İşletmelerde büro verimliğinin değerlendirilmesi

Canbulat, Erkan
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Yapılan bu çalışmada büro, büro verimliliği ve büro otomasyonu kavramları incelenmiştir. İkinci bölümde, büro ve büronun başlıca fonksiyonları, büro hizmetleri, bürolarda verimlilik, etkinlik ve etkililik kavramları ele alınmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde, büro verimliliği açısından iş ölçümü ve kont rolü kavramlarına değinilerek, işin nicelik bakımından kontrolü, iş ölçümünde kullanılan yöntemler, iş ölçümünün faydaları, ölçü birimi tesbiti, iş ölçümü ve standartların tesbiti ile bürolarda kalite kontrol, planlama ve programlama konularına yer verilmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde, büro yönetimi performansının değerlendirilmesine yardımcı bazı tasarım şekilleri ile büro amaç ve hedeflerinin saptanması, büro sorunlarının saptanması ve çözümlenmesi ve büro işlerinin planlanması kavramlarına değinilmiştir. Beşinci bölümde, büro otomasyonunun anlam ve gerekliliği, amaçları, faydaları ve kullanım alanları, entegre büro sistemleri ve fayda-maliyet analizi ile entegre büro sistemlerine kavramsal yaklaşımlar konuları üzerinde durulmuştur. Altıncı bölümde, motivasyon ve eğitimin büro otomasyonu ve verimliliği açısından önemine değinilmiş, eğitim programları, eğitime tabi tutulacak personelin seçimi, eğitim programlarının planlanması ve sonuçları ile eğitim programlarının değerlendirilmesi ele alınarak incelenmiştir. Son bölüm, ithalat ağırlıklı olarak çalışmalarını gerçekleş tiren bir ticaret firmasında yapılan uygulama çalışması ve sonuçlarını içermektedir. Bu amaç ile işletmenin bölüm yöneticileri ile görüşmeler yapılmış ve işletmede gözlemlerde bulunulmuştur. Bu iz lenim ve gözlemler neticesinde büro verimliliği ve büro otomasyonu uygulamaları konusunda sonuçlar oluşturulmaya çalışılmıştır. Uygulama çalışması büro otomasyonu araç ve uygulamalarının, büro verimliliği üzerindeki olumlu katkılarının önemini vurgulamıştır.
The structure of the twentieth century has been buit around the office. It dominates our lives. Our cities are commanded by towering concrete and glass office blocks. The skylines of our cities are recognised by the silhouettes of these offices which, like giant teeth, penetrate all aspects li ves. At the begining of the century, off ices as we know them barely existed, and few people worked in them. Today they run everything, or, at the very least, are at the heart of everything that is run. Offices are withoutdoubt one of the strongest forces which shape the civilised world today. Everyone is affected in some way or other by an office orga nisation and its administrative procedures. Details of name, ad- ress, date of birth, credit rating, medical history, driving licence, criminal record or whatever areheld on numerous files in offices by both government and private business. Indeed offices, or rather the information contained in those offices are vital to every citizen. Offices are the most important tant point of our civilisation. In this thesis what the office productivity is, the importan ce of work measurement and control, evaluation of the office manage ment performance, office automation and the importance of training in the office will be discussed. Firstly, what the office is, the functions of office, office services and systems, productivity, efficiency and effectivenness in the office will be discussed. The office, in fact, is a complex interaction of people, performing a series of processes that require the handling of infor mation in order that business decisions may be made. In e/ery or ganization, tha ? quality of decisions and using information will affect the future of office. The office is composed of a series of elements- people, processes, information technology- all associated with the planning, directing, organising, co-ordinating and cont rolling of the functions of an organisation. - vi - Briefly, office is an information center for every organiza tion. Therefore, the purpose of an office is to process and commu nicate information effectively and efficiently. The various activities carried on in an office can be group- ped into five maincategories. These are : 1. Receiving/retrieving information, 2. Sorting /analysing information 3. Arranging information, 4. Recording information and 5. Transmitting information. Every office has its own systems. The procedures which make up the systems must be designed for maxium efficiency taking into consideration many factors including the type and size of business, the type and size of the individual units within it, the phsical factors of location, logistics, equipment, etc... Every system in the office should be devised with the follo wing aims : 1. to have good flow of work without bottle-necks, 2. to avoid duplication of work and records, 3. to keep the movements of staff to a minimum, 4. to avoid unnecessary writing, 5. to make the best of specialisation, 6. to keep the amount of paperwork to the absolute minimum, 7. to use the principle of management by exception, 8. to make as few exceptions to the procedure rules as possible, 9. to avoid unnecessary checking, 10. to make the best of machines, but not to use them unneces sarily, 11. to seek simplicity, for complicated systems usually mean mistakes. Productivity is the relationship between goods produced and sold or services provided-the output, and the resources consumed in doing it-the input. This is usually stated as. Productivity = Output (guantitiy and quality) Input (quantity) All organisations should be concerned with how they convert their resources (input) into some form of output. This implies that all organizations are output systems. Output can take the form of products manufactured, goods sold and services provided. - vxi - So productivity can be defined as how efficiently inputs are converted into outputs. Around this simple definition there are many opinions about the best ways of measuring conversion effe- ciency. Many companies may judge their performance purely in out put terms, eg. sales and products made, but this is not producti vity. While accountants use financial indicators like return on capital employed, engineers tend more to physical measurements, for example output per labour-hour. All of these methods have a part to play in productivity measurement, but this is also not productivity. Productivity is a comprehensive measure of how efficiently and effectively organisations satisfy the following five aims. 1. Objectives : the degree to which principal objectives achieved, 2. Efficiency : how efficiently resources (inputo of labour materials, purchased services and capital) are used to generate useful outputs, useful in the sense that goods made or services provided are actually needed, 3. Effectiveness : what is achieved in output and input terms compared to what is potentially possible, 4. Comparability : how productivity compares with other organisations, industries and countries, 5. Trends : the productivity performance record over time, ie the decline, static or growth aspects. Measurements of efficiency provide answers to the question. Where are you now ? They tells us how well output is being generated from ava ilable capacity. Efficiency is therefore a measurement of the way an organisation is currently using the resources at its dis posal. Though efficiency and effectiveness are related they are different aspects of productivity measurement. Efficiency measu res the existing state of affairs, but effectiveness includes an output more effectivel, This concept of effectiveness includes an output target to be reached, achieving a new standart of per formance, or a more idealistic potential which would be possib le if all constraints were removed. - vm - It must be shown that relationship between efficiency and effectivenness has a important effect on office productivity. Beca use services which provided from office activities have a dimension of both efficiency and effectiveness. In order to get a real benefit in office productivity, either in outputs which obtained from system applications increase, or in inputs which used office activities occur quantity and cost decre ase. Work analysis provides a list of tasks and the volume of work in each task expressed in suitable units. The next step is to measure this work in terms of time, which may be the actual time taken on a particular accasion, the average time taken over a num ber of occasions or an assessment of the time which should be taken when reasonable skill and effort are applied. Work measurement is an comparansion what was done to what should be done. Standart is used for making comparansion. Following standarts are used to measure work. - Time standarts - Work standarts Time standarts can come from outside of firm or can be deve loped as a result of internal study. Time standarts are invaluable and may be utilised in many ways, such as determining staffing levels, justifying mechanisation, assisting in costing and budgetary, scheduling workloads and pro viding data for a salary structure and job evaluation. Work standarts can be divided into three approachs. These are subjective, statistical and engineering ones. Subjective approach is based on the experiences and opinions of managers. This approach is not supported or justified both ma nagers and employees. Statistical approach uses historical data, work sampling or time studies. Historical data uses past records about time and amount of work for gathering information. Time studies is an extension of statistical approach and measures time and motior. In the work sampling work is observed at random periods or gathered. copies of work for determining the amount of work accomp lished in a sample period. - IX - Control means establishing standarts, making regular compa risons of actual performance with these standarts, and then taking action correct deviations from the standarts. There must be a system of reporting so thatthe comparison can be made and correcti ve action taken. Control of the work is as important as control of personnel, machines, methods and equipment. It is deplorable that quality of work in many offices falls far below standart expected. There are many reasons for this, ari sing from faults of both management and staff. VJhatever the rea sons for mistakes in office work, there must be control over the quality of the work performed. Methods of control can be shown as follows : - One hundred per cent checking, - Random sampling, - Partial checking. Scheduling may be defined as the determination of a work cycle so that actual performance is compared with the predeter mined starting and finishing dates. It is control over the time in which the work is done, not over the quantity or quality, though quality control is always essential. Not all office operations can be scheduled, but it is possib le for tasks such as preparation of the pay-roll, monthly statements, daily invaices, etc. There are four common methods of scheduling : 1. Manual control (scheme), 2. Visible card index systems, 3. Charts phich can be written up a variety. of ways, 4. Patent machine charts which can either stand on the desk or be hung on the wall. The manager has to appraise his own performance from time in order to asses himself as a leadder, and to review his achievements. He cannot do this unless he has first determined the objectives of his department and set targets for himself and his staff, foresee ing problems which may arise in implementing the targets. The manager has then to identify problems and solve them when they occur. Two fundamental rules for avoiding problems as far as possible are cost control and work planning, which may not eliminate problems. Completely but will certainly make their iden tification and solution a great deal less onerous. - x - Office automation can be described in the simplest and most direct manner use of electronic devices to improve the productivity of an office. Office automation is intended to benefit an organisation part ly by improving speed and efficiency but also permitting a reorgani sation and restructuring of a company or organisation so as to exploit the improved data flow. Office automation helps to decision makers by producing infor mation in a less time and by providing communication more accurate. Result of this, decision making process will be decreased, produc tivity will be increased. Companies implement office automation in order to improve performance, retain competitiveness, give customers a better service and reduce labour costs. Other benefits are improvements in inter _ company communications, improvements in products, and imp rovements in customer service. The main motivational factors to consider are the individual, his domestic life, his social activities, his job and his company. The purpose of training is to develop skill and, through skill, to raise the productivity of the invidual. In order to obtain the most benefits from the new office technology, there is a need to develop and increase skills available within the organisation. Training' schemes must generally contain four elemnts, which are : - Induction training - Skill training - Job training - Further education. There are many advantages of training programme : - Training creates more positive work environment by understanding goals and plans of the organisation. - Training increase productivity - Morale is raised as employees see a demonstrated interest in their well- being and development. - Because of the training motivation should improve. - Training improves competition power of company. - As a result of training, office workers become more proficient in a shorter time.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1991
Anahtar kelimeler
Büro hizmetleri, Büro sistemleri, Otomasyon, Verimlilik, İş ölçümü, Office services, Office systems, Automation, Productivity, Work measurement