Sanayide doğal gaza dönüşüm ve İstanbul'da sanayinin doğal gaz tüketim potansiyeli

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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu çalışmada sanayi tesislerinde güncel bir konu olan doğal gaz dönüşümleriyle ilgili olarak, doğal gaz yakma, kontrol ve güvenlik donatıları hakkında bilgi vermeyi ve çeşitli sektörlerdeki uygulamalarıyla, dönü¬ şüm, çalışmalarında izlenmesi gereken yöntem hakkında bilgi vermeyi amaç edinmiştir. Dönüşümden sonra ekonomik fizibilite yapılmış ve doğal gazın diğer yakıtlara göre yararları gösterilmiş¬ tir. Diğer bir çalışma ile de İstanbul içindeki sanayi kuruluşlarının tüketebileceği gaz miktarları yaklaşık 6DO.000.DDa mVyıl alarak hesaplanmıştır.
Natural gas has been knoun among mankınd for thousands of years. The Chınese uıere using natural gas conveyed through bamboo pipes since ancient times. The United States uere pioneers in the field of develop- ing natural gas industry as fram 1930, Ue had ta uait until 196D's for the discovery of huge natural gas deposits in various parts of the uorld (in USSR, North Africa, and Uestern Europe) ta give the gas industry its true uorld dimension. Millions of years ago microscopical arganisms living in suspension in sea uıater died and deposited at the battotn af aceans. These various layers mingled uith small rocks ör plant particles, giving a salid mass called "Mather Rack" that grodually started ueeping petroleum and natural gas. They begun ascending through parous media until they remained imprisoned under a dome of impervious graund ör trapped by faults. They formed the deposits uıe discover today. Natural gas is a mixture of light higdrocarbons. The main component is methane (CH,) composed af hydrojen and carbon. it is odorless lighter than air and its density is D.55. it is usually found associated uıith other hydrocarbons, gasoline, propane, bütane ör uıith carbondioxide. its chemical composition varies from öne reservoir to another. Natural gas is a primary energy resource evolving directly fram nature and used in its original state as opposed to secondary energies uhich is the result of transforming another energy such as electricity and synthetic fuel. its specific features are cleanness, x it burns uithout ashes nor carbonmoxide nor sulpur combustian products are non toxic carbondiaxide and mater uapor. Natural gas gives tuıice as much heat as manufactured gas does. Öne may say it has a double calorific value as compared ta «f nu factured gas ör city gas. it contains very little sulphur and has high heating value. Therefore, the natural gas seems to be the best fuel for environmental pratection. As a developing country, Turkey is relatively uıell endoued uith hydrapouer, geathermal energy and lignite sources, but has limited amaunt of oil, gas and coal resourcea. Houıever, our industry is heavly dependent on oil. There fare Turkey imports oil to meet the domestic consumption. Turkey has ta fallou the energy diver- sificatian palicy in order to meet the energy demand against economical fluctuations in the uorld market. Effects and uncertainties arising from the oıl shocks of the 1970's stili persist. The situation leads the uıorld energy market to search for the neu energy sources uıhich have relative advantages compared to oil in terms of calory, price, transportation and environmental effects. Under these circumstances, natural gas comes in ta the scene as a brandneıu fuel uhich provides higher plant efficiency, sharter constructian time, flexibility on the loading and unloading of plants and advantages of environmental protection. İstanbul is a rapidly expanding city. in order to meet the energy demands of such a large metropolitan area, the İstanbul Natural Gas praject uıas put into effect in 19B5. The increase in the cost of energy has started the efforts to use energy more efficiently, therefore natural gas has become the most preferable alternative energy. Majör energy savings can be achieved by heating industrial liquids uith decentralized, natural-gas-fired plants. This study gives general information on flame and cambustion praperties af natural gas, burner selection principles, industrial gas controls, flame moniloring and safety epuipments, also explains the utilization fields of natural gas and finally steps xı 4> gives for conversion of industries ta natural gas. Same problems related to natural gas consumption in the industry such as general economical policy, canversion of heating boilers to natural gas systems, environmental concerns and security ete. idili be discussed in this study. The general design criteria of natural gas projects for industrial applications are given. The usage of natural gas in the industry brings in some advantages such as energy savings, higher qualities and louer costs of final products. There are various conversion applicable techniques for the industry including: - Diret heating by submerged combustion uıhich yields the highest thermal efficiency (namely better than 90 % gross) for applications involving temperatures belouj 60 C and lixuids compatible uıith direct heating. - Direct heating by compact immersion tubes ör heaters uhich is sui table for any liquid and ali temperatures providing as gross thermal efficiency ranging from 81% to 90%. Each of these techniques can be applied in various arrangement configurations such as in a tank, in a side stream ör as an industrial höt uatern :nerator, for optimum adaptation to different industrial höt uater generator, and industrial processes. A high-performance natural gas solution is available for every industrial ör heating problem. in case of fuel conversion of an existing boller furnace into natural gas, the furnace temperature rises due to the elimination of the of the flame. Some precauti'âns are necessary top protect the sensible parts such as superheater, türbine glades ete. Against high temperatures and high furnace loads. Today, conversions from other fuels ta natural gas is at the agenda of most plants uıhich brings the question af choosing technologies. xıı This study compares the cost of steam and cost of direct fifing at a plant where energy conscious plant managers shall easily observe the benefits. One of the major activities in natural gas conversion projects in industrial plants is the installations of gas transmission and distribution lines. Gas leaks in general are potentially much more dongerous than oil leaks. Therefore, when conducting pipe laying operations for the gas grid, regulatory requirements and relevant standards shauld be fallowed and a meticulaus care must be taken for both material and workman ship to improve safety and operation. Together with the arrival of natural gas into our country, conversion of coal or oil fired heaters and industrial boilers to natural gas has started. The matter to be fulfilled for a proper (ef f ici en t ) conversion and rules to be taken into consideration in designing a natural gas fired boiler are stated. One of the most significant advantages of the natural gas is the potential of savings by consuming it at the point of consequenses. This study gives on idea of haw it can be done and gives also some examples of saving possibilities. Finally, the natural gas consumption figures of the industry sector in İstanbul are given. Data_ collected from various plants and factories by İGDAŞ were analyzed..The peak loads, daily, mantly and yearly natural gas consumption by the industry were studied. The sectaral distribution of natural gas consumption is also discussed. This study covers 671 firms (companies) which have been examined by terms of sectors. While the textile sector has been found to be the biggest consumer, the least consumption is in Glass-Ceramics- Sail sector. The results carrelate the ones that have been obtained in a research by B0TAŞ. Industry in Istanbul has a small scale. 50% of the consumption is begin done by less than 20 companies. Results indicate that about 600 million mVyear of natural gas consumption is expected to occur. xixi On the other hand, there are 750. 000 Hauses in İstanbul The expected gas consumption for each hause is 2000m3/ year. So the total domestic natural gas consumption is 1.5 billion m3/year. Results indicate that about 2.1 billion m3/year of natural gas consumption is excpected to occur.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1991
Anahtar kelimeler
Doğal gaz, Dönüşüm, Endüstri sektörü, Tüketim potansiyeli, İstanbul, Natural gas, Transformation, Industry sector, Consumption potential, Istanbul