Şan eğitiminin Türk müziğine uyarlanması

Oy, Sevilay
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Süreli Yayın ISSN
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Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Sözlü müzikte önemli bir yer tutan şan eğitimi, Batı dünyasında çok eski yıllarda sistemleştirilmeye çalışılmış, bu arayış süreci günümüze kadar devam etmiştir. Söz unsurunun çok önem taşıdığı Türk müziğinde ise; şan eğitimi, ustadan çırağa yöntemiyle dar bir çerçeve içinde varlığım sürdürmüştür. Bu çalışmanın Giriş ve II. Bölümünde, şan hakkında genel bilgiler verilmiş, şanın tarihçesi, konulan ve tarihteki şan metotları üzerinde durulmuştur. III. Bölümde, Türk müziğinde şan eğitiminin ana sorununu teşkil eden ses sis temi farklılıkları hakkında bilgi verilmiş; IV. Bölümde bazı hocalarımızın görüşleri sunulmuştur. V. Bölümde Türk müziği ses sistemine ve üslubuna uygun şan eğitimi üzerin de durulmuş, bu konuda yapılmış bazı çalışmalara yer verilmiştir. Sonuç bölümünde ise, şan eğitiminin gerekliliği ve faydası belirtilmiş, Batı dünyasının oluşturduğu şan tekniğini Türk müziğine uyarlarken dikkat edilmesi gereken hususlar üzerinde durulmuştur.
Chanting, which means "singing" is one of the oldest forms of art which was systemized. It has been endeavoured, especially in Italy, to improve the chant ing tecniques since the 3 rd century. Towards the end of 15 th and 16 the centuries, the art reached its peak. And in 17 th and 18 th centuries skilful chan ters (choristers) started to perform masterly things. The art of poetry, on which chanting has been founded, became as important as music in the 19 th century, and it was claimed that music should be strictly tied on emotions and thoughts. The art of chanting has still its dominance over music in the 20 th century. Chanting includes a very wide range of subjects. Solfege, ornamentation, breath control, diction, interpretation (nuance) are some of these subjects. In order to do the chanting exercises, which add discipline, precision and healt to the voice, one should primarily possess the knowledge of solfege. It's impossible to keep the quality of a voice the same without drilling the exercises and the gamutes. Secondly a chanter should have no problem in breathing. The function of diaphragm is to support the breath. A chanter who has no control of breathing can lose his tonality and this might put pressure on him. Diaphragm training and vii its development will supply the chanters with a smooth voice. Interpretation, on the other hand, can only start after a total confidence is acquired in music. When melody, intervals and rhythm are mastered, the only thing that remains is to combine the Lyrics with music. The meaning and the rhythm of the poem (lyrics) are expressed in the melodic part of the music. In order to achieve this one has to know the content and the meaning of the poem (lyrics) thoroughly. This is the furst step to interpretation. Ornamentation is a form of art which performers have been practicing intuitively since the 3 rd century. It provides a more detailed expression of the music. Diction, another subject of chanting, carries a great importance in the performance of musical pieces with lyrics. A bad diction might spoil all the beau ties of a lyric song. It' s clear that chant training is of great importance for Western Culture. But what has been or must be the effect of chant training in Turkish music? Should it be adapted to Turkish music? If the answer is yes, what criteria should be taken into consideration ? Furst of all Let' s have a look at the development of chant training in our coutnry. During the Ottoman Empire chant training was given in Enderun, tekkes (dervish convent), and meşks (practising music). Enderun School of Music at Hümayun, Topkapı Palace was known as the VIII most important and liveliest center of Turkish music. Secular music training was given at this school. Sacred music training, on the other hand, was given in mevlevi houses and tekkes (dervish convent). Aother form of training was throuht practising music (meşk). In this form, musical works of art were performed by masters of music ; thus the trainees were thaught in this way. Chant training maintained its existence through these music groups in a Limi ted circle and a disorganized way. The establishment of Mizika-i Hümayun in 1828 and the spread of Western music, the shut down of Enderun in 1908 by the Decleration of Constitution, and the shut-down of tekkes are some of the events which caused the decline of Tur kish music. The first appearance of chant training in Turkish music started with the establishment of Turkish Music State Conservatory in 1976 in Istanbul. Later, Tur kish Music Conservatory which was established in 1984 in Izmir, and Turkish Mu sic Conservatory which was established in 1988 in Gaziantep included chant train ing in their schedule. However, the chant training in Turkish Music Conservatories today uses the Western music sound system, which is technically very different from Turkish mu sic sound system. But every system should be handled within its structure. The methods practised should match with the sound system of the music. Chanting met hods practised vary from one place to the other througout the world. Sound (voice) ewecises of temporal Western music is smooth, without throat sounds and have IX more intervals compared Turkish music. Furthermore, in Western music Culture the human voice has been considered as an instrument and chanting methods have be en developed accordingly. However, the instruments lend to have a somewhat hu manlike sounds in Turkish music. Same problems have been arising while practic ing Western music chanting methods in the training of Turkish music, which has a unique system of sounds and a style. Chanting methods may spoil the style of melodic and throat using Turkish music. The differences between these two forms make a detailed and scientific research necessary to reveal the problems of using chanting methods in the teaching of Turkish music. In this study, which presents a "Model of Chanting Method in Turkish Music" some information has been given about well-structured sounds and rejistr, some suggestions have been made and some exercises have been formed appropriate to Turkish music soudn system. To practice the method, instruments with fixed pitch (tone) such as tamboura or zither should be used and an experienced Turkish music instructor should mo nitor and help the learner. In the formation of the method, before the interval, "dörtlü", "beşli" and tu ne (makam) exercises, training of sounds production exercises on a single sound has been considered appropriate. To achieve this, syllables containing consonants such as "N" or "M" have been chosen as they give the sounds dominance (syll ables such as me, mo, ne, no). Then, sample exercises of bakiye, küçük mücennep, büyük mücennep, tanini and "Artık ikili" intervals have been given respectively. These exercises have been considered to be supported with exercises of "dörtlü", "beşli" and tone (makam) serials. In the model method, more melodic "dörtlü", "beşli" and tone (makam) exercises have also been included. Consequently, one might easily put forward that a chanter cannot reach his listeners solely through his voice, or his interpretation or the rhythm. A chanter should present an artistic combination of all these qualities. By means of techni que, he can easily establish this combination. It is an undisputable fact that we should make use of chanting technique in Turkish music. Chanting technique provides the artist (chanter) with a chanter's capacity. It contributes to a chanter's volume, breath and pitching by means of di aphragm technique. Lastly, it helps to supply the intonation between the low-pitch ed and high-pitched sounds of Turkish music, which is highly rich in terms of melodic content. While practicing the chanting technique in Turkish music, the very first po int we should notice is to establish a style which wouldn't spoil the characteristic structure of Turkish music. We should adapt this technique of Western Culture in such a way that it wouldn't effect our culture in any way. No matter what material we possess and what combination we would make, our studies must be based on the principle of "maintaining the natural form of a sound and avoiding the corruption of style"
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1997
Anahtar kelimeler
Eğitim, Müzik, Türk müziği, Şan eğitimi, Education, Music, Turkish music, Voice education