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ÖgeImpacts of modernization process on conservation and restoration of traditional wooden religious buildings; a comparative study between Turkey and Japan(Graduate School, 2021-02-18) Koç, Süheyla ; Mazlum, Deniz ; Fujii, Keisuke ; 502122209 ; Restoration ; RestorasyonThe modernization period, which reveals similar characteristic features in Turkey and Japan started with Tanzimat Edict (1839) in Turkey and Meiji Revolution (1868) in Japan. Turkey and Japan had the same reasons to be modernized, to be strong and not colonized. They used the same methods such as sending delegations and students abroad, inviting foreign experts mostly from Europe. While politics, military, standardization, and new architecture follow a similar path, when it comes to the preservation of cultural heritage, there are quite distinct features observed in the architectural conservation history of Turkey and Japan. The religious architecture was chosen to analyze the impacts of modernization because they have been preserved with traditional methods before the modernization period and continued to be preserved with modern conservation methods after the modernization period in both cultures. While in Turkey, most of the studies on conservation and religious buildings are focused on masonry monumental buildings, the research on conservation of wooden religious heritage is quite scarce. On the other hand, Japan is known for good conservation practices on wooden heritage. Thus, the subject of the thesis is determining the impacts of the modernization process on the conservation and restoration of traditional wooden religious buildings in Turkey and Japan and the development of suitable conservation approaches for this building type. The case studies were determined according to being oldest, unique examples with available archival data. These are wooden pillared mosques from the 13th century, Beyşehir Eşrefoğlu Mosque, Ankara Arslanhane Mosque, Afyon Great Mosque, Sivrihisar Great Mosque and Kastamonu Kasabaköy Mosque from Turkey, and wooden Buddhist temples from the 8th century in Japan, Shinyakushi-ji Main Hall, Hokki-ji 3-story pagoda and Toshodai-ji Golden Hall. All the case studies have outstanding universal value, while case studies in Japan are already in WHL, the case studies from Turkey are in the WH tentative list. The study consists of six chapters in total. In the first chapter, the aim, scope, and methodology, as well as the related literature review and terminology, are explained. In the second chapter, the modernization process is explained, along with developments in the world in the 19th century. The political, economic, social, and architectural aspects of Turkey and Japan are compared in terms of similarities and differences in developments. In the 19th century, conscious efforts and legislation became widespread in the Ottoman world and Japan. From this point, in the third chapter, the development of conservation concepts in the 19th century with applications in different countries, along with a focus on the legal process in Turkey and Japan are outlined. The fourth chapter gives an overview of the architectural features of wooden religious structures in Turkey and Japan. The fifth chapter examines selected sample structures in line with the methodology developed. In the sixth and last chapter, all the investigations are evaluated as a whole, and the results and recommendations for policies and methods for the conservation of wooden religious buildings are presented, especially for wooden pillared mosques in Turkey. As a comparative study, first of all, the topics that need to be compared were determined starting from terminology, similarities, and differences of modernization period on political, social, economic, technological, architectural fields and so forth. Likewise, the development of legal texts, responsible organizations, and training of architects, masters, and carpenters were compared. A methodology was developed for the analysis and evaluation of these case studies. While comprehensive repair reports were used for the analysis of case studies in Japan, an in-situ assessment model was needed to be developed for the case studies in Turkey. All wooden components were marked with connection details, traces, and deteriorations on them. Along with site works, archival studies were conducted in the Ottoman Archives, the General Directorate of Foundations, the Regional Directorates of Foundations in Konya, Kütahya, and Kastamonu, the Regional Conservation Boards in Konya, Ankara, and Eskişehir, and different libraries. After collecting all the data, three main analyses were prepared for evaluation, namely repair year-repair approach analysis, authenticity analysis, and IIWC principles analysis. The repair year – repair approach analysis reveals the preferred conservation methods in certain periods. Although similar methods were used in Turkey and Japan, the triggered reasons and details of implementations are quite different due to cultural and traditional contexts. The impacts of these methods on the preservation of wooden components are determined with the help of authenticity analysis. In all the case studies, the interior components are naturally among the most preserved elements whereas the roof structure which is exposed to weathering contains the most replaced materials. The species, sizes, and treatments on wood have a vital impact on the authenticity level. The IIWC principles analysis reflects on the appropriate implementations which are corresponding to the latest principles. The implementations based on tradition are mostly corresponding to the principles, while modern materials especially irreversible cement and concrete cause a loss in fulfilling the criteria. Furthermore, project and implementation phases are also compared to reveal the administrative aspects including the context of projects. While in Japan, project and implementation phases are planned and executed together, in Turkey, there is a problem with the planning of conservation policy including budget and contents of the project. All these analyses reveal that the success of Japan is due to using traditional knowledge, traditional tools, and traditional practices as well as preserving historic forests. Likewise, the success of the Ottoman Empire before the modernization period is also about the use of traditional techniques. For better conservation of wooden pillared mosques, some recommendations were developed according to the results of these analyses by taking into account the international charters. The preservation of forests and traditional wood species are crucial for the material supply of conservation works. Training of carpenters with traditional methods is another important issue. For wooden pillared mosques, first of all, traditional methods should be defined with the help of archives and carpenters. Likewise, the designation of special units under the General Directorate of Foundations is a necessity to give to the wooden pillared mosques the value and care they deserve.