Bağlamalarda balkon sistemleri üzerine incelemeler

Demir, Turgay
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Türk Halk Müziğinin önemli sazlarından biri olan bağlamanın sağlıklı bir yapıya kavuşturulması Halk Müziğinin gelişmesi ve çağı yakalaması açısından önemlidir. Bağlama üzerinde son zamanlarda üniversiteler bünyesinde yapılan bilimsel çalışmalar kuşkusuz önemli gelişmelerdir. Fakat bağlamalarda kapak çökmesi olarak adlandırılan kusurun halen mevcut olduğu gerçektir. Bu çalışma bağlamadaki bu olumsuzluğu ortadan kaldırma amacına yöneliktir. Bazı Enstrümanlarda kullanıldığı üzere bağlamada da balkon sisteminin uygulanabileceği noktasından hareketle çeşitli konumlarda balkon sistemi uygulanmış örnek bağlamalar tarafımdan yapılmış olup bunlardan en verimli olanları detaylarıyla incelenmiş, örnek bağlamalar jüri üyelerine sunulmuştur. Bağlamalara balkon uygulanmasının sazın ses kalitesi ve uzun ömürlü olması açısından çok önemli ve gereklidir. Balkon sisteminin sazın sesini olumsuz etkilediği görüşü yaygın olmasına rağmen yapılan örnek bağlamalarda böyle bir olumsuzluğun olmadığını göstermiştir. Bilinçsizce uygulanabilecek balkon sistemlerinde tabiki sonuç olumsuz olacaktır.
Bağlama is one of the basic stringed instrument of Turkish folk music since it's been developed 2000 years ago. In these years folk music has developed by stringed instruments. Some people say the father of stringed instruments ıs kopuz (played by medieval Turkish bords). Lute-like instrument means that it includes stringed instru ments which has more than one string. It's known that some kind of lute-like instru ments are long and short or with handle as well as others playing by hand and bow. This instruments has made of animal skins, hairs and intestines in primtive circums tances. Bağlama has been in various evoluations and named diffrently until todate. Strin ged instruments has changed continiously and differen methods applied for its per formance form. There are various of views about why it is called as Bağlama the most known is that prest are tied to its handle. Its string numbers have been increased, methods of manufacturing and also it's use of areas and aims has been developed todate. The view of its made has changed since it's been used for different aims. The Bağlama which has made in Anatolia shows different forms according to areas and the people who are making different kind of Bağlama for their life style and special purposes. Until to the last years Bağlama, has developed in master apprentice relationship but any scientific has not done for it working environments are ready now for the new developments by opening instruments making departments in concervatories re cently, Bağlama has reahed its standart situation by our lecturer Mr. Cafer AÇIN in İ.T.Ü. Convervatory, Traditional Turkish Music Dept. PARTS OF BA?LAMA: 1-Body 2-Handle and Pegis 3- Cover (forward pard and sound table) 4- Coverings 5- Bridges 6- Pegs 7- Frets 8- Strings V The problem which is called as cover collapese between producers and players still exists. If the balcony system which is used in the other stringed instruments is used in bağlama, the problem of cover collapse will lessen, the decrease of sound quality and the difficulty of playing will no longer exist, so this will make the bağlama's life lon ger. The instruments in which the balcony system is applied - Violin -Ud - Guitar - Kanun - Lavta (lute like instrument) The balcony system in violin: There's only one balcony in violin. This balcony is constant under the left string. It's on the same way with the left string and it helps to the violin's resistance accor ding to the pressure and tension. The measurements of the balcony in violin: Thickness: 4-5 mm. Width: 12-13 mm. Lenght: 27 cm. The balcony must be prepared from ladin and the vessels must be put vertically to the sound table. The balcony system in Ud The balcony system in ud is the opposite of the system in violin. The balconies are not paralel to the strings, they are vertical. The balcony wood must be the same with the cover wood. There are 7 balconies in ud. The measurements of balconies in ud: Height: 5-7 mm. Thickness: 4-5 mm. VI The balcony system in Guitar The subject of the balcony system in Guitar is examined more than the other strin ged instruments. Most of the manufacturers have adapted their own models to their guitars. The reason is that the universality of the guitar. The measurements of balconies in Guitar. Thickness: 4-6 mm. Height: 5-10 mm. The balcony system in Kanun The balcony system in Kanun differs from the balcony systems in the other strin ged instruments. It's used especially to prevent the deformation of Kanun. In the ot her instruments the balcony wood is the same with the cover wood but in Kanun dif ferent woods can be used as the balcony wood The balcony system in Lavta (or Lute-like instrument) There are 5 balconies in Lavta. The two of them are between the sound hole and the handle with the equal distance, two of them are between the sound hole and the bridge with the equal distance apart. And one of teh balconies is behind the bridge. Balcony heights infront of and behind of the bridge are 6-7 mm. and the others are 4-5 mm. The thickness of the balconies are 3,5-4 mm. The balcony system is not preferred more in bağlama for it's thought thet the bal cony system will effect the sound quality negatively and will not help the preventing of the cover collapse. But I think that the balconies in bağlama will effect the sound quality positively and will prevent the collapse of cover system. I never neglected the bağlama's sound characterisity. The balconies are being in an equilibrium by existing an opposite force against the strings' pressure. For this reason the balcony wood must be put under the breast wo od where the pressure is high. The shape and position of the balcony woods must be constructed according to the bağlama's sound characterisity. If the balconies are put ordinarily or by chance this will harden the bağlama's sound and decrease the volu me. As we can understand that the problem on cover (Breast) exist because of the con- tinious pressure of bridge caused by tight string. VII This problem affects B ağlama 's sound quality and performance negatively. Re sonance of sound table can not be comfort because of the power affects only from one way to solve this problem will be that the Bağlama will last langer the bal cony system has been appalied by myself thinking of that it can be applied using the idea aims and techniques of balcony systems has applied on some instruments befo re for this application support laths called balcony has been put under the breast wo od where the pressure is densen. Position and shape of the balconies has been pala- ned according to sound characteristic and the cover shope of bağlama ordinary bal conies will reduce the volume and make it harder. In varios times the datas from the results of Bağlamas with balcony systems sho wed that to apply balcony systmes can be useful. Following systems are the mosts convenient balcony systems for Bağlamas frame. 1- Paralel balcony system 2- Angle balcony system with the cross point on bridge way. 3- Angle balcony with cross point on handle way. The B ağlama 's has been with these systems which has given to the members of jury with this study. For sample Bağlama's body woods, handle and cover wood are same as well as the measurements. These Bağlama's form lenghts er 39 cm. so the balcony sizes will be for the 39 cm. Bağlama's. BALCONY MEASUREMENTS: The kind of balcony wood must be same as cover wood and must stick on fibre way. The position of balcony mustn't be upright to the string on balcony applications. Because this systems doesn't give positive results. VIII Some producers and players defence the view of the balcony can not be useful. But the Sample Bağlama's shows that this negative stituation can't be passible for all positions the results can be negative if the balcony systems applied uncosciously. Consequensly the balcony systems can be applied on Bağlama's but it depends to procducer to get positive results. If the producer has enough knowledge for woods and music with scientific ways he can easly make Bağlama's applying balcony systems and gets good results. It's very important to apply balcony systems to get better sound quality and long life Bağlama's From Bağlama's with these systems you can: - Have soft and comfort tone - Increase the volume - Hear better harmany of sound - Have color differences beetween upper middle or top strings. - Have long term playing without any kind of phisical change. For my opinion in our country the instrument production has been neglected. Most of the producers have less acedemic education and they invoiced to this art by coin cidence so they haven't realized the importance of this study and they have been thin king from the point of earning more mdney and spend their enery on this way. There aren't any kind of special designed machines ar tools in our country tu pro duce instruments but when we look at the europe for all the parts of violine they ha ve produced various same for guitar increasing. The education network, modernising the production places, training the produces will be very useful understand the meaning of this important subject.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1996
Anahtar kelimeler
Müzik, Balkon sistemleri, Bağlama, Halk müziği, Müzik aletleri, Türk halk müziği, Music, Balcony systems, Bağlama, Folk music, Musical instruments, Turkish folk music