporary exhibitions. In permanent exhibitions, lighting system is not flexible because the composition of objects is certain. But in temporary exhibitions, a flexible system, generally as a track and moveable fixtures is used. The fixtures can be added and directed into different angles.  According to the evaluations, the necessity of integration between architectural design and lighting design from the beginning of the design and construction process is highlighted. Today, with a continuous change and improvement of technology, a flexible lighting system according to the main purpose of exhibition should be designed and applied considering every condition in a year.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2014
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2014
Anahtar kelimeler
Aydınlatma, Müze, Sergi Objeleri, Lighting, Museum, Displayed Object
Alıntı