Taksim Maçka Büyük Yeşil Alanının Evrimi Ve Kullanım Açısından Değerlendirilmesi

thumbnail.default.placeholder
Tarih
1996
Yazarlar
Sezgin, Bahar
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Çağlar boyunca yeşil alanlar, insanların günlük yaşamları nın sıradanlıklarından kurtulup doğaya ait varlıklarla bir arada olabi lecekleri bir tür sığınak olmuştur. Bu alanlar, geçmişten günümüze toplumların yaşarn biçimine, kültürüne göre fonksiyonel farklılıklar göstermiştir. Tarihsel gelişim içinde yeşil alanların fonksiyonel değişimi ve sistemli bir şekilde planlanması sanayi devrimi ile yaşanmıştır. Batı'da 19. yy. da yaşanan sanayi devrimi, Türkiye'de 20. yy. da yaşan mıştır. Gene aynı dönemlerde ele alınan sistemli yeşil alan planlama sı, Türkiye'de kentlere kimlik kazandırması amaçlanan Cumhuriyet dönemi planları ile gerçekleşmiştir. İstanbul'da 1930'lu yıllarda uygulamaya konan Taksim Maç ka büyük yeşil alanı, çalışmanın konusunu oluşturmuştur. Bu yeşil ala nın gerek büyüklük gerekse kent içindeki önemini vurgulamak amacıy la Beyoğlu semtinin gelişme sürecine yer verilmiştir. Beyoğlu semti nin sosyal ve fiziksel gelişme süreci bu bölgede yer alan Maçka Tak sim büyük yeşil aianının oluşumunu etkilemiştir. Bu gelişme sürecin den sonra Türkiye'de kent planı ile ele alınan yeşil sistem anlayışına örnek olabilecek II No'lu park uygulaması (Taksim Maçka Büyük Yeşil Alanı) tanıtılmaya çalışılmıştır. Park uygulamasına zemin hazır layan faktörler 1800'lü yıllardan itibaren çeşitli belgelerle incelenme ye çalışılmıştır. 1930 yıllarında uygulamaya konan bu büyük yeşil alan 1950 sonrası İstanbul'da yaşanan düzensiz büyüme ile büyük bir kısmı nı kaybetmiştir. Bu büyük yeşil alandan geriye kalan Maçka Demokra si ve İnönü Gezisinin günümüzdeki aktif kullanımından çıkan sorunlar ve bu sorunlara öneriler anket ve gözlemler yardımıyla değerlendiril meye çalışılmıştır.
Men have built settlements in mutual interaction with their surroundings from the time of they began to live together. In this process, the settlements in which the social relations reached the utmost levels to form cities. The history of the green and open areas in the cities are as old as those of settlements. After the industrial revolution and due to the technical changes man was able to develope his environment. As a result of the increase in population the urban movement started to change the understanding of urban planning. The industrialization sped up the urbanization. The urbanization has shown itself by the creation of settlement areas and the population increase in those cities. After the industrial revolution, developments in technology, population density and dispersion of urban areas disturbed the settlements. These factors caused unhealthy urbanization. People, in this process, started urban planning for the protection of the green areas that were systematically destroyed. The open areas in the cities are as old as the histories of the old cities, the open areas in the first settlements are used to have people get together. But, later on, the parks and green areas are used for as recreational areas for resting and hunting areas. During the time the understanding of parks and green areas show functional differences, according to the life styles and cultures of societies. Instead of the parks and gardens belonging to the king and emperors, the parks and recreation areas to be used by the mass population started with the urbanization after the industrial revolution. The arrangements for establishing new ones in this period with the purpose of creating healthy cities, sped up the creation of more parks and gardens. Firstly in London the Royal Parks were opened to public use then in America many parks were laid out for public use. And in France Howmann was assigned by the emperior to vui create more parks and gardens as a result of organizational works. In Turkey, the industrial revolution experienced by western countries in nineteenth century only existed in the twentieth century. It started to work for planning to give the cities identity during the time of the republic. The green areas were planned systematically, together with the plan for urbanization. In ottoman time there were gardens and green areas for the palaces and mansions of the sultans and dignitories on the Golden Horn and Bosphorus. The communal areas for the population were public squares and picnic areas. Before the republican era two eras caused important changes. The Tulip era (Lale Devri) caused the increase in taste for daily recreation in the lives of people. With the Tanzimat era in 19th. century, the base of contemporary Istanbul was laid. In this period, people started to use the good recreational areas around Istanbul. Besides the picnic areas, new parks under the title of Belediye parkları (municipal parks) were built. The number of Municipal parks were increased with the emergence of republic, and the plans to develop the urban identity were made. The green system took into account the urban planning that was started with the plans made by Prost in 1930s. One of the two urban areas remaining in original form is the Park of Sultanahmet-Sarayburnu, and the other is the park of Gümüşsüyü Taksim-Maçka. The second one is the unique reference centre of our city, Taksim quarter and Gümüşsüyü park. One connects Taksim to the Dolmabahçe and on the other hand, it connects the city to Elmadağ-Maçka, the most socially developed areas of its era and it reaches down to Bosphorus. It containes active recreational places like Spor Sergi Sarayı (Sport and Exhibition Palace), Outdoor theatre and Dolmabahçe Stadium. In his plan Prost mentioned that he intended to open Taksim to the Bosphorus shores. It was perceived that he wanted a panoramic view of the Bosphorus all the way from Taksim Square the heart of Istanbul. He also mentioned that he wanted Taksim to resemble the Bois de Boulogne. Between 1938 and 1949, during the time as mayoralty of Lütfi Kırdar he tried to realize the same. The park number two was created by including the İnönü Stadium, Taksim Prommenade, sport and Exhibition Palace, Children Garden of Nişantaşı, Municipality Casino of Taksim, Park of Maçka (Taşlık Orient Cafe), Bayıldım uphill, Outdoor theatre and many parks and gardens. Starting from Taksim, without joining the traffic of the city, following the Taşlık terrace and Kadırgalar Avenue, arriving at Dolmabahçe plan were interrupted by the later plans. After 1950, the chaotic growth of the city, destroyed the majority of the parks. Firstly, the park lost much land when the ix Hilton Hotel was constructed, later with the low of Tourism Encouragement, the Swiss Hotel was constructed by destroying the Taşlık Cafe in 1982. A tourism and business centre is being constructed under the name of Gokkafes in the place of old Lalezar. As Prost mentioned in his plan notes, on the creation of Taksim-Maçka great green area were affected greatly by the Armenian cemetery and the big buildings around the barracks. The Beyoğlu quarter that included in the frontier of the number two park were all vineyard and fruit gardens in Byzantine times. After the conquring of Istanbul, the settlements too low until the end of 18th century, has speeded up after the second half of the 19th century by the improvement of trade and westernazation movements. Up until 19th century, in general, higher officials, embassadors and foreign businessmen domiciled in this district. In the Tanzimat period, that laid the foundation of contemporary Istanbul, it was started to construct the majority of the official buildings including military ones in Beyoğlu. After world war two, the green areas started to be destroyed gradually, and only green areas remaining were around the military garrisons and the places that belonged to the palaces. These buildings, sped up the enterence of Ottoman palace dignitories and government officials to Beyoğlu the other ide of the Golden Horn. Moving the official buildings to this side resulted in private buildings moving to this side as well. In this historical period, as Beyoğlu continued its development and formed with the demands of the social class domicied in this district. Shops giving quality goods and services and withthe bars, cafes and casinos Beyoğlu became the mirror and centre of the life style of western countries. It earned a different district property in the city in terms of physical and social development. Taksim became a quarter to as a result of determination of urban functional areas also as a result of industrialization and urbanization in 20th century. After the promulgation of the republic planning was directed to identify the city and this region as an important centre in the city with its cultural centre, theatres and other important buildings. Two large green areas remain to the present day and form the part number two applied at the result of the plan made at the end of 1930s are within the bounderies of this region. The using properties and the users properties of the Maçka Democracy Park and Taksim Park that are actively used were studied. No data has been found out for the users of the these two parks. Because of the difficulty of determination of the number of the people, and no sampling size has been determined for an inquiry work. An inguiry were carried out by randomly chosen people in the park. 100 at the Maçka Democracy Park and 50 at the Taksim Park from these inguiries were made with the questions about evaluation of the relations between users and the park. Today, İstiklal Caddesi became cultural axis and Taksim Park users usually come this surroundings. Today Beyoğlu is still continuing to function as one of the most socially development areas as well as 18th century. Taksim Park also remain its importance that is coming from old days. In the first years of the republic, Taksim Municipality Garden was the place where intellectuals visit where music and dancing places exits, later last this property. Today, the use and the users of the park has changed. It became a place that people visit randomly. Maçka Democracy Park is used as a big district park in an intensive way. It remained a limited resting park, for some functions that are. not operated by the municipality. This green area located in the center of the city, aimed to serve the community as a park that contains cultural, educational and recreational place. In two parks, a service may be presented to people with better maintenance and activities. It is necessary to draw people to these parks by interesting activities. These needs were emphasis by the users of these parks, are mentioned in this study. Concers and some activities can be realized on the concert platform of the Taksim Park, to enjoy people together. Also a place in the park may be used as an exhibition area. Taksim Park is used intensively during the summer evenings. Considering this, concerts and aeriel fireworks can be take place during summer evening, and this will make the park more attractive. Within the respect to previous studies new and contemporary arrangements should be done in these parks, to increase their usage. Istanbul is world city with its historical, natural and cultural values. It is lasing its green pattern by paying the price of unplanned and rapid urbanization. The available pattern should be protected, green areas should be developed systematically in the area of new urbanization. The protection, arrangements and activities included in these big green areas that serving the city dwellers should be handled as an essential part of the city life. The big green areas seen at the central parts of Paris, New York and London have developed and continued their functions XI systematically, with the plans made in 19th century. But in Istanbul, the system included in the planned urbanization movement has not been kept. For urban residents of all ages and classes, small and large parks offer contact with nature, animal, vegetable and mineral. They provide the opportunity to have a good time just being alive in an approximation of our original environment of earth and sky, plants and water with space to run in or simply to reflect in. The parks, besides having clean air and recreation, enliven people in the physical and moral points of view with the different activities. In this manner, the city parks serving the people of the city should undertake the functions suitable for the dynamic city life.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
Anahtar kelimeler
Yeşil alanlar, İstanbul-Maçka, İstanbul-Taksim, Green areas, İstanbul-Maçka, stanbul-Taksim
Alıntı