İş güvenliği ve petrol endüstrisinin analizi

Mert, Hasan
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Gelişen sanayi beraberinde iş güvenliği ile ilgili sorunları da getirmektedir, iş güvenliği ekonomik olarak gelişmiş olsun olmasın her ülke için üzerinde durulması gereken bir konu olmuştur, îş güvenliğinin ana amacı hem çalışanları korumak, hem de işletmenin ve üretimin güvenliğini sağlamaktır. Ayrıca çalışanların kazalara karşı korunmasının yanında onlara daha iyi bir yaşam ortamı sağlamak iş güvenliğinin amaçları arasındadır. Bunun yanında iş güvenliği kendine özgü konuları, kuralları, teorileri, temel ilkeleri olan bir çalışma alanı haline gelmiştir. Bu ilke ve yasalar olayların doğal bir sonucu olarak ortaya çıkmaktadır. îş kazaları ve meslek hastalıkları nedeniyle hem çalışanlar hem de işletme ve çevre zarar görür. Bugün iş kazalarının neden olduğu kayıpların boyutu konunun ulusal düzeyde ele alınmasını gerektirmektedir. Ayrıca sanayide kullanılan kimyasal maddelerin sayısının artması çalışanlar için önemli riskler taşımaktadır. Bundan dolayı kullanılan kimyasal maddenin ortam içinde bulunabileceği konsantrasyon miktarına sınırlamalar getirilmiştir. Petrol endüstrisi arama, sondaj, üretim, rafineri ve taşıma sektörü gibi beş ana sektöre ayrılabilmektedir. Petrol endüstrisinin uluslararası niteliğinin olmasına rağmen iş güvenliği çalışmaları ülkelerin sosyo-ekonomik politik ve coğrafi özelliklerine göre farklılıklar göstermektedir. Petrol endüstrisi yapısı itibariyle diğer endüstrilere kaynak sağlama özelliğine sahiptir
People had strunggled against flood, earth quake, storms like nature desaster and also wild animals and tried to avoid hazards by them. They wanted to be in security. The occupational safety have got important with development of industy. The reasons of increasing of risks caused by technology and hazards of occupational accidant it is necessary to take preventive precaution. The result of them, occupational safety studies have gradualy increasing important to all of firms that want to become more productive and profitable In this thesis, occupational safety and analyzing petroleum industry, subjects is studied on six parts. These are, Part 1 : Occupational safety Part 2 : Occupational accident Part 3 ' occupational illnesses Part 4 : The main principles of occupational safety Part 5 : Association interested in occupational safety Part 6 : Analyzing petroleum industry Part 1 : occupational Safety In generali occupational safety can be divided three parts. Those are, 1 - B'actory or plant safety 2 - Employer safety 3 - Production safety ( viii) Shortly it can "be defined as protecting production factors. Occupational safety is also connected with some different sciences. Those are economy, statistic, mana gement, law ? medicine, ergonomy, policy and some engi neering sciences. They help occupational safety to sol ve problems- caused illnesses and accideat. Occupational safety is closely consedered with productivity increasing methods. If a firm want to become productive it should applies occupational safety prin ciples againts hazards. Part 2 : Occupational accident Occupational accident have some hazards for human, machines, equipments, environment and national economy. In generali, by specialists occupational accident defined as events which occur in a sudden effect coming from environment and peoble meanwhile working. Six occurence interested in injury must be together in order to mention accident. Those are, 1 - Body defect 2 - Sudden interference effect 3 - External interference 4 - Strong effect 5 - Accident must be occur without injuried persons will In order to analyze occupational accident some statistic ratio is used, - Accident frequency rate - Accident severity rate - Relative frequency rate - Accidence rate - Average Accidant rate ( ix ) Accident is divided three groups as its result. Those are acording to severity, injury category and ac cident category. Reasons of acicdents is personal factors, non-safe ty physical and mechcanical environment condition. Part 3 : Occupational illnesses Occupational ilnesses is a kind illness which is injur© to workers during working because of bad effect. Occupational illnesses is divided five groups. 1 - Chemical substance illnesses 2 - Occupational skin illnesses 3 - Pnömokonyas and other professional respiration illnesses 4. - Professional contagious illnesses 5 - Physical factors Part 4 : Main principles of occupaitonal safety Occupational safety consists of ten main principles. Those principles constitute study subjects, medhods, forms, and complementory elements of safety. Part 5 - Associations interested in occupational safety This subject consists of international and national organizations. International organizations are International., labor Organization and World Helth Organization. National orga nization are occupational helth and safety organizations in place of employment and ministries. Part 6 : Analyzing petroleum industry The nature and magnitude of employment accident ha- zrads in the petroleum industry vary substantially from one sektör to another depending on the of activity, the technical processes used. Xt may be useful to examine this< major category of occupational risks, taking each sector of the petroleum industry' in turn C x ; a - Exploration Personel engaged in exploration work on land are often called upon to travel through remote mountainous or des sert region, on foot or by car, along roads which are not always in good condition. Transport accidents may have very serious consequences, bearing in mind that more often than not explosive are carried and handled in large quantity. The manipulation of charges of dyna mite off-shore may have special feature of its own which are likely to increase the danger. b - Drilling In drilling, accident hazards are associated with the use of heavy machinary, particularly during the erection of derricks, which involes working at heigths and the mechanical shifting of heavy loads. While such laods, are being or crushing of the rib cage caused by swaying cables, chians or heavl pieces of metal. The most serious drilling accident are those aris ing from the handling of drillpipes and tubes and the use of spanners to couble and uncouple them, as well as those associated with the use of cables to conrol the movements of these pieces of equipmens. Hadling operations are generally carried out by unskiled persons. Their work is made more ardous by ex - posure to the rigours of bad weather conritions. They are particularly in dargers of falling from congested and slippery platforms. Condition are worse stil on offshore drillig plat forms, where, in addition to bad weather, workers have to conted with movements of the platfomrs caused by the swell or giant waves. Sometimes, in the North Sea, the rise and fall may amount to as much as 3 or 4 metres. c - Production The operation for the extraction, degassing and. stabilization processing of petroleum are almost entirely automated, and consequently require only asraall staff for the supervision, cheking, and maintenance of the installations. Potantial hazards, whi3.e less dramatic than those involved in drilling. : ( xi ) d - Refining The treatment capacities of the refineries, as well as the.temperature and pressures used in them, are con- tantly increasing, thereby appreciable aggravating the consequences of explosion and fire hazards, the methods of cotrol and detection have automoted systems. Defects that occur can be corrected by hand or with the aid of a computer. Kemote conrol of the installations enable the operators to function in complete safety in enclosed areas. Equepment, whethter or mobile, applying one or several suitable fire extinction products( sprinkled water, powder, foam, halegenated gases ) ensure pro tecting automatically must be equiped also with a hand- operated control. e - Transport In petroleum irdustry transportation is divided three groups.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1991
Anahtar kelimeler
Petrol endüstrisi, İş güvenliği, İş kazaları, Petroleum industry, Work safety, Occupational accidents