Bursa Örneğinde, Kentleşmenin Yeşil Kent Dokusu Üzerindeki Etkilerinin İncelenmesi

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Tarih
1997
Yazarlar
Acay, Ferda
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Yayınevi
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Özet
Bu çalışmada, bir kentin kuruluş ve gelişim süreci içerisinde mekana yansıyan kent formunun oluşumunu belirleyen faktörlerin, kentin kentleşme süreci içerisinde nasıl değiştikleri ve bu değişikliğin genel kent makroformu ve kent yeşil dokusu üzerinde nasıl ve ne derece etkili olduğu Bursa kenti örneğinde incelenmiştir. Çalışmayı beş bölüm içerisinde ortaya koymak uygun görülmüştür. Giriş ve amaç kısmının yer aldığı birinci bölümde genel olarak, çalışmanın amacından ve öneminden bahsedilmiştir. İkinci bölümde ise, Bursa örneği üzerinde inceleme yapılmadan önce, genel olarak kent, kentleşme ve yeşil alan üçgeni içerisindeki ilişki ele alınmaya çalışmış, düzensiz ve çarpık bir kentleşmenin kentin yeşil alanları üzerinde ne şekilde ve ne derece etlili olabildiği aktarılmaya çalışılmıştır. Daha sonra, genel olarak Bursa ili, konumu, önemi ve sahip olduğu değerler hakkında bilgi verilmeye çalışılmıştır. Çalışmanın üçüncü bölümünde ise, Bursa kentinin fiziki gelişimi tarihi bir perspetif içinde ele alınarak, bu süreç içinde yapılan planlama çalışmalarıyla veya planlamadan bağımsız alınan kararlarla kentin ulaştığı makroform karşılaştırılmaya çalışılmıştır. Kentin bugünkü makroformunun üzerinde etkili olan etmenler ve bu etkilerin nasıl mekana yansıdığı ise çalışmanın dördüncü bölümünde incelenmiştir. Beşinci bölümde de, 1960 yıllarından başlamak üzere, günümüze kadar, elde edilen veriler ışığında kentin yeşil dokusu, kentin bugünkü makroformunu oluşumunu belirleyen faktörlerin bu yeşil doku üzerindeki etki derecesi üzerinde bir değerlendirme yapılmaya çalışılmıştır. Öncelikle kentin yeşil dokusunu öncelikle oluşturan etmenler nelerdir?, Yeşil bursa dokusunun oluşmasında bu etmenlerden hangisi ne ölçüde belirleyicidir?, Bursa kentinde yeşil alan %'sinin gittikçe azalmasının belirleyicisi ne tip yeşil alanlardır?, planlama çalışmalarıyla oluşturulmuş aktif yeşil alanlar mıdır? Yoksa Bursa Ovası ve ormanlarının oluşturduğu doğal yeşil alanlar mıdır?, doğal yeşil alanlar üzerinde plan kararlarıyla peyzaj düzenlemelerine gidilebilmi midir?ya da kent topraklan içerisinde artan nüfusa paretel olarak, plan kararlarıyla düzenli yeşil alanlar açılma yoluna gidilmiş midir?, açıldıysa uygulanabilmiş midir? Veya ne sebepten uygulanamamıştır? Sorularına belgeler incelenerek ve bu konuda bilgili ve yetkili kişilerle görüşülerek cevap bulunmaya çalışılmıştır. Sonuç ve değerlendirme bölümünde ise çalışmanın başında ve bölümler içerisinde ortaya atılan sorulara, çalışma içerisinde elde edilen bilgiler ışığında cevaplar verilmeye çalışılmış, bazı önerilerde bulunulmuştur. Çalışmanın sonucunda, Bursa kenti yeşil dokusunun giderek tahrip olduğu ve yitirildiği görülmüştür. Bu süreçte de en fazla etkiyi başta Bursa Ovası olmak üzere doğal nitelikli yeşil alanlar görmüştür. Yapılan planlama çalışmalarında bu süreç engellenememiş, ve yok olan yeşil dokunun yerine ikame edebilecek yeni alanlar açılamamıştır. Ancak, bugün Bura Büyükşehir Belediyesi, yeşil saha olarak kalabilmiş alanları, bir ölçüde yerleşime açılmasını da önlemek amacıyla düzenleme ve aktif olarak halkın kullanımına sunma çalışmaları yapmaktadır.
In that work, we are going to examine the factors that determine the city formation, and how the city is changed during its urbanization period, how and at what rate this change effects the city macroform and its green tissue by giving the example of Bursa. An irregular and unplanned settlement due to rapid population growth, immigration and industrialization, caused invasion green tissues, which is already used to be short. These factors in turn caused our cities to become concrete monsters. The green lands allow recreation of to urban people to meet. They also play and important role in the mental and personal recreationof the urban people. Urbanization and territorial movements of population in Turkey gain speed particularly after the year 1950. A three percent annual increase in rural areas and mechanisation and intensification of agriculture; have resulted in a drift of the rural population to the built-up areas. This has accelerated the expansion of Turkish cities tremendously. Urbanization in Turkey is a result of the driving force of the rural population. Emigrats who could not find jobs in industry settled on lands outside main built-up areas. Thus, settlements of rural character, made of families from low income groups, have appeared in the cities. With the urbanizations ve tecnologial improvement, our health is under threat of population, noise and lack of recreational spaces. The technologial development creates a society which it had promised at the beginning. Therefore, the people of the period should prepare more healthy living standarts to the future generations. Creating green lands in cities would be an important duty in solving the above given problems. Beside the possitive microclimatic effects posed by the green zones into the walled cities of today, the green zones, also clesn the air, filter dust and reduce noise which all help the man to establish naturel living conditions. The green zones having such a great importance, should be developed systematically within the urban planning in order to create green zones that will conform with the changes in the urban needs. Developing countries like Turkey, should produce positive and organized policied in order to protect their unique beauties. Stopping irregular and illegal XIII urbanization, arranging the zones where people carry out social and culture! activities and improving relations between such zones would only be provided by proper desing. Up to now, the developing countries could not avail the measures and solitions improved by developed countries to prevent loss of green land. The problems due to irrelevant design seem to increase day by day in the metropolitan cities of the developing countries making the life quite hard. The problems in relation with green lands are directly related with the planning isue. The environmental problems accompanying to those even threaten life. Urban planning is arranging happy living mediums. These problems, therefore, can be eliminated by a proper design. The municipalities that are unsuccesful in creating the necessary organization, therefore, invest finance in their hand to attractive superstructuring. Some municipalities that used up their resorces in such investments, up to use the land under their ownership in order to earn money while some others up to create illegal resources using the power in their hand. Such partial approaches, in most cases, serve the interests of the dominant groups causing the negligence of the rigts of the remaning populations and the planning organizations to become unrespectected bodies. In this thesis, it will be examined the factors that all of them explaneid above and determine the city formation, and how the city is changed during its urbanization period, how and at what rate this change effects the city macroform and its green tissue by giving the example of Bursa. This work contains five sections. In the first section, which is the introduction and object part, we are going to mention the aim and the importance of this work. The second section is about the relation between the urbanization and green areas. But before the examination of sample, the relation between the city, urbanization and the green areas is examined. The effects of irregular urbanization on the green areas is explained. But before all of these explained, same general informations about Bursa is given. Urbanization does not only mean the development of a city. But it is also a organization of demografic, social and economic changes during the development of a city. But after the period of social, economic and demografic changes, if you don't benefit the advantages of the effects of these changes, the disadvantages would be more effective. In Turkey, the period of urbanization is developed very quickly and irregularly. The goverment in Turkey couldn't organize regular plans. They made desicions which caused immigration. Whth irregular development and scuetter housing, destruction of green areas became a great problem day by day. Because, scuetter housing is being constructed on the empty and green areas of the city. For this reason, no areas is left to the goverment, and on plans new green areas are suggested on private estate. But because the budget of municipality is not enough for this, the plan is not coming to life. All of this problems are examined by giving the example of Bursa. In the second section of the second part the statement, characteristics and the importance of Bursa are tried to explained. Bursa is a city which located in East side of Marmara and having many natural beauties. In the south part of the city Uludağ lied and in the XIV nourth part Bursa valley is lied. The city was the capital of ottoman empire in the past. It has a very important place in Turkish history. Many historical scruptures and works can be seen all over the city. Hot springs of the city which are visited by so many tourists are so famous. According to its population Bursa is the fifth biggest city of Turkey. In 1960 after the first organised industry district was constructed in Bursa the city was developed industrial day by day. In the thirth part of the study, the physical development of Bursa is explaned with historical perspective. During this period macroform of the city is tried to confronted with the studies in a plan or the desicions without a plan. Bursa reached the present time protecting all its religious, commercial.industrial historical, and cultural characteristics. Since 1960, the problems according to irregular urbanization of Bursa is felt much more than the other cities of Turkey. Bursa under name of Prusa is established in Helenistic age connected to Kingdom of Bithynia. The city after lived under authority of Bizans and Rome, in the authority of the city. Before these the city was in side the city walls. But later on the cfty developed outside these walls. in 19th century, the development of Bursa continued outside of the castles and inns which were in the center of the city. In this period of time Bursa got the pre-name of 'Green' because of its green structure. In the 20th century, Bursa became dense around Hisar and also a new habitation area was formed orianted towards upper clss people away from the city. The development of Bursa from establishment of republic to 1996 is invested. Under the light of planning studies in this period of time. Industrialism and urbanization are seen openly in the sixties. Ecause Bursa is the first Organize Industrial District, Bursa became a very important city in the country and the population and urban development became very fast. The migration and as its result the rapid increasing population surpass the desicions of 1960 Piccinato Plan and began to force the historical city tissue Until 1970 (seventies), the city became approximately two times bigger in a ten years period. In the 70ties because there was no place left in the Organize Industry District, the industry began to look for cheap areas. The city is spread mostry in the direction of East; Nourth and mountain foot. Although they wanted to control this kind of developments by a city plan made in the year 1984, they couldn't achieve this. Because the industrial investment has increased since 1980, also the employment field is increased so the speed of urbanization was at the top rate in comparision with the other cities. Besides the city is effected in a great rate from the inner migration, the outer migration in the year 1989 has increased the need of houses. In the 90 (nineties) the Bursa makroform, is in the direction of slopy fields in the south, in the north is it in the direction of the valley and it is in the linear direction of west and east. xv The factors which were affective during the urbanization period and how this factors have their effects on the places are examined in the 4th section. The first factor that determines the formation Bursa macroform is the physical structure of the city. The natural structure of Bursa has some characteristics feautures. The city is founded and developed between the fast of Uludağ and Bursa valley. As a result, the city is developed in linear direction between Uludağ and Bursa valley. But, since the 60ties the other economic and demographic feautures which have characteristic feautures on the city became more dominand on the formation of the city. The fifties is the period when industry is developed without and fundemental changes and when the industrial working places are developed. After the 60ties, because of the industrial politics and migrations to the city, the population is increased in Bursa. Population of the city is increased not because of the industrial atractiveness of the city. The other reason was that: migrators from abroad wre (settled) in Bursa. Because Bursa was choosen as the first Organize Industry Distrinc, the industry in the city gained such a dimension. Because the industrial areas and population increased, first the density in increased in the city centrium. Then as a reaction to the high rants in the centre, trends turned towards the around of the city, Bursa valley and open and green areas, where life is cheaper.This border became larger and slips into the outer areas. This vicious circle still goes on in Bursa since 60ties. Thus, the factors that determine the formation of Bursa city macroform formed the city tissue copletely. Historical Bursa image is pressed in the city centrium and the only remain of Green Bursa image is its name. First what are the factors that form the green tissue of the city? Which of these elements form the tissue of Green Bursa? Are there any active green areas which are formed by the planned work? Or are they the natural areas which are formed by Bursa valley and the forrest or is it possible to create green areas by planned decisions in parallel with the increasing population in the treatories of the city, if they are formed, is it practised? Or could not it be practised? This questions were to be answered by examining this documents and by taking the ideas of the authorties. in this section, first of all, explanations are made on the factors which cause yhe green tissue of the city. And thase factors are considered as the green areas of inner city and outer city. Green tissue of the inner city is considered as the habitation as the with gardens. Outer city is consedered as Bursa valley and the green areas which are located around the city and outside the city. City plans and revisions and its reports which are made between the years 1960-1996 usage of field work and other documents that we mention above and the XVI smaller versions of plan work which are made during this period are told in order to follow the section. Later these plans were examined comperatively and as a result of this the developments which are important in the aspect of working subject are given numbers on the small versions of the city plans. And these developments are told about clearly in items. It is possible to see same examples of these plans made by 1/5000 scale. Some information is given on the landscapes which are made in Bursa under the light of statistic information. In the section of conclution and evolution the questions are answered under the light of the information gaimed while studying on this subject. Although they don't create active green areas, which a need of a city, they didn't take into consideration enough pre-cautions to protect the natural green potentiality. Today, Bursa valley which forms the green area potentiality and which has a great importance on the city economy with its fertile treorities disapears gradually The other factor which gives the green Bursa image to the city is the habitation areas in the city. The Bursa houses were with gardens and courtyards and they were settled around a green environment. The vine yards, gardens, peach trees that belong to private persons are the factors that strenghten this image. Today neighbourhoods like Çekirge and Beşevler where there are many luxurous houses, were in a condition of green areas full of peach gardens. The population increased by migrations and industry were first settled at the empty areas in the city. Two-tree floored houses with gardens were replaced by new apartments. Although we don't take into consideration the vineyards and gardens of the houses, today Bursa couldn't save the tissue of these beautiful houses. Today Bursa is a grey mass which is consisted of intermingled buildings. In short, some crookness which occur during the change period is the comman problem of the many cities that are devoloping. The discreasing standart of green areas in parallel with the population came into being with urbanization is the commen problem of our country.
Açıklama
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1997
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1997
Anahtar kelimeler
Bursa; Kent makroformu; Kentleşme; Yeşil alanlar, Bursa ;City macroform ;Urbanization ;Green areas
Alıntı