Anadolu konutlarında morfolojik analiz

Eser, Sema
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Anadolu'nun, Asya'dan Avrupa'ya uzanan verimli topraklarından çağlar boyu pek- çok kültür geçmiş, bu kültürler izlerini kurdukları şehirler ve konutları ile bırakmışlar dır. Bu çalışmanın amacı Anadolu'da yerleşmiş kültürlerin konutlarını, yerleşim özellikle rini incelemek ve verileri morfolojik bir temelde analiz etmektir. Tez'in ilk bölümünde konutun insanlık tarihindeki değerinden ve buna bağlı olarak çalışmanın amacın dan sözedilmekte, morfolojinin sınıflama ve tasarımdaki önemi vurgulanmaktadır. İkinci bölümde, insanın avcılıktan yerleşik hayata geçişi, yaşamını evinde kurmaya başlaması anlatılmaktadır. Üçüncü bölümde, İ.Ö. 7000'lerden Osmanlı imparatorluğu'na kadar Anadolu'da ya şanan süreç içinde 'şehir' fikrinin doğuşu, konutların bu şehirlerde varoluşu incelen mekte, devletlerin kültürel, politik ve idari yapılarının ev ve şehir yerleşimlerini nasıl etkilediğine dikkat çekilmektedir. Dördüncü bölümde Anadolu'da konutun farklı iklimsel ve coğrafi bölgelere göre taşı dığı özellikler anlatılmakta ve bu bölgelerden analiz için seçilen şehirler ve konutları yerleşim ve malzeme özelliklerine, yapım tekniklerine, geleneklerine ve mekan iliş kilerine göre incelenmektedir. Beşinci bölüm ise Anadolu konutunun bazı karakteristiklerine ayrılmıştır. Bu karak teristikler, konutu tanımlamaktadır ve analiz aşamasında da her konut için varlıkları, özellikleri ve tipleri incelenecektir. Altıncı bölümde morfoloji, plan morfolojisinin mimarlıktaki yeri anlatılmaktadır. Plan ların topolojik özellikleri sayesinde tasarım ve sınıflama alanlarında yapılmış çalış malar ve mimarlık ile matematik ilişkisi de bu bölümde yer almaktadır. Yedinci bölümde de tüm verilerin ışığında Anadolu konutunun analizi için oluşturu lan yöntem adım adım açıklanmakta ve yapılan analiz yer almaktadır. Tüm analiz bu bölümde sayısal veriler, grafikler ve literatür bilgileri ışığında yorumlanmaktadır. Sekizinci bölüm ise çalışma ile ilgili yorumların, ulaşılan ve ulaşılabilecek noktaların sunularak tezin sonuçlandığı bölümdür.
Human beings have been inhabiting the earth for more than one million years. For most of that time, they were unaware of architecture, if by that term we want to understand the ambitious creation of an environment separate from the natural order. But if, as we suggested, architecture describes simply the act of making pla ces for ritual use, it was one of the earlier human needs. The shelter, for the most part, was there ready to be used, in the caves that had to be wrested from savage predators such as bears, lions and the giant hyena. We have proof, however, of huts in the open, like the ones at the encampment of Terra Amata dating back to about 400.000 years ago. But whether shelter was natural or manufactured, the inhabitants transformed it into architecture through purposeful use. And here a chief invention, fire, proved to be a great place-maker. It drove the wild beasts from the caves and kept them at bay; it made the home moment safe. But beyond this, the burning fire molded an ambiance of companionship, a station for the hunter to pause, cook his game, harden his tools, an communicate with his band of fellows. The earliest hearth known to us, goes back for more than 500 000 years. That may well be our first documented piece of architecture - a bit of nature in formed with the daily ritual of Homo erectus. About the time when Old Stone Age hunters were working on the sanctuary at Lascaux, Europe was going through another of the violent changes of climate that had characterized life on the earth since the beginning. It was now a turn of mild weather, a period of warmth that melted the great ice sheets and transformed the European scene of grass covered tundra into stretches of lush forest. The bening climate eased the burden of survival. The hunter slowed down. In many places on the planet, Europe and Near East among them, he settled and turned farming and animal husbandry. A fixed place under the sky - that is the Neolitic Legacy. The story of each Neolithic community no doubt begin with the search for land suitable for farming and the sustenance of domesticated hards. The settlers normally lived in small individual houses of timber and mud. The timber posts stood in holes dug in the ground and were braced at the top by the roof beams. - VIII At the very same time in history, in two separate corners of the ancient world, different patterns of community were in existence. While Neolithic Europe carried on a stone-using peasant economy well into the second milennium B.C., in two spots of the Near East there were contemporary literate cultures that know how to work metal, organize food production as an industry, and keep written records of their transactions and beliefs. They had lelf their Neolithic past behind them long before Europe and had gone on the forge a complex society of great technological achievement and material wealth. With these literate cultures, Egypt and Mesopotamia, history proper is said to begin, as distinct form the document-free prehistory of the Stone Age. The first street of which we have a record may be in Khirokitia, a hilltop settlement of the sixth millenium B.C. Toward the very end of the third millenium B.C., successive waves of an Indo- European people began sweeping into Asia Minor from the west. They mingled with the indigenous population and in time forged a single state out of the scattered Neolithic villages. These people are called Hittites, the modern Boğazköy, some distance to the east of Ankara The Hittite State was a great imperial power from about 1600 to 1200 B.C. If we look back to the west again, we can see first Greek settlements. The Greek House is a fascinating but tantalizing subject. Classical Greek house were mostly unpretentious, at least from the outside, they were hardly expected to make much contribution to the architectural beauty of the city; and the layout of residental quarters was hardly ambitous. The earliest Italic scheme is the single storey, family house - an inward looking, quite and cool house tightly organized around a core space called atrium. Architectural theory and history have traditionally been concerned with the study of monuments. They have emphasized the work of men of genious, the unusual, the rare. Although this is only right, it has meant that we have tended to forget that the work of the designer, let alone of the designer of the genious, has represented a small, often insignificant, portion of the building activity at any given period. The physical environment of man, especially the built environment, has not been, and still is not, controlled by the designer. This environment is the result of vernaculer architecture, and it has been largely ignored in architectural history and theory. Monuments and buildings of grand design tradition are built to impress either the populace with the power of the patron, or the peer group of designers and cognoscenti with the cleverness of the designer and good taste of the patron. ix - The folk tradition in the other hand is the direct and unself-conscious translation into physical form of a culture, its needs and values - as well as desires, dreams, and passions of a people. The folk tradition is much more closely related to the culture of the majority and life as it is really lived than is the grand design tradition also represent the bulk of the built environment. The architects choice of forms is made according to his artistic purpose, and is directed towards the satisfaction of his client's tastes, desires and utilitarian requirements, as well as being limited by technical and structural possibility. But whatever is expressed or signified by an architectural work, whatever practical functions it might serve, and however it is constructed, this choice of form in design is constrained above all by limits on what is geometrically and topological^ possible. The academic study of architecture can be seen as being divisible into three areas or disciplines: o There is a professional training of designers, in architecture schools. The analogy here is with learning to speak a language. o There is the study of architectural history, from critical and and aesthetic point of view. o There is the architectural counter part to the discipline of linguistics: that is, an architectural science, devoted to a general investigation of the cultural and technological systems within which all architects work, and ail building are. It might be objected that architects have been managing to compose forms in design very satisfactorily for a couple of thousand years or so, without any conscious knowledge of such limitations. We are looking at the possibilities for building models of the urban environment at the scale between architecture and planning.- of integrating three-dimensional represantation of buildings into more traditional kinds of two-dimensional urban maps employed in geographical or planning information systems. Such models offer a range of potential new uses: o Visualisation of large urban projects before they are built and simulation or surrogate journeys through those schemes by means of animation techniques. o Simulation of the physical environment arround and between buildings and in public open spaces, including such factors as insolation, heat loss, shadowing, wind movement and noise propagation. - x o Investigation of the interactions of traffic, both vehicular and pedestrian, with the built form of the city. If the purpose is to generalise about the relationship of built form to performance and so increase our scientific understanding of the built environment then it is not sufficient just to describe particular forms. We must have a theory of built form, which is capable of classifying the variety of rooms found in practise and of providing some explanation as to why those forms should be found and not others. In this study, researchs and interpretations are made in order to use the help of rectanguler dissections. Several algorithms have been written for generating rectangular dissections; Dissections and additive methods: o Steadman Algorithm o Steadman and Mitchell Algorithm o Earl Algorithm o Flemming Algorithm Tilings and colouring on grids o Bloch Algorithm The first attempt historically to device an algorithm for generating rectanguler dissections was made by Steadman and was conceived very much as a cutting or, precisely, a dissection method. An outstanding example of this is provided by the work of Hillier who drew the 'permability' structures in our terms the access graphs - of a variety of buildings ancient and modern. The method is most revealing with large and complex buildings as well as with houses. Hanson and Hillier drew the access graphs of plans according to the conventions. And they discuss the possible relations of the evolitionary changes in plan form to economic and social changes, and in particular to changes in family structure, village life. In public buildings, both ancient and modern there will be interfaces where inhabitants and strangers meet, such as halls, meeting rooms, concourses, auditoria. These spaces will tend to correspond to vertics with high valencies lying in the distributed part of the graph. Hillier has as his long-term aim to work towards a theory of building types based on their spatial organisation, whose classification will follow the lines these analyses. And he uses some values for these analyses: o the number of vertices v, that is, rooms or spaces, - XI o the depth of the deepest space doi o the mean depth d0j o the relative mean depth 2 (doi-1)/(v-2), o the maximum vertex valency, o the mean valency of all vertices, o the cyclomatic number (that is, the number of inferior faces f), o the deepest undistributed space, where the depth is measured form the nearest distributed space), o the mean depth of distributed spaces, o the mean depth of undistributed spaces, where depth is again measured from the nearest distributed space. This static analysis at building at fixed dates could be extended to the study of historical processes of change. In this study, the houses from various periods and cultures and various climates are researched and analized in morphological base. By the help of this method it became possible to define the house by the mathematical calculations, symbols and graphics. So interpratations about the formal and cultural specifications of houses gained objective dimensions. At this stage we should examine more closely the different ways in which these graph - theoretical concepts can be useful in the actual process of architectural design. Particularly where the requirements for adjacency in some given layout problem are complex, it may well help the architect to sit down with paper and pencil, and draw out the graph of these requirements. By this means he will be able to clarify for himself the problems essential structure. It may prove easier for him to manipulate the graph, in order to sort out intuitively, by trial and error, some workable arrangement, than try to solve the equivalent problem by manipulating room arrangements in plan. One great advantage which the human eye and brain have over the computer is, certainly, their ability to recognise topological configurations; a type of operation which it is very often length and laborious to try to program. When it comes to a discussion of computer methods, it is useful to divide the possible kinds of approach into two: o Heuristic, o Exhaustive. The two types of approach imply a different philosophy about design method, and about the appropriate role of computer in architectural research and practise, in either case.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1993
Anahtar kelimeler
Anadolu, Bina bilgisi, Konut, Morfolojik özellikler, Anatolia, Building information, Dwelling house, Morphological properties