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    Conceptualisation and instrument development for mobile application usability based on android operating system
    (Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, 2021) Kazdaloğlu, Abdullah Emin ; Gümüşsoy Altın, Çiğdem ; 682769 ; Endüstri Mühendisliği
    Notions such as mobile internet and mobile applications ceased to be a nascent concept when basic cell phones, which became prevalent in the society in the late 1990s, left their dominations to smartphones in the early 2010s. The technological infrastructure, which has made substantial progress in the framework of mobile concept, the organisational models of the companies and the penetration rate of the mobile internet among users exceeding the usage rate of desktop internet, has significantly speeded up the use of smartphones and mobile applications that may be used anywhere and anytime. Large-scale usage of mobile applications is based on companies developing mobile applications and directing their services to the context of mobile applications to remain firm in the competitive market. In this perspective, the Google Play Store and Apple App Store platforms, where mobile applications are delivered to users by Android and iOS operating systems respectively, stand out as an important figure with millions of different applications. The large number of mobile applications has given users the opportunity to turn to lots of different options. Hence, it has become requisite for companies to gain advantage in a strong competitive environment by better marketing their products and services in the digital environment in order to continue their viability. One of the essential points of ensuring adoption, preferability, and continuity in such a rapidly growing mobile application universe is that mobile applications can be used in a way that makes user experience better. Yet, when the literature was scrutinised well, it was noticed that mostly desktop computer or website usability models were adapted to the mobile device and application context or mobile application usability was tried to be evaluated with very usual criteria such as satisfaction, learnability, memorability, effectiveness, and effectiveness. It is crystal clear that the usability concept, which plays a more vital role in mobile technology, should not be addressed with the evaluation methods of desktop computers and these methods should not be directly adapted to the mobile device or mobile application concept. Therefore, mobile devices and particularly mobile applications with which users interact directly should have their own usability evaluation criteria. However, the lack of such a usability model for the Android operating system, which is one of the two largest operating systems and is currently preferred by roughly 4 out of every 5 smartphone user, is a major gap realised in the literature. Hereby, a comprehensive and conceptualised usability model for mobile applications running on the Android operating system should be established. In the literature part of this research, mobile technologies, mobile shopping applications that will be the subject of the analysis phase of the study, and the concept of usability are explained meticulously. A conceptual model for mobile application usability running on the Android operating system was established and verified with a survey instrument. Specifically, the guide for interface design of Android-based mobile applications, published by Google, was thoroughly analysed and adapted to the conceptual model. Then, in the light of this reviewed guide, 13 constructs illustrating the usability of mobile applications running on the Android operating system were originated. Open and axial coding was done following the methodology. The matrix was designed by listing these codes, and used in the next stage of this study. In the second phase of the methodology of this thesis, firstly items representing each construct within the context of the matrix were created and collected in the item pool. These items were first evaluated by experts and then by the end user, and items that were confusing, ambiguous and meaningless were removed from the pool or modified. In order to develop the scale, face validity check (pre-test), pilot test (n = 30) and content validity check (n = 41) were carried out, respectively. By virtue of these checks, a qualitative and quantitative (using PSA and CSV indices) evaluation of the scale was made. The study was strengthened by gathering feedback about the scale from those who voluntarily participated in these survey studies, and the corrections were made in the item pool thanks to the feedback received. The survey method was used in the analysis stage of this study. People using mobile shopping applications were selected as a target sample. In the analysis part, items in the item pool were adapted to the mobile shopping application concept. Several grounds for the analysis based on mobile shopping applications: increasing mobile shopping volume and popularity because of the Covid-19 pandemic, the reason some of the most downloaded applications in Google Play Store and Apple App Store in Turkey are shopping applications, large investments in the retail sector, policies of companies that direct their customers to mobile shopping and convenience and comfort factors with respect to customers. For exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, two large samples (n1 = 293 and n2 = 340) were picked and factor, convergent and discriminant validation was fulfilled using IBM SPSS Statistics 26 and IBM SPSS AMOS 26 software. In addition, Cronbach's alpha values of the factors were calculated in both analysis stages and reliability was also measured. During the confirmatory factor analysis phase, nomological validation was made. For nomological validation, 13 constructs were taken into account as independent variables and examined how they affect the variables of brand loyalty, continued intention to use and satisfaction, which are frequently associated with usability in the literature. According to the analysis results, it was proved that the usability model created for Android-based applications has a significant effect on satisfaction, continued intention to use and brand loyalty and predicts these variables decently. Moreover, in the evaluation phase of both factor analysis, the fact that the loadings of the items included in the factors were above the required threshold approved this thesis. As a result, this study is very significant for practitioners working in the field of mobile applications. It will be a guide for mobile application developers and companies working in this sector. The created mobile application usability conceptualisation will allow the use of the practitioners to develop new mobile applications or to enhance an existing application. Therefore, in the last part of the study, the implications of the study and its theoretical contributions for practitioners are mentioned, besides.