Yat turizminde birer altyapı olarak marinalar ile yönetim ve organizasyonun önemi

Doğan, Mustafa Nazmi
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu tezin konusu, yat turizminin önemine değinerek sorunlarını ortaya koymak, sektörün temel altyapısı durumundaki yat limanları için önerilerde bulunmak ve sektöre baz oluşturabilecek bir marinalar zinciri yönetim modeli oluşturmak üzere belirlenmiştir. Birinci bölümde konuya genel bir giriş yapılarak; yat turizminin, dünya turizmindeki değişimlere uygun olarak Türk Turizmi açısından önemine değinilmiştir. Tezin amacı belirtilerek, yat turizmimizin sorunlarına bilimsel bir yaklaşımda bulunulmaya çalışılmıştır. İkinci bölümde Yat Turizmi 'nin incelenmesine geçilmektedir. Yat Turizmi 'nin tanımlaması yapılarak, geçmişi ve bugünkü durumu hakkında bilgi verilmesine çalışılmıştır. Geniş bir Dünya perspektifinden başlayarak ülkemize doğru bir odaklamaya girişilmiş; Karaipler ve Akdeniz olarak iki büyük yatçılık alanı belirlenmiştir. Akdeniz üzerinden ülkemiz Yat Turizmine giriş yapılarak, karşılaştırmalı bilgiler sunulmuştur. Türkiye'deki Yat Turizminin geçmişteki ve günümüzdeki durumu ve sektördeki ana işletme tiplerinden söz edilerek sorunlar belirlenmiş, alınabilecek önlemler hakkında önerilerde bulunulmuş tur. üçüncü bölümde, yat turizminin temel altyapısı konumundaki yat limanlarının tanımlaması yapılmış, marina işletmeciliğinin çerçevesi çizilmiştir. Dünyada ve Akdeniz'deki yat limanları ile Türk yat limanları karşılaştırılarak farklar ortaya konmuş, neler yapılabileceği konusunda öneriler belirlenmiştir. Bu bölümde ayrıca ülkemizdeki yat limanları ile ilgili bilgiler de verilmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde, marina işletmeciliğinde görülen yönetim ve organizasyon eksikliğine çözüm sağlayabilecek bir model kurmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu modelin, dünyada görüldüğü gibi etkin merkezsel örgütlenmeye sahip bir yönetim yapısındaki "marinalar zinciri" olabileceği belirlenmiştir. Bu model yapının yararlarına değinilerek, örnek bir yönetim yapısı oluşturulmuştur. Karinalarda temel fonksiyonlar belirlenerek, bu fonksiyonlara karşılık gelecek görev tanımlamaları ile model marina örgütsel yapısı kurulmuştur. Son bölümde tezin ve yat turizminin genel bir değerlendirmesi yapılarak, önerilen çözümler ve kurulan marinalar zinciri model yönetim yapısı irdelenmiştir.
Tourism industry both for developing countries and for developed countries, which have historical natural and cultural values, is getting a mean to narrow the gap of balance of payments. Since tourism is like an appetizing chocalate-cake, whole countries are striving to catch a slice from this cake. Tourism in Turkey began to develop at the beginning of 1980' s years. It's certain that, one of the most important reason of this movement is unspoilt Turkish nature. Developed contries in tourism, e.g. Spain, Italy, covered their coasts with massive concrete structures like hotels. Since communication and travel possibilities is getting better day by day The World is getting smaller. And depend on this situation, tourists began to tend to go farer countries. Therefore, Turkey should be extremely careful not to repeat the same mistakes other countries have inevitably done before. Turkey whose coasts have been spoilt, having sea and coast pollutions, won't be able to welcome more permanent tourist and tourism income. In this Bespect Yacht Tourism is getting important. Because in this kind of tourism, yacht are like travelling hotels and it isn't necessary more structures on land according to the other type of tourism. The target of this thesis is to indentify problems of Yacht Tourism in Turkey, Make suggestions on marinas which are the basic structures of yacht tourism and design a model management structure and organization of "marina chain" which is adaptible to yacht tourism sector. CHAPTER II: YACHT TOURISM In the recent years not only tourism in the world has been growing rapidly but it has also getting assorted. Now the cake isn't chocalate, it is tutti-frutti - Yacht tourism is the one of these types of tourism. The demand for yachting is increasing because of its features : it satisfifis the feelings of freedom, being close to nature and history, -sports and adventure, exploration. Yacht tourism is composed of private yachting and resting of yachts by groups,. Private yachts ' owners are both local owners and cruiser owners. Local owners moor their own yachts in nearest marina and sail at weekends. Cruiser owners have more convenient time to sail and cruise. Generally they give tenths to cruise in foreign seas and leave yachts in a marina so as to park for winter. Other groups of yacht tourists are charteres. They rent a yacht or a cabin for certain time from Yacht Charter Agencies. We can think that they're like a customer of a floating hotel or a boarding-House. Yachts which are used in yacht tourism, in general, are sailers or motorboats. Percentage of sailer yachts, cruising at the Mediterranean Coasts, is 73%. If we look over to the Yacht Tourism of the World, We can notice that there are two important cruising areas in the world: The Caribbean Sea and The Mediterranean Sea. If we liken the Caribbean Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, both of them have convenient winds to sail, tepid climate, rich natural and cultural beauties.... etc. But they are not competitor to eachother because of distance and seasonorder. The Mediterranean Sea is very much suitable for yachting, both because of its climate and winds convenient to sail, its natural small bays and marinas and different cultures and history of surrounding countries, Coasts of Spain, France, Italy in the West Mediterranean and marinas on these coasts, are just about to lose their dreamlike quality. The increasing amount of pollution at coasts this side of the Mediterranean, the prices of marinas which have risen astronomically, have dissuated yachtmen from western Mediterranean. As a result of this situation, in recent years, yachtmen have finally managed to find themselves newcoasts in the Eastern Mediterranean wich are both economic and lovely, adorned with crystal-clear waters. Today's most popular cruising areas in the Mediterranean are as follows : - Sardinia and Corsica Islands (Bonifacio Straits) - Dalmatian Coasts in Yugoslavia - Greek Islands: The Saronic Gulf, The Sporades, The Ionian Islands - Turkish coasts (Lycian and Karian coasts) Yacht tourism in Turkey began with French and Greek charter operations. At the same time, our intellectuals made journeys by local boats and called these jfaurreys as "Blue Voyage". But Yacht Tourism has recently emerged as a new sector in Turkish tourism. The concept started back in' 1980' s and really took of in 1983 after the acceptance of new law with the lspecific objectives of regulating and promoting yacht tourism; constructing new marinas, renovating and improving existing ones and encouraging yacht charter services in Turkey. That's why, we can divide history of yacht tourism in Turkey by this law. ix Breezes that provide pleasant sailing, beautiful unspoilt natural bays, short distance between harbours are advantages of yacht tourism to develop in our country. Cruising season is also longer than the west. Boats, coming from Spain, France, Italy and Greece, usually sail into Bodrum or Marmaris and go down to Fethiye. Others start out from Israel, sail to Cyprus and our southern shores, Rhodes and Greece, then return to western Europe. The yacht traffic is very crowded between Bodrum and Finike. Investments in yacht tourism are as follows: - Marina managements - Parking ashore managements - Yacht chartering managements Marinas are most important substructure for Yacht Tourism. Marinas are divided safety sea areas in which yachtmen can moor, maintain their own yacht, go on shopping, take a bath, wash clothes, pump in oil, eat, drink, amaze, communicate.... etc. A well-equipped marina should give these services to yachtmen and other customer. Parking ashore management resembles marina management. But at the parking ashore area, there is no structure at sea. In mean, they have more activity for maintaining and repairing then entertainment. Yacht charter management is most developed type of yacht tourism. There are three types of chartering: Bareboat charter, Filotilla charter and crewed charter. Although hiring of crewed yachts is popular in domestic sector which is common in Europe, is bareboat charter. Foreign demand, increasing everyear, consists mainly of charter yachts in the foim of bareboat or filotillas. Yacht tourism in Turkey has begun to become as an advertising - spot for whole Turkish tourism. The translucent turquiose water and the ^continuous warm sun makes the Southwest coasts, one of the best yachting ground in the world. Although there's no statistics the share of yacht tourism in Turkish Tourism Income is roughly 6%; But this figure may be easily risen to 30%. The main problem of our yacht tourism is lack of substructures. Marinas in Turkey are so unsufficient from both number of berths and quality. It's certain that development in yacht tourism directly rely on marinas which are base of it. According to 1990' s figures, Turkish marinas have 4337 berthing places. This figures is corresponding to 2,6% in the Mediterranean. Small mooring places should be built in virgin small bays, instead of concrete structures like hotels. Coasts should be adorn with small mooring places, resorts, haven and marinas like a chain. Pollution is a bigger danger to our yacht tourism, it must be hindered, lack of quality personnel and thinking of modern management are big problems. Efficient management and organization structures structures should be designed. Ministries should continue to encourage and help yacht tourism sector. The strech between Bodrum and Kekova, defined as the most dense cruising area, should lenghten firstly İzmir to Antalya, then Çanakkale to Alanya, and Black Sea. Yachting should be done in coorperation with other tourists activities. It can be horizantally integrated with housing facilities, land tours... etc. CHAPTER III: MARINA MANAGEMENT Marinas are safety havens in which yachtmen can moor, take a bath, wash clothes, go on shopping, maintain and repair their own yacht, eat, drink, communicate, have a good time....etc. There is a definition difference between general marina mean and marina definition in the Regulation No: 83/6708. Regulation, marina definition contains mainmarinas, subordinate marinas, bartWng places and parking ashore places. But, berthing places and parking ashore places aren't marinas. This regulation defined substructures and infrastructures which are compulsory for marina investments. Mainly, yacht tourists either on their own or chartered vessels use marinas. Naturally each group has its own requirements, some of common to all groups and some specific to particular ones. But in general it's possible to make some groups of marina services: a) Safety : Marinas should provide full protection against everykind of weather and so on... b) Ease of mooring : Greatest problem in marina is anchoring in congested area. Wharfs and piers should be convenient to moor with manoeuvring possibility. Each berth must has access to a services- box where berthholders get freshwater, electricity and telephone services. c) Parking for winter d) Hauling and Launching : So as to inspect or repair yachts and parking ashore. e) Repair and maintenance facilities : Battery charging, cleaning and washing, below the water line, sanding, scraping caulking, rust - proofing, filler, painting, polishing, sailcloth repairing, engine conservation, revision,.... etc. f) Sanitary facilities : Washing, shower, toilet and laundry -? facilities should be given as clean and attractive asl possible. g) Refuse facilities : Rubbish and waste-oil disposal services, h) i) Communication services : Keeping bertholder's letters, facs, telex or telephone messages and PTT services. j) Shopping center : Chandlery shops, supermarkets, duty frees, banks, pharmacy....etc. xx k) Brokerage and charter facilities : Mortgage - insurance, travel bureau, boat brokerage, yacht sales, boat restal, chapter yachts, rent-acar.... services. 1) Housing facilities : Hotels, boarding - houses, captain's inns, parking lots... etc. m) Fuel jetty and lub oil n) Leisure facilities : yacht club, restaurants, bars, cafes, sportscenter, swimming pool, tennis courts... etc. After the World War II, marina investments have been spread on firstly USA, then Europe. According to 1990' s figures there are 166913 berths in the Mediterranean Sea. And there is a big gap between figures of Western and Eastern Mediterranean. We can divide Mediterranean countries into three groups with their shares in capacities : Leader countries Following " Others France, Spain, Italy 86,4% Yugoslavia, Turkey, Greece, Tunusia 12% 1,6% Although Turkey's share in the Mediterranean basin is 2,6%, our Aegean and Mediterranean coasts' share is 1,2%. This figures are too less to earn more money from Yacht Tourism. For that reason, it's about time we built new marinas and renovated old ones. The first mainmarina in Turkey is Bodrum Marina, opened in October 1976. Then Kuşadası Marina, opened in January 1977, Kemer Marina, opened in August 1985, Kaleiçi Marina, opened in 1986 joined to the Turban Marinas Chain. Then private enterpriser began to invest in marinas, e.g. Netsel, Setur, Tek-art, Ataköy Tourism Inv... and so on. Marinas in Turkey can be divided into three groups - Turban Marinas : Kaleiçi, Kemer, Bodrum, Kuşadası - Private Marinas : Netsel Marmaris, Setur Altmyunus, Ataköy, Fenerbahçe ete. - Municipal Marinas : Finike, Kaş, Kalkan, Fethiye, Marmaris, Sığa cık, çanakkale ete. The most important. problem of Turkish marinas is lack of capacity and services. While criusing area will be lep^Ttening, new marina projects, suitable to daily cruising distance and closeness to airports, should be designed. Marinas are expensive investments. That ' s why, old marinas should be revised and retrwated before new ones would be built. Privatization of Turban marinas could be a beginning for this schedule. If marinas are brought together as marina chains which have efficient central organization and good management structure, they can utilize benefits of economies to scale (return to scale). Therefore, they could have large information budget, more density in investment and more efficient central personnel training. As they could have more marketing advantages, they could easily compete with their own competitors. xu CHAPTER IV : MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATION IN MARINA MANAGEMENT If we want to compete with strong- competitors and earn more money in Yacht Tourism, we should have efficient management structures in this sector. In this chapter, a model management structure for marinas will be striven to design. First of all we need to know marina definition. Then we should follow Planning and Service Management Cycle so as to design a management structure. This cycle includes these stages : Planning, Organizing, Directing, Coordinating, Controlling and Planning again. Since marinas are in service sector, firstly the customer, "yachtmen" should be defined marina objectives should be determined according to peculiarities and wishes of yachtmen and also investment. Then marina functions should be determined. Stage of organizing follows planning. Marina functions and services should be brought together as groups and departments. Positions, created according to requirements, should be defined and qualify persons should be employed. Authorities and : respcnslhllLtles should quitely and truely be defined. Yachtmen who are customers of yacht tourism spend more money than other tourists because of their income level. But at the same time they expect more amount a^i quality of services. If they couldn't find a place in which they provide their requirements, they coultn't spend money. That's why marinas should satisfy whole needs of yachtmen. Good planning is the key to successful- service marketing. The first step in marina planning is setting objectives. Objectives must coincide with marina' s overall corporate mission and goals. Objectives must be simple, concise, precise and quantifiable, internally consistent and feasible. Initial corporate objectives for specific services, territories, and other entities. Profitable marina marketing happens by design, not by chance Our model, a chain of marinas, aims at becoming the best marinas in Eastern Mediterranean. And this model have designed on a good planning so as to satisfy customer's needs and have an acceptible payback period, internal rate of return and cost and benefit ratios. If works and functions in marina which are necessary to reach the objectives, determine in detail, we can notice that there are two different types of functions in marinas: - Logistic functions : Repair and maintenance, hauling and launching, financial works, administrative works.... etc. ~ Strategic functions : reception, marketing facilities, control tower, harbour facilities like mooring and hawser service. We can set four departments from these functions: 1) Customer Affairs and Marketing xiii 2) Harbour services 3) Technical Services 4) Financial and Administrative Works Each department is directed by a vice-manager who is responsible for their own department and responsible to Marina Manager. Department of Financial and Administrative Works, includes functions which are as follows : accounting, personnel works, administrative works, purchasing, budgeting, business pursuit, directing some facilities which are directly rely on marina management like fuel-jetty. This department could be divided into three divisions: - Division of Accounting - Division of Purchasing and Business pursuit - Division of Personnel Works Department of Technical Services, includes functions which are as follows : hauling and launching; parking ashore; engine, hull, sailcloth, electrical, electronical... etc. repairs and maintenances; repair and maintenance of marina structures and other techinal works. This departmait could be divided into two division: - Division of Hauling & Launching - Division of Repair & Maintenance Department of Harbour Services includes functions which are as follows : yacht walcanirg, mooring, entering and exiting in/out marina, security, fire precautions, hawser, organizing marina services.... etc. This department should be included three division: - Division of Control-tower - Division of Security - Division of Sailors Department of Customer Affairs and marketing includes functions which are as follows: yacht registrations, communication, information, face-to-face relationships, helps, marketing, hiring, monitoring, secreterial works.... etc. This department should be included three divisions: - Division of Reception - Division of Customer Affairs - Secreterial Division Chain of marinas should be an incorporated company. Therefore, General Committee and Board of Directors are at the top of the hierarchy. Marina managers are responsible to General Manager. There is also an executive structure at the high level which resembles marina departments. There should be four superintendents: xiv - Financial and Administrative Supt. - Technical Project Supt. - Marketing and Planning Supt. - Harbour Services and Training Supt. These superintendents have different responsibilities and authorities then marina vice - managers. Their responsibilities and authorities are more contentful, they coordinate all marinas and design the businesses of the company. They're also responsible to the General Manager. This is an informal organization chart. Organization always rely on personnel, working there. This structure is just an offer, that's why, it can be change. If a good matrix training could be supplied, and if persons are suitable for it, matrix liaisons between superintendents at the high level", and marina vice - managers, should be set. If numbers of marinas have been increased more, Regional managers should be employed. After stage of directing, coordinating and controlling, management structure and organization of the model should be improved and renovated. CONCLUSION Yacht tourism is a big opportunity to Turkey because of its features. In this type of tourism it isn't necessary to invest alot of massive structures which is covering coasts. Yacht tourism, in this respect, can be a serious.stçplement to increase bed capacity. Although Yacht Tourism in the Mediterranean is a big cake, Turkey has a very small slice of it (3.8%). The share of Yacht tourism in Turkish Tourism Income is roughly 6%. But this figures may easily be risen to the former 15% the latter 30%. Turkey could be the leader of yacht tourism in the Mediterranean. Main substructures are marinas. There fore, problems of yacht tourism in Turkey should be solved. Cruising areas should be lenghtened. New marinas, having good service-mix and management structure, should be built and the old ones should be renovated marinas should be brought together as marina chains so as to utilize "return to scale". It shouldn't be forgotten that, a good management structure and organization is necessary to marinas. The model that was striven to set in this thesis is a marina chain which have an efficient management structure. I think that this structure can be adapted to sector.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1990
Anahtar kelimeler
İşletme, Marinalar, Organizasyon, Yat turizmi, Yönetim, Business Administration, Marinas, Organization, Yacht tourism, Management