H. Sadeddin Arel'in Türkiyat Enstitüsünde bulunan Hamparsum nota yazılarından bir bölümünün günümüz notasına çevirimi

Sunat, Nurdan Tan
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Institute of Social Sciences
Bu çalışmada H.Sadeddin Ar el' in Hamparsum nota yazısı ile yaz dığı eserlerin bir bölümü günümüz notasına çevrilmiş olup, unutulan bazı serlerin olup, olmadığı araştırılmıştır. Türk musikisinde eğitim, usta-çırak çalışması şeklinde, meşk ha linde olmuş ve musiki eserleri hocadan öğrencilerine intikal ederek bu şekil de zaman içinde taşınmıştır. Buna bağlı olarak nota yazısına rağbet edilme miştir. Değişik zamanlarda ortaya konan nota yazıları bu sebeple yaygın şe kilde kullanılmıştır. Ancak 19,yy'dan itibaren Hamparsum nota yazısı bir öl çüde yaygınlaşarak Klasik musikimiz repertuarının önemli bir bölümünün günümüze ulaşmasını sağlamıştır. Tezimde Hamporsum nota yazısı tanıtılarak kırk eser bu nota yazı sından günümüz nota yazısına çevrilmiş ve gerekli mukayeseler yapılmıştır.
My aim in this work is to transcribe H.Sadeddin Arel's handwriting into today's characters as well as to bring the forgotten works to our musical archives. While doing this work, transcribed notes are researched whether they are in the Istanbul Radio Archives or the I.T.U. Turkish music Government Conservatory's Archives. A part of the work" notes have been transcribed before. These notes that I have found and the newly transcribed notes have been compared and there are some differences. There are also some differences in the composer's names. I have to limit The Hamparsum Notes to a small number in order not to increase the number of pages the thesis. The first notes written in a known melody's music are nothing different than simple sings. The discovery of notalization made a marvellous base for the development of musical practice. Notalization, which is the beginning of a difference in musical language, naturally has developed and obeyed linguistic and esthetic forces. Turks didn't write their music on paper for the next generations as it is customs in Islamic Countires. They sometimes used some note systems but it didn't gain popularity until the beginning of XX. century. Music's technique, makam and usul' s or learning any kind of instrument has always done by memorization and mebk. Mebk was a kind of teaching method that never accepts the writing of notes. The chance of forgetting a piece of composed work depended on the number of the people who mepked it. The VI reason of it, was the different variations of the same work for the free commentary of this learning system. It's thought that the first note writing used by Turks is "Mani" notes used in East Türkistan. Then the Islamic life of Turks began. In this period, Turks used "Ebced" notes that are in Islamic custom. Like every note system, Ebced notes are also alphabetical and shows the voices as signs. Kutb-I Nayi Sheikh Osman Dede made an Ebced note. Prince Kantemiroğlu's notes are contemporaries of these. He used the first words of curtain names and wrote 348 pebrevs and saz semais with this note. Osman Dede' s grandson, Sheikh Abdulbaki Naşir Dede, developed Ebced Note by the order of Selim III. In his work named "Tahririye" he described a kind of ebced note discovered by himself by writing with words and pointing out the numbers under it. After Selim III. 's death, this note system which was the most popular ebced note system, wasn't used until today's note system, but had played a great role in the gain of some important works. Baba Hamparsum Limoncuyan who was the contemporary of Abdulbaki Dede used note writings in the same years. This note writing has been used by composers until recent years. In the middle of 17th century, Ali Ufki Bey used the old west note writing. He wrote hundreds of saz and word pieces. After the 1830's, the Porteli West Notes were used in the Mizika-I Hümayun for the first time by Ottoman Musicians. Donizetti Pasha who became the head of the Mizika-I Hümayun, adopted the Western note system. In 1850, there had been a note teacher Salih Efendi known to be f teaching to Mizika-I Hümayun members. vn ismail Hakkı Bey was the first Turkish Musician who used the Western notes as they were (private sharp and flat signs which was used for describing teh windows in Turkish Music), in order to teach music, compose his own melodies as well as spread it systematically Out of these systems some other note writings were desired to be invented. One of these was Necip Pasha's note writing that enjoyed no popularity and another system named, "Yıldırım" by Mustafa Nezih Albayrak. Hamparsum who lived in the period of Selim III and Mahmud II developed a notalization system with Western notes which became widespread among the Ottoman Musicians until the beginning of the XX century. The notalizaiton system developed by Hamparsum Limoncuyan with the help of the letters of the Armenian alphabet and Byzantium rite notes, was in widespread use in Turkish Music in the XIX and XX Centuries and saved many classical works from being forgotten. Hamparsum notes didn't show the sound used in Turkish Music exactly but it still was popular due to its being practical and easy. It was also used in Armenian religious tunes. This is an incomplete system for it didn't include the all the sound in Turkish Music. There are seven kinds of signs in this system. By making little differences the sounds between ca be shown as well as the shrills in the curtains with these seven signs. In the Hampursum Notes, the sound length (values) can be shown by adding additional signs to the signs which show the curtains. Because of every note's high-pitched sign being peculiar to the note and absence of flat and sharp signs in Western music the influence of additional signs in this measurement would not contiune. However, in a group of the same vin value if the additional signs that show a note's length follow each, the same value if the additional signs that show a note's length follow each, the same value can be agreed for the sound in the following group. In Hamparsum System, little usuls are separated with two dots on top of each other and the end of the usul is shown by four points in square shape (::). Normal musical key is used. The Senyo sign that is used in Western music is used. The reason that this system has been widespread and used for a long time is the easiness of its writing. No special note paper is used. Generally, it is written in the shapes of 2/4 units. Because of this characteristics, some musicians didn't use time units. This style has been named "Secret Hamparsum". Many difficulties were faced during translation, In some parts of the work, there are some uncomplete sections in the usuls; In order not to in the original, it was transcribed in the some way. In some works rythm was not mentioned, those situations the work was written in the measure at 4/4 rythm. By noticing similar groups that were used in the same work before, changes in some notes were corrected. By noting some similarities in later measures, In some of the works, unfinished measures were completed. In some of the works, measure lines were maked wrong and for that reason with respect to the "usûl" is there were some in complete measures. This in com pleteness was corrected when reogranized according to "usul". A different form was mentioned in one of the researched works. Sometimes variations were met in the usul's. While the "usul" was found different in the transcribed work, it had been already different from the works taken from Istanbul Radio Archive. DC In translations Hacı Ismail Efendi was mentioned as Dellalzâde generally. The works of Tanburi Mustafa Çavuş were known as Tanburi's. Many differences can be seen among the notes taken from fstanbul Radio Archives and Conser vatory Archives. In order not to ruin the writer's notes then were written the same, but in order to compare them a section was added to explain the notes. The names of composer's were not mentioned expect for one which was found on one piece, Hacı Arif Bey. In two of the works, composer names were men tioned different, for that reason, two of the works uncompleted notes were written. As its known, Hamparsum note system doesn't suit the Turkish note system. It doesn't show some voices in Turkish music exactly. That is any some there were some difficultions in comparing them. Especially in works in the Ferahnak scale between "Segah" and "Buselik" many differences can be seen. "Segah" was used in many of the works insistently. Rarely "Nim Hicaz" and "Buselik" were used.
Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1998
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, 1998
Anahtar kelimeler
Arel, Hüseyin Sadeddin, Hamparsum notası, Müzik, Nota, Çeviri, Arel, Hüseyin Sadeddin, Hamparsum notation, Music, Note, Translation