Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17045
Title: Çeşitli Büyüklüklerdeki Alışveriş Mekanlarını Aydınlatma Sistemleri Tasarım İlkeleri
Other Titles: Designing Principles Of Lighting Systems In Store Designs Of Various Types Historical Development
Authors: Küçükdoğu, Mehmet Ş.
İkizler, Hale
55666
Proje ve Yapım Yönetimi
Project and Construction Management
Keywords: Alışveriş merkezleri
Aydınlatma sistemleri
Mağazalar
Shopping centers
Lighting systems
Stores
Issue Date: 1996
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: İnsanlar ihtiyaçlarını karşılamak için yaptıkları alışveriş sırasında pek çok değişik büyüklükteki ve türdeki alışveriş yapılarına girerler. Her türlü mekanda olduğu gibi bu tür mekanlarda da insanların konforu en önemli konulardan biridir. Konuya tasarım açısından bakıldığında ise İnsanlar için bu konforun sağlanmasının yanısıra ticari faktörler de önem kazanır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, çeşitli büyüklüklerdeki alışveriş mekanlarının tasarımını ve aydınlatmasını araştırarak bu konuda çalışma yapacak kişi ve kuruluşlara, konu hakkında uzman olsunlar yada olmasınlar, yardımcı olacak bir el kitabı oluşturmaktır. 1. bölümde; alışveriş işlevinin ve perakendeciliğin tarihçesi ele alınmıştır. Öncelikle alışverişin tanımı yapılmış ve ilk olarak nasıl ortaya çıktığı anlatılmıştır. Bunun ardından da alışveriş mekanlarının ve özellikle süpermarketierin gelişimi eie alınmıştır. 2. bölümde; alışveriş mekanlarının tasarımı hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. İlk olarak, perakendecilik prensiplerinin tasarım üzerindeki etkisi ile tasarım programının oluşturulmasına değinilmiştir. Daha sonra, alışveriş mekanları türlerine göre tanımlanarak gruplara ayrılmıştır. Bunlar giyecek satan ve yiyecek satan alışveriş mekanlarıdır. Son olarak da, alışveriş mekanlarının tasarımı sırasında dikkat edilmesi gereken hususlar belirtilmiştir, önce giyecek satan mağazaların sonra da yiyecek satan dükkanların tasarımına yer verilmiştir. 3. bölümde; alışveriş mekanlarının aydınlatması konusuna geniş bir şekilde yer verilmiştir. Burada öncelikle ürün aydınlatmasını etkileyebilecek olan eğilimlerden söz edilmektedir. Mağazalardaki aydınlatmanın hedefleri, aydınlatma dizayn kriterleri ve aydınlatana sisteminin özellikleri açıklanan diğer konulardır. Daha sonra, iç mekanlar ve ürün sergileme alanları için kullanılan aydınlatma sistemleri, genel ve ek aydınlatmalar hakkında bilgi verilerek aydınlatma sırasında dikkat edilmesi gereken hususlara değinilmiştir. Bu arada, Philips Aydınlatma Dizayn ve Tatbikat Merkezi tarafından öne sürülen "4 Köşeli Felsefenden de bahsedilmiştir. Bu bölümde son olarak; dükkan, mağaza ve ürün türüne göre yapılan aydınlatma ile vitrin aydınlatması hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. Son bölüm olan 4. bölümde ise, bu çalışmadan çıkarılabilecek sonuçlar bulunmaktadır.
In the mid-eighteenth century this first retail institution began to expand its operation to better serve the needs of the colonists. A greater variety of merchandise was needed by the settlers, and the trading post gave way to the general store. This retail store operated on a cash basis, a departure from the barter system of the earlier retailer. The merchandise assortment was extensive with offerings of foodstuffs, yard goods, feed for cattle, manufactured goods from the Old World, shoes and such animal supplies as harnesses. The merchandise was not carefully organized as it is in retail stores today. A haphazard nondepartmentalized arrangement was typical. The general store today is still in evidence in rural areas. In the middle of the nineteenth century there were a great variety of goods being produced in the United States, so much so that the general store was unable to carry the unlimited offerings of manufacturers. This necessitated the beginning of the specialization in retailing and the introduction of the limited line store. This store carried a wide variety of one classification of merchandise. Shoe stores, ladies' specially shops, jewelry stores and groceries are examples of limited line stores. Today the limited line store, or specially store, as it is commonly referred to, still enjoys an important place in retailing. The chain organization began in the latter part of the nineteenth century. It is generally defined as two or more stores, similar in nature and having common ownership. Many of those operators of successful limited line stores opened second, third, and more units in other areas. At the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century the department store, a departmentalized retail store carrying a wide variety of hard goods and soft goods, became popular. Essentially, the department store is the bringing together of many limited line operations under one roof, with common ownership. This institution differed from the general store in that it presented an orderly arrangement of many types of merchandise in contrast to the disorganized presentation of goods in the general store. The offerings of the department store-in addition of the typical hard goods such as furniture, appliances, and tools, and the soft goods such as wearing apparel, clothing accessories, and piece goods - often include departments specializing in groceries, baked goods, gourmet foods, pets, optics, travel arrangements, » entertainment information and «lies, and so on. The luxury of one-stop shopping is available to the department store customer. The supermarket a large departmentalized food store, became popular in late 193CS. In addition to the large variety of foodstuffs, they carry an abundance of miscellaneous Hems such as drugs, toys, men's, women's, children's accessories, plants, and hardware. As the department store provides one-stop shopping for the consumer, similarly the supermarket affords the housewife the luxury of purchasing all her food needs at one location instead of making separate trips to the grocer, butcher, baker, and produce dealer. Although the great majority of supermarkets are chain organizations, many independent markets are also in operation. Retailing methods and shopping patterns have changed to keep abreast with rapidly changing social conditions. Recent causes for changes have been:. Increases in population and in the level of personal earnings.. Increase in private and decrease in public transport facilities.. The development and wider personal ownership of labor saving devices and the food storage equipment such as microwave ovens and freezers.. The development of credit cards and credit purchasing schemes.. Larger scale and more sophisticated forms of advertisement.. The increased range of goods available because of technological developments and international trading. These factors have influenced changes in shop planning and retailing methods. Personal service has given way to self service or assisted service; display techniques have developed for mass display with customer inspection and self selection; purchase scales have risen from small to bulk. STORE DESIGNING A program is useful and necessary tool. It is used to define the needs of the client, the constraints around which the design will be developed, and the budget to make the design feasible. It can be as simple as a one-page checklist or as complex as a multiple-page document of questions and answers, depending on the scope of the project. The program becomes a reference for the designer and the client throughout the design process. As design professionals develop the program and later the plan for a retail store, they play three roles: to create as a designer, to think as a merchant, and to act as a customer. The designer's proposed solutions can be evaluated in relationship to these basic merchandising concepts. Shops may be further classified as follows: Specialists in a particular type of goods Specialists for a particular age group Those aiming at volume sales Those concerned with limited exclusive sales Branches of a multiple group Independent retailers Xll The kind of service given may be:. Self service: This is suitable for impulse goods and pre-packed goods such as underwear, leather goods and accessories, and for units dealing with volume service; units are generally open plan with cash desk / wrapping positions controlling the center or at exists.. Assisted service: This is suitable for most ready to wear goods where customers have to try on size or liking; customers select items on open display for themselves and are assisted by stuff, cash desks/wrapping positions are either scattered or centralized depending on the unit size.. Personalized service: This is given mainly in exclusive shops where the clientele is limited or in premises where tailoring services are provided; usually units are small with a single cash /wrapping point. After completion of the program checklist the designer then begins to visualize options for the store's concept Each of the six basic planning programs is an early schematic which illustrates categories of information that have to be considered as part of the programming process. Interior Traffic Flow Characteristics: Traffic flow is based on the psychology of shopper's movements inside a store. The most common patterns are:. entrance to exist. front to back. side to side. diagonal Merchandise Siting: Customers respond to placement or location of products within the store. Shoppers gravitate toward staple items, and most merchants place them at the rear of the store. This technique will draw the traffic from the front to the back of the store, exposing them to additional merchandise and displays and increasing impulse purchasing. visual Display: High-impact displays draw in-store traffic to merchandise sections of the sales floor. Displays can be free-standing, or ceiling or wall mounted. They can be composed of mannequins, props, massed arrangements of merchandise, or electronic displays, used singly or in combination. Security: Visual surveillance of the sales floor from a central point plays an important part in the store owner's theft-deterring program. Remember to allow for mirrors or cameras to compensate for tall displays or partitions. Electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems require electronic pedestals, usually at store exist Lighting: The quality of the lighting can make or break both the store's design and merchandise presentation. Many retailers consider lighting to do the most important decorative tool at their disposal. Since lighting represents a major operating expense it should be flattering to merchandise and customers and value-engineered (most efficient to operate over the life of the fixture). xiu Storage, receiving, back-of-the-house requirements: These support space requirements include; how merchandise is received from vendors and sent to customers; how merchandise is brought into the department; how much stock will be on the selling floor and how much will be concealed; stuff functions; and operations and building functions. The three most important factors in organizing a retail store's interior plan are: merchandise, customers, sales stuff. A shopper entering a store can well be compared to an actor stepping onto a stage. The store itself is the theater; the stage is the selling floor, the items of merchandise are the props. Customers are the main players, and the sales stuff is the supporting cast. Lighting, colors, materials, finishes, and displays add to the ambiance of the setting. The senses are primed for an experience. The customer is also the audience, seeking an exciting shopping experience. Retail store designers must visualize the space with ite most important element - the merchandise - in place. Otherwise, the process becomes an exercise in creating shelves and rods. They will also be running the risk of eliciting the most sacrilegious of all store design client critiques: "The store looked great before we put the merchandise in it 1" Before a line is drawn for a new store design, the merchant and the designer have to project themselves inside the store and act as the customer would. Many subtle unseen elements play on the senses to motivate the shopper to buy. From an honest answer to "What would make me buy here?" often comes the projects mission statement and central design theme. There are two basic planning guidelines that designers should keep in mind when they reach the floor layout phase:. Use 1 00 percent of the space allocated in the lease.. Do not sacrifice function for esthetics. Successful plans combine both to the fullest. The six basic plans are not the only potential solutions that can be developed for the owner's consideration, but they form tine foundation on which variations can be created. Straight plan: This is an economical plan and can be adapted to any type of store, from gift shops to apparel stores. It uses walls and projections to create niches and smaller spaces. The straight plan lends itself well to pulling customers to the back of the store. To define transition from one section of the store to another, displays can be placed to help lead shoppers. Elevate floor levels for a change of pace. Pathway plan: Applicable to virtually any type of store, the pathway plan is particularly suited to stores on one level. A good architectural organizer, it pulls shoppers smoothly from the front to the rear without interruption by floor fixtures. The pathway plan, which can take a variety of shapes is particularly XIV applicable for apparel stores where shoppers do not want to feel that they have to fight their way to the back through a maze of merchandise. The floor and ceiling can be used to create directional elements off the path. Diagonal plan: For self - service stores, a diagonal plan is optimal. It permits angular baffle flow and creates perimeter design interest and excitement in movement. Both soft goods or hard goods stores can take advantage of the diagonal plan. The cashier is in a central location, with sight lines to all areas. Curved plan: For boutiques, salons, or other types of stores carrying high-end merchandise, the curved plan creates an inviting, special environment for the customer. Construction costs are higher than for retail interiors designed on an angular or straight plan. The curved theme can be emphasized with walls, ceiling and corners. To complete the look, specify circular floor fixtures. Varied plan: For products that require back-up stock to be immediately adjacent (shoes and men's shirts, for example) the varied plan is highly functional. Box or carton storage is created off the main sales floor with perimeter wall stocking. Typical of the varied plan is a "bellows" effect, a tapering of the space that focuses on a special purpose area in the rear. Service departments in stereo, jewelry, or hardware stores can be located in this narrow end. Geometric plan: This is the most exotic of the six basic plans. The designer creates forms and shapes derived from showcases, racks or gondolas, and can use wall angles to restate the shapes dominating the sales floor. It comfortably allows for fitting rooms without wasting square footage, making it especially suitable for apparel stores. It can nicely accommodate adjacent storage, making it an alternative to the varied plan for shoe stores and gift shops. Ceiling and floors can be lowered or raised to create zones and departments. People love to look window-shop, and buy. Shopping as an experience should provide fun which in turn provides profits. A successful store or shop is one that is designed to merchandise in addition to looking look. A store can be divided into two principal parts: The exterior, which gives identification, encompasses the storefront, show windows, and displays, and the interior, where the promise of the storefront display is delivered. Briefly stated, the storefront initiates the sale, and the interior consummates it. A display should perform the following functions:. It must attract the attention of the buying public. This may be achieved by the exciting use of color, dramatic lighting effects, and in-motion display.. A satisfactory display must hold the individual's interest, much the same as a newspaper advertisement It is not enough to stop the reader, it must take him investigate further. Interest is held by the display's timeliness, the merchandise's appeal, and information contained in the message on the accompanying show card.. The display must be exciting enough to arouse the desire to further examine the merchandise (by asking to see it, try it on, and so forth). xv Retailers have long argued over whether display creates or arouses desires. The shopkeeper should settle for the awakening of the individual's desire to purchase. When tiie window display achieves these ends, the customer will enter the store. Then, either creative interior displays will take over or perhaps the salesperson wilt answer those questions still unanswered by the window display alone. The principles regarding tiie locating of departments should be understood by anyone entering retailing. Some general rules are:. Convenience goods (merchandise that requires little effort in purchasing, such as cigarettes), impulse goods (goods that are bought without much contemplation, such as umbrellas in a rainstorm), and inexpensive merchandise in general should be located in high-traffic areas. These include locations at store entrances, next to tiie refund department.. Shopping goods (those that require more careful consideration, such as clothing and furniture) should be located at the rear of single-level stores and upstairs in multilevel stores. Generally the more expensive less frequented departments such as furniture are located at the furthest points to reach in a store.. Storage areas used to stock additional goods may have a central location in a store (the basement, for example) or may be located within each department. Bulky merchandise such as furniture and appliances generally necessitate large storage areas away from tiie selling floor.. Department space allocation should be keyed to the percentage of the store's total sales expected for each department.. Those departments with related merchandise should be next to each other. For example, the handbag department should be near tiie shoe department. This allows for the customer to easily purchase a pair of shoes and coordinating handbag and thus leads to increased total sales for the store. This list is by no means complete. Different types of stores might require other factors to be considered. Architecturally, the supermarket is a large-scale emporium of merchandise that does not have to shout to be noticed. About 50 percent of the supermarkets total equipment and fixture investment is in refrigeration equipment - meat, dairy, produce, frozen food, delicatessen, and the storage coolers necessary for each department The remaining 50 percent is devoted to grocery items - half of which can be nonfood items such as housewares, soft goods, glassware, health, and beauty aids. Generally, free-standing markets tend to be rectangular in shape, with the narrower portion forming the front-to-rear dimension. Since most often the deliveries are at tiie rear, the various back room areas (preparation and storage) are located at the rear of xvi the building, leaving the selling space more or less square. Although refrigerated fixtures have been and can be located almost anywhere on the sales floor, most often they are located at the walls. They tend to be too large and bulky to be placed in any central location, where mey would obstruct the overall view of the store. The refrigerated cases should be placed as near as practicable to their associated work rooms and storage coolers. This also applies to the service departments such as the delicatessen, in-store bakery, and snack bar. Since all merchandise purchases must be tunneled through the check-out counters, they are all located In one location (usually at the front of the store near the exit door). The size of today's supermarket makes the use of self-contained refrigerated cases (with a few exceptions) impractical. Therefore, some sort of centralized refrigeration systems employed. STORE LIGHTING The lighting system in a merchandise area or store must fulfill several basic requirements. It must:. Highlight the merchandise to its best advantage. This includes avoiding conditions such as glare, extreme shadow or poor color rendering that would interfere with the customer's ability to evaluate realistically items on display.. Provide a sufficient level and quality of illumination in areas where customers are permitted to handle and examine items closely. One area of primary importance in a clothing store that is often overlooked is the fitting or dressing room. One of the most common occurrences is inadequate illumination or use of light sources which render clothing colors very differently than the sources in the environment in which the items will be worn. Designers can help make owners aware of the need for better lighting in fitting rooms, where the customer frequently makes the final decision on whether or not to buy.. Be flexible enough to accommodate changing displays, and easy enough for store employees to adjust and/or maintain.. It must attract the customer to the merchandise and merchandising space. The quantity, quality, and effect of the light reaching the merchandise and the appearance of the area - show window or store interior - are determining factors in the effectiveness of the sale of the merchandise.. Proper lighting and color rendering at the point of sale is necessary to complete the transaction. It should enable the customer to make a final decision, and sales personnel to quickly and accurately perform their sales duties, such as: registering sales, preparing sales slips, reading prices, using sales and transactions tools, and packaging. > The lighting must help guide the shopper around the shop.. The fitting out of the shop interior is a reflection of the sales strategy. The lighting must be in keeping with this.. To employ color in a manner that suits and complements the display.. To use the correct illumination level for each task and avoid the uneconomical use of electricity. The appearance of merchandise and merchandising spaces, sale of merchandise and performance of tasks are affected by: brightness and xvn brightness distribution produced by luminance and luminance ratios; merchandise or task size, contrast, color, form and texture; and time for viewing. Factors in Seeing Merchandise There are four fundamental factors that affect visibility - the size of the details to be seen, contrast against their background, the amount of time available for viewing, and the luminance of the details and their background. All four factors of size, contrast, luminance and time are interrelated. But since merchandise or task size and usually its contrast are fixed, improvements in visibility and visual performance can be made through improvements in the characteristics of the lighting. Luminance and Luminance Ratios When customers scan the merchandising space, their eyes become adapted to the average luminance of the entire space. The average luminance to which the customers adapt depends upon the luminance and area of the surfaces seen (wail, ceiling, floor, merchandise and store fixtures). As the customers look at merchandise of a very different luminance, there is a sudden loss ability to see the details of the merchandise, until their eyes readapt. Seeing quickly anywhere in the merchandising space (The merchandise or seeing task) means that the ratio of luminance should be no more than 5 to 1. On the other hand, for the customer to be attracted to the merchandise and displays should be at least three times the luminance of the surround. Characteristics of Light and Lighting Distribution and Direction of light Lighting systems provide either diffuse or directional light. Form in objects (modeling) and texture in surfaces can be revealed by directional lighting such as from small concentrated light sources - for example, incandescent and high intensity discharge lamp fixed and adjustable downlights. Diffuse light from wide distribution downlights or large area light sources, such as fluorescent luminaries or indirect lighting systems, tend to reduce the variations that relate to form and texture. Three dimensional merchandise, for example, should generally be displayed with some directional lighting, but with significant diffusion to relieve the harshness. The appearance of customers and sales personnel (facial and expressions) are best treated with a similar combination of directional and diffuse lighting. Color: A knowledge of the principles of light and color can allow for the individual taste of different people, different environmental conditions, or changing fashions. Although personal tastes in color vary with climate, nationality, age, sex, and personality, there is almost universal agreement to call yellows, yellow-reds and red-purples warm colors; and to call greens, blue-greens, blues and purple-blues cool colors. All grayed colors approach neutrality of character, whether from the warm or cool side. Color, as one of xvui the most powerful of all merchandising tools, can attract attention, create an ambiance, stimulate sales or guide customers.. Color of Area Surfaces: The color of the merchandise should be considered in the selection of colors of large area surfaces. The use of large areas of strong colors could clash with the color of the merchandise displayed and could adversely affect the color of reflected light reaching the merchandise. In general, where the merchandise is colorful and varied, background color should be of light reflectance and neutral. Should stronger surface color be desired, it can be provided by the light source. Small areas of accent color will, however, give vitality and dramatic interest.. Color of Light Sources: The color of area surfaces and merchandise is a function of the color of the light source and the pigment of the surfaces and objects viewed. For example, red surfaces are seen as red when the light source contains red. A white "lighf such as daylight or sunlight contains energy throughout the visible spectrum, ranging from violet through blue, green, orange, and red. It is desirable for a lighting system to show merchandise under the same apparent illuminance level and with the same color appearance as it will have where it is ultimately to be used. Reflections Reflections of light sources in merchandise or sales tasks can reduce the contrast between the details to be seen and the background. They are often unrecognized and can reduce the ability to see by obscuring the details of the merchandise and seeing tasks. Glare When overly bright light sources, window or lighted surfaces are within the visual field of the shopper or clerk and can be seen directly or by reflection, they may produce glare that will divert attention from tine merchandise displayed. When they are near the line of sight of the merchandise or sales tasks, they can reduce the ability to see. Illuminances Although there may be two types of stores, service and self-service, the merchandising techniques and type of activity within the store are the more important considerations. Merchandising and Associated Areas: Where merchandise is displayed in one location and appraised in another (such as taking items out of a showcase to show a customer) it is desirable not to exceed a 3 to 1 ratio in illuminances between the two locations. Sales and Support Areas: Equally important is the quantity of light for the support areas in stores, such as writing or reading a sales transaction or tasks associated with wrapping and packaging. xix Lighting System Considerations Both daylight and electric lighting systems are used in merchandising areas, but each has its own specific characteristics and considerations. Oayiighting The amount and distribution of daylight received in store interiors depends on the orientation and total area of windows, their light transmissions properties, and the relationship of the window height to the room width. Draperies, shades, baffles or louvers should be used for windows in areas where sky luminance or sunlight becomes uncomfortable or glaring to persons within. Electric Lighting Light Sources: For merchandising applications, there are three basic types of light sources in use today: incandescent filament, fluorescent and high intensity discharge.. Incandescent Filament lighting. The chief advantages of incandescent filament lighting are its low initial cost, good color rendering properties, and good optical control capabilities. Disadvantages are shorter lamp life and lower lamp efficacy (lumens per wait) as compared to the other light sources.. Fluorescent Lighting. Many merchandising areas are illuminated with fluorescent light sources. A fluorescent lighting system provides higher lumens per watt, long lamp life, and good color rendition depending on lamp color selection. Essentially a tubular light source (although other shapes are available), fluorescent lighting may be controlled to some extend; however, it is difficult to control the distribution of light emitted lengthwise from the lamp.. High Intensity Discharge Lighting. The family of HID lamps includes mercury, metal halide and high pressure sodium. Although each of these lamp types has its own specific characteristics, they have the following characteristics in common: long lamp life and high luminous efficacy when compared with incandescent lamps; compact source size, which allows for good optical control; and a time delay and slow build-up of light output when the lighting systems first energized or when there is a power interruption. Because of this delay characteristic, it essential to include incandescent or fluorescent lighting. Luminaires: No one lighting system can be recommended exclusively. Each system has qualities that may. match the requirements for a given situation. Among the factors that affect the selection of a luminaire are:. The type of light source to be used.. The illumination performance that it will provide such as light distribution.. The proper luminance ratios for appearance and efficiency.. The structural factors and materials used.. The effectiveness of heat dissipation. xx The modular size. The appearance. The quality of product. The economics. Components of luminaires that can affect the color rendering of merchandise. Lighting Methods for Merchandising Spaces There are three basic approaches to the lighting of merchandise areas in stores - the general pattern system, the specific system and the flexible system. Each system should have supplemental lighting to attract attention to featured displays, to influence traffic circulation and to create added interest. General Pattern System: The general pattern system employs a pattern of luminaires to provide general lighting with or without display lighting throughout the sales area without regard to the location of the merchandise. The system should include switching or dimming controls for flexibility of space use and for efficient energy utilization. Specific System: The specific system employs a layout of luminaries determined by the location of the merchandise displays (store fixtures, showcases, gondolas, etc.). It is tailored to emphasize the merchandise and delineate sales areas. Flexible System: The flexible system employs a pattern of electric outlets of continuous or individual type for nonpermanent installation of luminaries. These may be wired for multiple circuit application and/or control. Feature and Supplementary Lighting The proper balance of general pattern or specific lighting system and feature and supplementary lighting is dependent on the type of merchandise, methods of presentation and type of store. Certain portions of the merchandising area should be given special consideration as to the most effective feature and supplementary lighting methods to attain the lighting results desired. Each must receive individual consideration in lighting design, selection of lighting equipment and illuminances. Specific consideration should be given to placement and aiming the light sources at angles to prevent direct and reflected glare from reaching the eyes of customer and sales personnel. Supplementary lighting is mostly used with counter, mirror, showcase, modeling, wallcase, rack lighting and integral shelf. Show Windows The show should be powerful attraction, providing the link between the potential customer passing by and the merchandise within the store. Each of the following factors should be considered in the design of show-window lighting:. Merchandising strategy.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17045
Appears in Collections:Proje ve Yapım Yönetimi Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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