Mobilya Endüstrisinde Kullanılan Ahşap Kökenli Niteliği İyileştirilmiş Malzemeler

Kalkavan, Sibel Ülkü
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Ahşap malzemenin mobilya üretiminde kullanılması ilk çağlardan günümüze kadar çeşitli değişikliklere ve gelişmelere uğrayarak devam etmiştir. Bu gelişmeler sonucu günümüzde özellikle gelişmiş ülkelerde mobilya üretimi için ahşap kökenli niteliği iyileştirilmiş malzemeler (A.K.N.İ.M.) kullanılmaktadır. Gelişmekte olan ülkeler arasında olan Türkiye'de mobilya üretiminde, gelişmiş ülkelerle rekabet edebilmesi için A.K.N.İ.M. türlerinin iyi tanınması ve doğru uygulamalar gerçekleştirilmesi gerekmektedir. Böylece, ahşap mobilya konusu çalışmanın konusu olarak seçilmiştir. Çalışmanın birinci bölümü tezin konusunu ve amacım açıklamaya yöneliktir. İkinci bölümde, mobilya stillerinin tarih içindeki gelişimleri ve bu gelişim içinde ahşabın kullanım şekilleri verilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde mobilya endüstrisinde kullanılan ahşap malzemeler ele alınarak bu malzemelerin, üretim teknolojileri ile mobilya endüstrisindeki kullanımlan açısından sahip oldukları özellikleri ve bu özelliklerin iyileştirilmesi için uygulanabilecek işlemler verilmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde mobilya üretiminde kullanılan birleşim türleri ve elemanları ele alınmıştır. Birleşim elemanları içinde en çok kullanılan çivi, vida ve tutkal, uygulamalarında uyulması gereken kurallarla beraber incelenmiş; diğer birleşim elemanlarına kısaca değmılmıştir. Birleşim türlerinde ise en yaygın kullanılan tipler sahip oldukları özellikleri ile beraber teker teker incelenmiştir. Mobilya üretiminde kullanılan başlıca birleşim türleri ve bunların kombinasyonları ise mobilya endüstrisinde etkili olacak özellikleri ile beşinci bölümde verilmiştir. Alımcı bölümde temel mobilya konstrüksiyon tipleri ele alınmış, bunlardan masif ve çerçeve konstrüksiyon ise daha detaylı mcelenmiştir. Yedinci bölümde ise çalışmadan elde edilen sonuçlar, çalışmanın sistematiği içinde maddelenmiştir.
The name of the thesis is "The Use Of Fabricated Wood In Furniture Industry." The aim of the thesis is to put forth the main items of use of wood material -whic^ti ti as been used for the entire history of human for many different aims- in fur-Trai-tiare industry under the circumstance of today's provisions. Wood has been used as massive for many years in the furniture industry, but cLxxe to technological developments, it has been replaced with fabricated wood. For -tliis reason, this thesis focuses on the main uses of wood in the furniture industry. This thesis has been realised through literature research and the analysis of obtained, data. Because our country is quickly moving forward to become a well devesIoj>ed country, we have to progress along with the improving technology of the centxiry. Due to the this, it is necessary to have the maximum benefit from the existing row material and to have products with recognized world standarts. So, when we Hcamine wood fiirniture production, the importance of fabricated wood which is suitai>l^ for mass production becomes more visible. Especially when we consider fabricated x?vood has no natural defects. The first part of the study is directed to explain the subject and the aim of the th&sis. In the second part, the historical improvement of wood material use, in the fur-rxi-fcure industry is explained and is the basis for the study. In this section the basic fur-rxrture styles, starting with the Renaissance were introduced and developed between 1 öth- 18th century, have been studied under the topics listed below: -17 th Century English Furniture Styles "Jacobean or Stuart (1603-1649) ?Commonwealth or Puritan (1649-1660) *Carolean (1660-1688) *William & Mary (1689-1702) -Traditional English Furniture Styles xiii *Quenn Anne (1702-1715) ?Georgian (1714-1795) -19 th Century English Furniture Styles ?English Regency (1793-1830) ?Victorian (1830-1890) -Early French Traditional Styles *Xm. Louis (1610-1643) *XIV. Louis (1643-1715) ?Regence (1715-1723) *XV. Louis (1723-1774) ?XVI. Louis (1774-1793) ?Directoire (1795-1804) ?French Empire (1804-1815) -Provincial Furnitures ?French Provincial (1650-1900) ?Italian Provincial (1700-1850) ?Biedermeier (1825-1840) ?American Colonial ?Early Colonial (1620-1700) ?Late Colonial (1700-1795) ?American Empire (1795-1840) ?Pennsylvania Dutch (1680-1850) ?Shaker (1776-1850) -Other Styles -Turkish Wood Tradition XIV The furniture styles have been studied under three topics as English, French and Provincial by the way they use the wood. The same type of investigation has been done in regards to Turkish wood tradition and the progression of wood use to present time. In the third part, the anatomical, physical and mechanical properties of wood as a material are researched. The principles of use, in construction, were focused on the types of wood were studied, according to their way of use in the furniture industry. Even though steel, aluminium, glass and plastic materials in modern furnitures are commonly used, wood materials has continued to be popular due to their useful properties listed below: -Superior mechanical properties for its specific weight, -Low heat conductivity, -Flexibility, -Lack of electrical conductivity, -Absorption of impact noise. Besides many positive qualities wood materials also have some unwanted attributes when used in their natural form. Because of the reason stated above, wood materials are used in the furniture industry either in the form of fabricated wood and treated natural wood. These wood materials are explained as below: l-)Natural Wood Material: -They have reduced deformation resistancy when exposed to humid environment. -They are effected by micro-organisms. -They have low resistancy for atmospheric conditions and chemicals. -There are drfferencies in resistancy levels according to its fibers' directions. -Because of its fibery tissue it has a non uniform deformation curve. Due to the explanations above, natural wood materials should at least be processed by one of the items below to be used in the furniture industry. -Drying, -Vapor Treatment, XV -Surface Protection Processes, -Impregnation. 2-)Fabricated Wood: The reasons why fabricated wood is preferred in the furniture industry because it removes the negative properties of wood, suitable for mass production, allows easy quality control, has low cost and maximizes the use of raw material. The main types of fabricated wood in the furniture industry are listed below: a-)Plywood: Plywood is the board, produced by gluing consecutive fabricated wood sheets in the direction where the fibers make right angles with each other. b-)Blockboards: Blockboard is the material made of a middle sheet usually made of laths and surrounded by layers on both sides. These external layer fibers make right angle with the middle sheet and are pressured glued together. c-)Particial Board: Particial board is produced by gluing and forming dried wood chips with synthetic resin glues under heat and pressure. d-)Fiberboard: Fiberboard is produced from fibers which are obtained from wood through mechanical proceses under heat and pressure by using these fibers' stickness and getting felt characteristics. In the fourth part of the theises, joint types and elements used in the furniture industry are explained. Nails, screws and glues which are common in this industryare given with the rules of application. Other joint elements are also mentioned briefly. The joint types (Butt Joint, Tongue Joint, Dowelled Joint etc.) are examined but their combinations are not given at this part. Joint details which that usually used in furniture production are given in fifth part. The details classified under three headings are explained with their characteristics. These characteristics are effective in choosing joint type. -Cross Connection: Cross connections are connecting surfaces of the wooden parts in the length direction which have the same dimensions without making any angle. -Longitudinal Connections: These type of connections are usually used to extend the length of massive wood material. Longitudinal connections are not commonly used in the furniture industry. xvi -Comer Joint: Corner joints are studied under three topics as: *Frame Connection, * Surface Connection, *Leg-Stretchers(between legs) Connections. In the sixth part, construction types used in furniture production are explained. Massive and frame constructions are broadly examined. In the examination, the suitable joint type according to the situation in construction were emphasized. Consequently, the conclusion staded below were reached as a result of the study: 1-) While examining the basic furniture styles starting with the Renaissance and developing between 16th- 18th centuries, it was found that the whole emphasis was given to massive wood material. The lack of fabricated wood types and the direct use of massive wood for furniture production has been the reason for heavily ornamented styles. So, all furniture styles have been evaluated in their own way of form (style) concepts. 2-)Wood is the most essential material becausse of its easy use, easy repair, high strength for its specific weight, low heat conductivity, high absorption of impact noise, easy application of paint and polish. Nevertheless there are negative aspects. These negatives make it less practical for the use of massive wood in the furniture industry. Fabricated wood besides removing the abowe mentioned negative properties of massive wood it also maximizes the use of existing row material, is suitable for mass production, allows for control over qualilty, production according to the requirements. Consequently, wood material will take place in our century as fabricated wood. 3-)Massive wood should not contain defects to effect resistancy or apperance when used in furniture production. Due to subjective choices or its own resistancy. Wood should be processed with at least one of the protection methods as vapor treatment, drying, surface protection and impregnation. In the case of fabricated wood use in furniture production, the kind to be used should be carefully determined and should be checked when obtained from the market. 4-)In wood joints usually nails, screws or glue types of joint elemente are used to give enough strength to the joint. In these processes there are some procedures to follow in the application of joint elements. When these procedures are not followed either the joint elements can not procure the joint or they can harm the material to be applied. XVU 5-)In the result of the research done dowetailed joint was choosen to be the one with the highest tension resistancy and it is followed by finger joint, doweled joint, motise and tenon joint in that order. Even though tongue joints are stronger compared to butt joint, their tension resistancy lower. 6-) When massive and framed constructions are examined in the way to built the basis for construction types in furniture production, it was seen that massive constructions consists of only massive wood parts and framed constrctions were mostly made of fabricated wood. As a result it was found out that massive constructions lost his popularity and framed constructions reached a high point in furniture industry with the help of its numberous uses. 7-)For the decision of joint type in wood furniture details the important points are the material to be used and aesthetic, strength charactheristics of the joints should have. But, still the suitability for mass production and the economic results obtained through research should be examined.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Ahşap mobilya, Malzemeler, Mobilya endüstrisi, Wood furniture, Materials, Furniture industry