Sivas semah ve halaylarının karşılaştırılması

Coşkun, Sevim
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Bu tez, Sivas Semah ve Halaylarının karşılaştırılması konusun dadır. Bu tezde incelenmiş olan Sivas Semah ve Halaylarının tümü TRT repertuarında bulunan parçalardır. Çalışmamızda Semah ve Halaylar hakkında genel bir bilgi verdik. Her iki türü ritm, melodi ve makam yönünden inceleyip karşılaştırmasını yaptık. Geçmişte her ne kadar Semah ve Halaylar konusunda ayrı ayrı incelemeler yapılmışsa da bizim çalışmamız bu iki musiki türünün karşılaştırmalı olarak incelendiği ilk araştırmadır.
This thesis relates to a comparison of Semahs and Halays originating from Sivas. The Halays and Semahs attributed to the Region of Sivas, which we study in the present thesis are the only works found in repertory of the State Radio. Although some studies on Semahs and Halays were done in the past, these kinds having two different natures have never been studied and compared to each other. In our study, general information about Semahs and Halays is given. Semahs is a kind of music performed by Alevi and Bektaşi communities during their religious ceremonies as a part of their worshipping. When we consider them by form, we see that Semahs are made up by several parts. Those are called ağırlama, yürütme, yeldirme and dar. Those parts are alternatively named raks, çarh, muallak and pertav. Raks is used in Arabic, to mean "movement and quake", which clearly means movements of the body in accompany of music. When we evaluate Halays by form, we see that they are also made up by several parts similar to Semahs. There are four-part, two-part and single-part halays. Halays literally means unity, togetherness, collective action such as mutual assistance, possibly originated ;s. 2\ from alay, a gatherance of people. Halays, similar to Semahs, were originally performed for religious purposes. They are performed by going around a fire by a certain rhythm and tempo. Today, however, Halays lost their religious aspect and performed only during wedding ceremonies and special meetings merely for the purposes of entertainment. Semahs contains a rhythmic rotation movement in accompany of a music played with a bağlama by a Dede at the end of a Cem ceremony by following certain rules. Semah is played by the Dede conducting the Cem. Depending on the kind of Semah, only women or only men or men and women revolve together. The difference between Semahs and Sema performed by some Alevi groups is that men and women turns around together in Semahs where there is no segregation between men and women. Semazens during a semah turn around independently of and in full harmony with each other. They do not hold hands of each other. During Halays, however, it is not compulsory to follow such strict and formal rules. For example in a three- part Halay, after all the parts have been performed, Hoplatma part may be repeated a few times, if desired. Such repetitions aiming for entertainment are not deemed as irregular. ( s. 3 ) Ha lays may also be performed by men and women together however, performance under management of a Dede is not required. They are performed in accompany of the music played by a person who knows to play Bağlama. Special attention is paid to performing Semahs with certain number of persons. Sources informing about Bektaşi Semahs report that Semahs are performed in groups of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12. Number of persons varies depending on the kind of Semah. It is observed that Alevi Semahs are mostly performed in groups of 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12. Alevi s attribute great importance to those numbers and regard them as sacred. Moreover, there are other Semahs performed in groups of sixteen, forty or more. As regards to Malays, depending on the availability of performers and convenience of the place, three to fifteen or even twenty persons may attend. In Malays, performers may perform individually or hold hand in hand depending on the rule of the performance. Semahs must be performed in accompany of the Bağlama instrument, which is counted as a requirement. While turning around in Semah, instruments aiming for entertainment and giving off loud sound such as drum and Zurna are not used. (s. 4: Çepnis definitely have twelve instruments during Cems. Those twelve instruments may be of a kind or different. In Tahtacı Cems, it is custom to have at least two and at most twelve instruments. While performing Halays, instruments such as drum and Zurna are used to exhilarate performers even further. It is not deemed as objectable to have loud instruments while performing for entertainment. Semah may generally be performed by those who are familiar with it and in the middle ages. Some Semahs require performers to be married. In Halays, however, age or familiarity of performers is of no importance. They are usually performed by girls and boys in wedding and engagement ceremonies as well as entertainment meetings. Being more rhythmic works than Semahs, they are mostly performed by boys and girls in addition to the aged. There is a very obvious rule in Semahs which require passage from one part to another with certain words serving a kind of bridge. Passage from one part to another is made by the repetition of a certain word as accompanied by different tune and rhythm. Usually, there are such musical passage sentences at the end of every part ensuring introduction to the next part. In Halays, this is a little different. Halays have (s. 5) sentences at the introduction of every part having melodic and rhythmic characteristics to prepare for the next part instead of bridge sentences. When those sentences are recited, performers have the feeling for entering the next part. If we evaluate Semahs in respect of melody, we see that they are in the nature of crescendo-* **-crescendo. There are mostly crescendos. Only the melodic nature of Semah of Kırat exhibits a ***. Ha lays exhibit crescendos, as well. This feature of the both kinds is seen in the Makams of the Turkish music. However, a melodic nature consisting of a crescendo, a melodic continuation in high-pitched sections followed by a return to prevailing sound as in the Turkish music is not observed. Prolonged stays in strong sound are seen. Dresses of Semah performers have different colors and styles. Or rather, they are daily-wear and special occasion dresses of people. Only while performing Semah, wearing the cleanest dresses is important. No certain forms exist. Both men and women pay special attention to wear their cleanest dresses. Loyalty to authenticity in dress is not important. Dresses show local differences. It is not deemed as fit to perform Semah with an uncovered head in the East. { S3* A Women cover their heads,, as well. Men wrap around their heads with a cover such as handkerchief or shawl
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1994
Thesis (M.A.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1994
Anahtar kelimeler
Güzel Sanatlar, Halk Bilimi (Folklor), Müzik, Folklor, Halay, Halk oyunları, Semah, Sivas, Fine Arts, Music, Folklore, Anatolian folk dance, Folk dances, Semah, Sivas