Açık işletmelerde kamyon nakliyatı ile ilgili fiziksel parametrelerin maliyete etkisinin araştırlması

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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Bu çalışmada, Edirne Bölgesi Akman Kömür İşletmeleri açık maden ocağında kamyon nakliyatı ile ilgili fiziksel parametrelerin maliyete etkileri incelenmiştir. Bu amaç¬ la, etkili alabilecek faktörler, nakliyat yolu ile kamyonların fiziksel özellikleri şeklinde iki grupta toplanmış ve ayrı ayrı incelenmiştir. Saha çalışmalarında; nakliyat yolunun uzunluğu ve eğimi, kamyonların çeşitli eğimlerdeki hızları ve motor devir sayıları ile birlikte kamyon sefer süreleri ve günlük sefer sayıları gözlenmiştir. Eğimin, bazı yerlerde yüksek olmasından dolayı, yarma-dolgu yöntemiyle projelendirilerek, eğim, % 9'dan yaklaşık olarak % 5 civarına indiril miştir. Her iki eğim için yakıt sarfiyatları hesaplanmış ve karşılaştırılmıştır. Ayrıca bozuk yol yüzeyinin sebep olduğu lastik sarfiyatı ile aşırı yakıt harcamalarının önüne geçebilmek için, yolun, sıkıştırılmış çakıl ile kaplanması tasarlanmıştır. Eğimin azaltılması ile her yıl % kQ civarında yakıt tasarrufu yapılabileceği tespit edilmiştir. Yolun sıkış¬ tırılmış çakıl ile kaplanması ise bir yıllık lastik sarfi¬ yatından daha ucuza mal olmuştur. Yapılan tespitler az sayıda kamyon ve oldukça kısa nakliyat yolu için geçerli¬ dir. Kamyon sayısı ve yolun uzunluğu artığı zaman bu ta¬ sarrufların milyarlarca lira ile ifade edileceği unutulma¬ malıdır
Nowadays, surface mining operations is getting common from day to day because of technological developments affect mining industries as well as other industries. Last years, open pit mines have succeeded to get more deeps than before. In todays, some of open pit mines have reached to 600 meters. There are a feu kinds of hauling system which is using in surface mine sites. These are down: - Truck Haulage System - Railway Transportation System - Band Conveyor System This study is about truck haulage economics. There fore physical parameters related with truck haulage and their effects on cost have been studied in this research, Field operations have been completed in Akman coal mine site in Edirne. Firstly, the parameters that affect cost have been gathered in two parts as truck and road factors. Then, all factors have been studied individually. Furthermore, all of these have been supported with graphs and tables. During the in-situ operations, the length of haulroad, grade, speeds of trucks and engines according to grade have been studied. Moreover, truck's cycle times and cycle IX numbers per day have been measured. Behaviours of trucks on varying grade have been observed. The physical parameters of haulroad affect fuel costs as well as trucks do. Therefore, the main parameters of haulroad such as grade, length, width, radius of curves and surface of haulroads are important for calculation of fuel cost. The technical datas and characteristic curves of trucks have been taken from truck manufacturers for the calculation of fuel cost. Using these characteristic curves, fuel costs of trucks have been calculated. It has not been able to compare with real values of fuel costs. Because, they could not have been taken from the department of account for a few special reasons such as tax. But, grade reducing studies have been projected. Truck's fuel costs on the projected grade have been calculated. Using the comparison of fuel costs, it has been demonstrated that how grade affects fuel cost.. Tire cost, repair and maintenance cost are very important in total cost. Also, spare parts of trucks are very expensive. All these casts above directly related with state of haulroad surface. Today's haulage trucks carry more payload faster than ever. Washboards, bumps and potholes in the road cause impact forces to enter tires and suspansion. These impact forces are roughly proportional or linear, according to gross wehicle weight, which can be quite large with heavier trucks. Worse, the magnitude of the forces increases exponentially with the speed of the truck. These impact forces cause tire cost to incerase. Roughness and rolling resistance are two critical areas. Rolling resistance also affects wear and tear on the truck, robs the fleet of productivity and increases other costs, such as fuel. Rolling resistance slows a truck and reduce production. A shorter distance generally provides shorter travel time. The adage says " the shortest distance between two points is a straight line". In a mine, however, it is necessary to work in three dimensions. And there are different performance parameters on the horizontal plane than there are in the vertical direction. During uphill travel, distance, truck performance, gross whicle weight, grade resistance and rolling resistance determine how much time a truck takes to ascend a grade. Some mining operations focus entirely on the uphill-loaded performances of trucks, e.xcluding dounhill empty time. But the best overall result comes from combining both operating modes. Downhill travel is governed by the same rules as the uphill analysis: time and distance. Operating conditions have to be becomed convenient so that trucks work productively. Thus, it is passible that minimizing total cost. Trucks travel more slowly under arduous conditions. However, fuel cost and wear on the truck increase, and productivity decreases. Furthermore, traction force and life of truck decrease too. Therefore, production decreases as well. This study demonstrates that surface wearing is an important factor that have to be researched. There are various surface wearing: compacted concrete, asphaltic concrete, compacted gravel and stabilized earth. Compacted concrete and asphaltic concrete are more expensive than the others. But for a long term, they are more economical. Because they have lower maintenance cost. However, they minimize the dust problem and rolling resistance. In this study, project of surface wearing has been designed. By this way, it has been tried to reduce the equipment main tenance and tire costs. Studies show that, far the same length of haulroad, truck have better performance on the lower grade. There fore, truck travels faster than on steep slope. In addition truck's cycle number per day and production incerase. Truck reaches the same speeds with lower engine speeds. Thus, truck's fuel cost decreases. In this study, the lower grade has been designed and recommended. The lower grade that has been suggested is approximately 5.5 percent. According to calculations, it is possible that to save about 87 million liras per year. In other words, the saving is approximately 25 percent. xx Fur AS 900 h trucks. consume M.A.N, a 2.958 li been use in April 4752 lir April wo sumption cost wer million ther as b Ace 1.39 nd I ters d in uou as p uld in e 16 lira more een ordi 2 li veco per Apr Id b er 1 be 1 Apri mil s., it ha much mo ng to d ters pe, in th cycle, il were e 3372 iter. 6 milli 1 have lion li In othe s been determined that the truck re economical then the other eterminations, the truck AS 90D r cycle. However, the trucks e same range, consume 2.948 and If all of trucks uihich have AS 9DD, total fuel consumption liters. Price of diesel fuel is Therefore, fuel consumption in on liras. Wehereas, fuel con- taken 28 million liras. If fuel ras, then, saving would be 12 r words, it is equal to 42 percent, This saving is only for a quite short haulroad and three trucks. It is remembered that the amount of savings will be much more higher than before when the length of haulroad and the number of trucks increase. For instance, the savings will reach billions of liras for about ten or fifteen number of trucks and two or three kilometers of haulroad. I design covere of hau of exc and mu compac of inv gravel order irriga spread Howeve weathe preven Those fines when d roots, unsuit materi n this s ed and s d with c lroad ch avation ch mare ted cone estment has bee to this ted and an the r, roads r should t muddy, subject to minim ry. Gra vegetat able mat al shoul tudy, proje uggested. ompacted gr anges about goes forwar productions rete can be are very ex n used as a application compacted, road and th subject to not cantai slippery c to hot, dry ize dust pr nular surfa ion matter, erial. The d be clean, ct of surface wearing has been The haulroad surface has avel in the project. The route per two or three years because d. For the permanent haulroads, asphaltic concrete and applied because of their casts pensive. Therefore, compacted surface wearing material. In, firstly, the earth is Then, compacted gravel is en irrigated and compacted. freezing or prolonged inclement n more than 10 % fines to onditions when wet or thawing. weather should at least 5 % oblems and surface loosening cing should be free from loam, frozen lumps and other particles of the granular sound and durable. The length of the haulroad is 600 m. and the amplitude of the road is 6 m. The thickness of the compacted gravel layer is 0.2m. This surface wearing has cost 56 million liras. Whereas, tire cost per year is XII about 150 million liras. Moreover, fuel coat will decrease and production will increase. Therefore, com pacted gravel surfacing has been suggested. Cosequently, properties of truck and haulraad parameters affect hauling cost and eachother. To minimize the hauling cost, it should be necessary that, a well designed haulraad and good selected trucks. Haulraad conditions affect productivity and as well as tire life. The design must have flexibility of accomadate a range of conditions.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1993
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1993
Anahtar kelimeler
Kamyon, Maliyet, Taşımacılık, Taşıtlar, Truck, Cost, Transportation, Vehicles