LEE- Bilim, Teknoloji ve Toplum-Yüksek Lisans

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  • Öge
    Evolution of content moderation in Turkey: Legal-social perspectives and future projections
    (Graduate School, 2022-01-02) Ark, Çınar ; Zorlu, Tuncay ; 422181002 ; Science, Technology and Society
    In the old paradigm censorship is used in a manner in which the citizen is aware of the aim of censorship, namely, it is common knowledge that there is a socially frowned upon item behind the pixelated flower or that the appearance of a light blue screen when trying to access a website that is blocked, it is within the understanding of the populace that the website they are trying to access has been deemed harmful by the government. However, in the new paradigm, differing methods of censorship are being utilized. If a content is deemed as harmful, it is removed from the search engine, hence the access is erased rather than blocked. Furthermore the entirety of a private conversation (IM) is subjected to instant control which suggests a departure from ex post censorship to ex-ante censorship. Considering the evolution of censorship technologies into algorithmic censorship, the extent of the latter method is quite significant. If censorship is divided into two components in the 21st century, namely, the Censorship of the Analog (Visual, Print) and the Censorship of the Digital ( ISP & OSP based, Algorithmic), an analogous setting can be found between the two in order to determine the difference. This thesis will analyze the historical progression of censorship law in Turkey by categorizing cases of content moderation into political and social categories by applying a search string to newspaper articles from 1930 to 2020 in order to convey progression of Censorship of the Analog and later compare it to the recent developments in the area of censorship. Winner's insight on using Technological Luddism as a method of analyzing the effect of a given technology, the analog and the digital can be compared to each other in order to provide a deeper understanding of the social effects of censorship technologies in the 21st century. Furhermore with the advent of streaming services, the content consumed by the Turkish public is not monitored by regulatory bodies in Turkey and in the last decade there has been several legal acitons taken in order to normalize this structure. The thesis will look into the possibility of a hegemonic relationship between the ever increasing nature of global streaming services.
  • Öge
    Sociotechnical imaginaries of alternative and supplementary climate measures: Narratives of Scandinavian countries
    (Graduate School, 2022-06-20) Alpay, Barış Yiğit ; Erbil Öğüt, Aslı ; 422181001 ; Science, Technology and Society
    The ongoing anthropogenic climate change and associated global climate crisis is possessing a massive risk for the future of entire globe and to all the human and non-human ecosystems living in it. Two main acknowledged pillars of climate measures to tackle the climate change and its negative consequences are mitigation and adaptation. However, there is a general consensus that these efforts are so far largely failed and are not able to sufficiently control the rise of the global average temperature in order to eliminate the risks to an acceptable or manageable level. In parallel with this, especially in the recent decades, alternative and/or supplementary climate measures have begun to be visualized, developed and to a certain degree employed around the world to eliminate or at least to reduce the persistent risks. Among them, geoengineering and nature based solutions are two of the most popular climate measures that are being envisioned in the making of the desirable climate future with no or less climate risks. In this light, this study focuses on geoengineering and nature based solutions, in the making of the positive climate futures of the Scandinavian countries, namely Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, due to their special position compared to others with regards to their climate change susceptibilities and ongoing climate efforts as well as their success in doing so. Using the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries from the Science, Technology and Society field as the theoretical framework for this study, it is aimed to assess how geoengineering and nature based solutions are perceived and how their imaginaries are being constructed in line with the construction of the Scandinavian climate future based on the respective long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies of the Scandinavian countries and make a comparison. For this purpose, a qualitative and interpretive content analysis was conducted on the strategy documents. It should be noted that, due to the nature of the long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategy documents, the identified sociotechnical imaginaries as a result of this study are dominantly representative of the institutions of power. As a result of the study, although not necessarily labelled under these particular names, various geoengineering and nature based solutions techniques have been detected as imagined and to a certain degree already practiced climate measures in the strategy documents of the Scandinavian countries, which are mainly focusing on the carbon dioxide removal methods. Alongside with the various identified techniques, associated sociotechnical imaginaries that are shaped together with the detected narratives and hopes and fears of each country were analysed based on the strategy documents. It was detected that the most embedded and dominant imaginary associated with geoengineering and nature based solutions among Scandinavian countries is as a supplement to mitigation efforts, but they are accompanied with various methods specific to each country's different circumstances. The main imaginaries of geoengineering and nature based solutions are in conjunction and towards the same common goal via similar main principle of carbon dioxide removal for all three countries. In parallel with the findings of the study it was detected that certain climate measures can be identified and labelled both under geoengineering and nature based solutions which shows that the distinction between them, at least for certain practices, are getting vague.
  • Öge
    To the bodies themselves: E-Nabız at the intersection of bodies, politics and technologies
    (Graduate School, 2022-07-17) Çobanoğlu, Cansu ; Çalkıvik, Emine Aslı ; 422201010 ; Science, Technology and Society
    The body and technologies point to two important material sides of politics. This research is about the political meanings of the body constructed in the mediation of technology, e-Nabız in Turkey. It investigates the forms of embodiment and political subjectification through the e-Nabız case, which is an example of data technologies in Turkey. Using Foucault's relational power description, Braidotti's embodied and relational subjectivity, and the reflection fields opened by new materialism and mediation theory on technology as a conceptual tool and emphasizing materialities, sociotechnical entanglements and the constitutive role of technology, this study examines the ways in which the body, technology, and politics are interrelated. Following the perspective of Science and Technology Studies (STS), it aims to enact the meanings of the body and technologies in different sites as a research method in itself, and in this context, the sites to be explored within the scope of the research were determined as the relationship of the subject with his/her own body (1), the relationship of the patient with the physician (2) and the relationship of the citizen with the state (3). The research has investigated the processes of embodiment and political subjectification on different sites through e-Nabız, by deeply engaging with the experiences of the subjects who are experiencing these processes themselves. Accordingly, the field study was conducted with a semi-structured in-depth interview method. During the field study, a total of 30 people, 20 of whom were patients/users and 10 of whom were physicians, were interviewed and the interviews were conducted online. The main question of the research is how the meanings of the body and the relationship of the subject with power are reconstructed in different sites through e-Nabız. Based on the findings of the field, it was argued that in Turkey, through the mediation of e-Nabız, a new, rather digital, encounter area was opened up between the citizen and the state, that new subject positions corresponding to this new form of engagement are constructed in this new encounter area, therefore, this new encounter field both points to a new version for power and also points to new embodiment and subjectification processes for subjects.