Önderlik kavramı ve inşaat firmalarında önderlerin yönetim yaklaşımları

Ermutlu, Zeynep
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Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu çalışmada, önderlik kavramının yönetim olgusundaki önemi vurgulanarak, özellikle Türkiye'de inşaat sektöründe faaliyet gösteren firmalarda önderlerin yönetim yaklaşımları incelenmiştir. Giriş bölümünde, konunun belirlenmesinde etkili faktörler ve çalışmanın amacı hakkında bilgi verildikten sonra önderlik kavramının tanımı ve önderliğin işlevleri sıralanmıştır. Niteliksel, davranışsal ve durumsal önderlik modelleri ve bu modeller üzerine yapılan çalışmalar incelendikten sonra etkin önderlikte rol oynayan belirleyiciler ve yapım endüstrisinde önderlik konuları ele alınmıştır. Araştırma bölümünde ise inşaat firmalarında önder rolünü üstlenen yöneticiler üzerinde yapılan bir anket çalışması ve bunun sonuçları ele alınarak ülkemizde önderlerin astlarına karşı uyguladıkları davranış stili konusunda genel görünüm belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır.
Whenever two or more persons constitute a group, who is the leader? Is it the person with whom others identify and whom they wish to imitate? Or is it the person who is most popular in the group? The leader is the person who is organizing, planning, controlling and guiding. The leader has the formal position in the organization's hierarchy and is responsible for various duties assigned to his position in the organization. I. LEADERSHIP PROCESS IN MANAGEMENT Many attempts have been made to identify the bases upon which one individual may influence another. One of the most useful frameworks for understanding these bases of influence has been developed by French and Raven. They have distinguished five different bases of social power for which there appears to be substantial agreement between management scholars and practitioners. a) Legitimate power : It derives from the position of the manager in the organization's hierarchy. b) Control over rewards : This is power based on the ability of the manager to reward the subordinate. c) Coercive power : It is the opposite of reward power and refers to one's ability to influence others because one is in a position to punish them if they do not comply. d) Expert power : It refers to the ability of an individual to influence others because of his superior knowledge. e) Referent power : It is based on a follower's identification with a leader. The real indicator of the extent to which any given person is a leader, is the amount of influence he wields over and above the authority inherent in his office. However if the group's obedience is only a result of blind respect to the boss' position, there is a low level of leadership in existence, the ideal situation is when the individual who has the natural recognition and respect of vi his group is coincidental ly appointed to or placed in the position of official leadership. It takes more than a title to make the boss a leader. II. MODELS OF LEADERSHIP For centuries individuals have been trying to answer the question of how to be an effective leader. Since there is no universally acceptable answer to this question, three models of leadership process will be examined. a) Trait model: For centuries philosophers and scientists have argued the great man theory and asked if there is something common in the individuals' personalities that enabled them to have a significant impact on the history of the world. The controversy surrounding the "great man" theory has called attention to the "trait" approach to leadership. While the list of the traits examined has been endless, some of the major traits were height, weight, intelligence, personality integrty, empathy and the like. b) Behavioral model : The behavioral approach to the study of leadership focuses its attention on what the leader does and how his or her style is. During the 1930's, two researches conducted a study to determine the effect of three types of leadership style on their performance: The autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire leaders. The findings indicated that although the quantity of work was greater in the autocratic groups, the quality of the work in the democratic groups was superior and the laissez-faire style was not effective in stimulating performance. Different terms have been used by researchers such as "initiating structure", "consideration", "employee-centered" and "production- centered". Employee centered or considerate leadership has been related to lower grievance, absenteeism and turnover, more co-operation and sometimes higher productivity. c) Situational model : A group of behavioral scientists tried to develop a leadership theory postulating that the best leader is the one who is adaptive, who can change his style depending upon the situation, the group and his personal values. The question of which of these styles is effective in a particular situation depends upon the situation, group and power of the leader. In other words, the role prescription for leadership is contingent upon the group-task situation. The approach taken by Friedler and his associates makes the first systematic attempt at integrating the three approaches. In the leadership effectiveness model, Fiedler makes the comment that it is easier to be an effective leader when the task is highly structured for the group. The Path-Goal theory predicts that the leader who chooses a "considerate" or "human relations" approach will be more effective when the VI task itself is perceived as dissatisfying for the employee and it is highly structured. III. LEADERSHIP AND THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Leadership in some parts of human society has been heavily researched, while others (particuarly construction) have been relatively overlooked. Since construction work puts heavy emphasis on co-operation among team members, leadership accordingly should have great influence on the performance in many studies. In addition leadership has been shown to be a major factor determining successful project performance in many studies. Studies of leadership style in the construction industry are quite uncommon and, of the few studies that have been undertaken, Bresnen's (1976) research concentrated on the leadership style of UK site managers. The findings of Bresnen's research can be broadly summarized as follows:. Site managers generally exhibit a stronger task orientation.. There is a tendency for more relationship-oriented managers to perform on large value contracts and contracts of longer duration. Rowlinson, Ho and Po-Hung in their research, tried to classify construction managers in Hong-Kong as relationship oriented or task oriented. They found that construction site managers in Hong-Kong display the full range of leaderdhip behavior style and can not be categorized as displaying one single style. Design team leaders and project leaders in Hong-Kong are generally relationship oriented and socio independent and few are task oriented. The difference of Hong-Kong and UK. managers, can be attributed to the cultural differences betwen Chinese society and Western Society, particularly the influences of the Chinese Confucian doctrine of harmony. IV. LEADERSHIP PROCESS IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN TURKEY The importance of leadership in management area has been understood many years ago and has been supported with studies and researches. The main purpose of this study is to form a general frame in construction sector, by determining of the behavior of persons in this sector, who are at a leader position. vi The importance of effective leadership in management and different leadership models has been examined, and the results of the literature survey on "leadership in construction industry" subject showed that there are only very limited studies specially made for this subject. Therefore the basic approach to form the base of hypotheses can be summarized as to determine the general outlook of construction sector in Turkey by measuring behavior styles of managers in leadership position and to bring out the style differences between office managers and site managers. In this study Leadership Opinion Questionnaire (LOQ) form, applied by Fleisman in Ohio State University, has been filled out by 30 managers. In the other part of the questionnaire form it has been asked their opinions regarding company success. LOQ examines leader's attitudes and behaviors as top executives and focuses on "initiating structure" and "consideration" tendencies. The results of the research showed that 70 % of managers have higher "initiating structure" average than "consideration" average and employees are seemed to be satisfied to experience such kind of a behavioral style. Another conclusion is that leaders without differentiating on office -site, architect- engineer or young- old are primarily more job centered and human relations have only secondary importance.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998
Anahtar kelimeler
Liderlik, İnşaat şirketleri, Leadership, Construction companies