Organizasyon içi bireyler arasında bilgi transferine etki eden faktörler

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Tarih
2014-05-27
Yazarlar
Gürcan, Ömer Faruk
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Günümüzde bilginin önemi her geçen gün artmaktadır. Bilgi teknolojilerinde yaşanan gelişmeler, bilginin önemini daha da arttırmaktadır. Firmaların hızla değişen çevre koşullarında rekabet avantajı kazanmalarında bilgiye sahip olmalarının ve bilgiyi etkili bir şekilde yönetmelerinin rolü büyüktür. Bilgi yönetiminde önemli süreçlerden biri olan bilgi transferi, bilgiyi bir birey, grup veya organizasyondan bir diğerine transfer etme veya yayma faaliyetleri olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Etkili bir bilgi transferinin firmalara pek çok faydası vardır. Bilgi transferi firmaların bilgiden elde edecekleri faydayı arttırmaktadır. Bilgi, diğer üretim kaynaklarının aksine transfer edildikçe ve paylaşıldıkça değeri artan bir kaynaktır. Bilginin firmalarda başarılı bir şekilde transfer edilmesi, çalışanların ihtiyaç duydukları bilgilere kolay ve hızlı bir şekilde erişebilmelerini sağlar. Böylelikle firmaların performansı artar. Bu çalışmanın amacı organizasyon içi bireyler arasında bilgi transferine etki eden faktörleri belirlemektir. Çalışmada örtülülük, güven, bilgi teknolojisi araçları, öz yeterlilik, zaman, geçişken hafıza sistemi, yönetim desteği, karşılıklılık, örgütsel ödüller ve organizasyon yapısın bilgi transferiyle ve bilgi transfer niyetiyle olan ilişkileri ve bilgi transfer niyeti ile bilgi transferi arasındaki ilişki incelenmiştir. Oluşturulan model 21 hipotezi içermektedir. Modeli test etmek için literatürdeki önceki çalışmalardan yararlanılarak bir anket hazırlandı. Hazırlanan ankette modeldeki 12 değişkeni ölçmek için cinsiyet, yaş, eğitim düzeyi, çalışılan sektör gibi demografik sorular hariç 49 soru yer aldı. Anket İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi Bilgi İşlem Daire Başkanlığı tarafından geliştirilmiş web tabanlı bir form uygulaması olan Veti'de online olarak yayımlandı. Anket verilerinin tamamı bu form aracılığıyla online olarak toplandı. Anketin linki katılımcılara sosyal medya ve e-mail aracılığıyla gönderildi. Anketi 377 katılımcı cevapladı. Toplanan veriler SPSS programı kullanılarak, regresyon analizi ile test edildi. Analiz sonuçlarına göre güven, öz yeterlilik, geçişken hafıza sistemi ve karşılıklılık bilgi transfer niyetini etkiler. Bilgi teknolojileri, geçişken hafıza sistemi ve güven bilgi transferini etkiler. Bu çalışmada literatür taraması sonucunda karar verilen değişkenler ile bilgi transfer niyeti ve bilgi transferi arasındaki ilişkiler incelenmiştir. Analiz sonucunda ortaya konulan hipotezlerin doğruluğu test edilmiş ve elde edilen ilişkilerin bir kısmının daha önce yapılan çalışmalarla örtüştüğü gözlemlenmiştir. Çalışma sonuçları bir tartışma şeklinde sunulmuş, var olan kısıtlar paylaşılmış, bu kısıtların nasıl giderilebileceği ile daha sonra yapılacak çalışmalar için önerilerde bulunulmuştur.
Nowadays importance of knowledge is increasing day by day. Developments in information technologies make knowledge more important. Having knowledge and managing knowledge effectively are very important for firms to gain competitive advantage in rapidly changing environment conditions. Capital was a very important resource for firms in past but today knowledge is the most important strategic resource for firms. When a firm have more knowledge than its competitors, it will have more advantages in market. So when firms want to maintain their position in market, they need to have necessary knowledge level. When firms have knowledge, they need to manage this knowledge effectively. Knowledge management effectiveness depends on capacity of firms about creating new knowledge and transferring current knowledge. There is a close relationship between knowledge transferring and firm's performance. Knowledge's value rises when it is shared, transferred and internalised by employees. Knowledge transfer which is one of the most important processes of knowledge management is defined as transferring or disseminating knowledge from one person, group or organization to another. Knowledge transfer is a communication process and includes two actions. These actions are transmission of knowledge to recipient and absorption of knowledge by recipient. One unit is affected by the experience of another in knowledge transfer. When knowledge is transferred, recipient unit's knowledge or performance increases and source's knowledge doesn't reduce. An effective knowledge transfer is very useful for firms. It helps firms to increase benefit from knowledge. Knowledge differs from the other resources; its value increases when it is shared and transferred. Employees reach needed knowledge easily and fastly when knowledge is transferred successfully in firms. Knowledge transfer helps to units to create knowledge. Cooperation and coordination between units increase when knowledge is transferred successfully. Knowledge transfer facilitates organizational learning, offers financial advantages to firms and increases firms' performance. Because of its usefulness, understanding of how knowledge is transferred from one unit to another is very important. Knowledge is transferred between geographically dispersed individuals, organizations or across national boundaries. It is also transferred between individuals, teams or groups in organizations. The purpose of this study is determining the factors that affect knowledge transfer between individuals in organizations. Factors affecting knowledge transfer and knowledge transfer intention were investigated with the variables tacitness, trust, information technology tools, self efficacy, time, transactive memory system, management support, reciprocity, organizational rewards and organizational structure. Relationship between knowledge transfer and knowledge transfer intention was also investigated. A model is developed which includes 21 hypotheses and 12 variables. In order to empirically test the model, a questionnaire was prepared based on the previous studies in literature. A 49-item questionnaire was constructed to measure 12 variables except demographic questions like gender, age, educational level, occupation, position. There is also one question for determining participants who didn't read questions during responding questionnaire. Actual questions were in English. They were translated to Turkish and then controlled by specialists. Questionnaire's questions' reliability was measured with statistical methods in order to see their convenience. 2 items were eliminated after this measurement. A five-point Likert scale was used in questionnaire. Likert scale is ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree for 45 items and ranging from never to all the time for 4 items. These scales were prepared based on previous studies in literature. Questionnaire was published as online on Veti (a web based form application) which was developed by a unit in İstanbul Technical University. All datas of questionnaire were collected with this form as online. Questionnaire's link was sent to respondents using social media and e-mail. 377 participants responded the questionnaire. Participants differ in sector areas, positions, ages, educational level, occupation. The gathered data were tested with regression analysis using SPSS programme. After data analysis, the results show that trust, self efficacy, transactive memory system and reciprocity affect knowledge transfer intention. Information technology tools, transactive memory system and trust affect knowledge transfer. There is a positive relation between trust, self efficacy, transactive memory system, reciprocity and knowledge transfer intention. There is a positive relation between information technology tools, transactive memory system and knowledge transfer. There is a negative relation between trust and knowledge transfer. Reciprocity was found as the most important variable in relation with knowledge transfer intention. Information technology tools were found as the most important variable in relation with knowledge transfer. There isn't a significant relation between knowledge transfer intention and tacitness, information technology tools, time, management support, organizational reward, organizational structure. There isn't a significant relation between knowledge transfer and tacitness, self efficacy, time, management support, reciprocity, organizational rewards, organizational structure. Finally there isn't a significant relation between knowledge transfer intention and knowledge transfer. In this study, relationships were investigated between variables, knowledge transfer and knowledge transfer intention. It has been observed that a part of obtained relations are overlapped with studies in literature according to results. These results have been presented in a discussed way, existing limitations have been shared. For future research, knowledge transfer can be measured based on social interactions between individuals. Differences between sectors can be observed by increasing number of participants. Study can be focused on specific sectors for example information technologies sector where knowledge transfer is very important. Other variables can be added between dependent and independent variables where significant relations weren't found. Thus independent variables' indirect effects on dependent variables can be measured. Other variables can be added to model and new models can be developed. Participants differ in positions. Study can be focused on only one position such as middle level managers. Demographic questions can be increased. Participants can be informed about study before responding questionnaire. Thus participants will be more careful during responding questionnaire. In this study, knowledge transfer between individuals was observed. Knowledge transfer between different organizations or partners can be observed.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2014
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2014
Anahtar kelimeler
Bilgi transferi, Bilgi teknolojisi, Bilgi, Knowledge transfer, Information technologie, Knowledge
Alıntı