Yönetim bilişim sistemleri

Yılmaz, Hasan
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Bu çalışmada yönetim ve karar verme konumundaki kişilerin yararlanabilecekleri sistemlerin incelenmesi ve yönetim bilişim sistemlerinin arganizasyonel yapılar daki sistemlere uygulanması incelenmiştir. YBS tanıtımı ve işletmelere uygulanmasını araştıran bu çalışmada öncelikle temel kavramlar incelenmiştir. Veri ve bilgi kavramı ele alınıp daha sonra YBS tipleri tanıtılmıştır. Dördüncü, beşinci ve altıncı bölümlerde YBS'nin arganizasyonel düzeylerdeki çeşitleri olan, kişisel YB5, çalışma grubu YBS, arganizasyonel YBS'den geniş olarak söz edilmiştir. Son bölümde ise uygulama olarak, seçilen organizas- yonel sistemde mevcut bilgi akışı ve önerilen bilgi akışı girdi-çıktı analizi ile incelenmiştir.
The goal of this research is to examine management information systems (MIS), and design these systems in organizations. The growing role of information as a key organiza tional resource has made the study of information systems vital to anyone contemplating a career in business. Virtually all managers in organizations to day need to manipulate information as a part of their jabs. By studying the process that cause information to be needed, gathered, manipulated, stored and used, the managers can develop strategies and tools to make them selves or their organizations more effective and more efficient. It is necessary to use a management information system to support the process of decision making from the first level where the routine works are done to the top level where strategic decisions are made. There are several reasons why a company should design and implement an MIS. Some of these reasons are as follows: - Business has become more complex and larger - Competition has become more effective - Management decisions must be made more quickly This research, which mainly focuses on the MIS development and management practices, first introducts important basic concepts. It is impossible understand vxn management information systems without having some konuledge about the information and data concepts as well as system theory. Also, in the first part, the types of reports was explained. As it is understood from the name of the system, management information system consists of three concepts; Management, Information and System. Because of this, information and management concepts was explained. In today's dynamic environment, the organizations may survive only with adopting themselves to the changing environment and with reducing the uncertain conditions. This can only be achieved with "information" Because of this reason, the information concept and importance of it for organizations was explained. All units of organizations require the information to achieve their goals. So, the information is an element of production as well as being an important resource. Another important point is that management does not requires all kinds of information, it requires relevant information valuable for decision-making. According to some people the worth of the informa tion depends on several factors. These are the quantity of information, the quality of informatin, the time liness, the relevance of information. In the third part the five fundamental types of information systems was introduced. Transaction processing systems (TPS) support the operational, day- to-day activities of the organization. Management information systems (discus sed in the first part, but here used with a different, narrower meaning) are used to facilitate the management of this day-to-day activi ties. Decision support systems (DSS) are special purpose applications that exist to support the resolution of particular problems or make decsions to take advantage of unique opportunities. Office automation systems (DAS) facilitate office activities such as the preparation and communication of correspondence. Finally, executive support system (ESS) are systems employed by very senior managers to keep abreast of the organization in broad, overview terms. IX Personal MIS was introduced in the fourth part. First, the goals and applications then components of personal information systems, finally developing a personal information system was described and explained. Personal information system are computer-based informa tion systems used by individuals to improve their perso nal productivity. Text processing, spreadsheets, and personal database management are the three major workhorses of personal MIS. Personal information systems can facilitate all of the major business functions. They do this for indivi duals, however and not for workgroups or organizations. It can be used for personal strategic planning although this is rare. More common, and more useful, is to use them to facilitate personal management control and per sonal operations control. Personal information systems are used to automate routine jobs; they are also used as computer-based assistants in Simon's "relatively rough environment". They can improve job quality by increasing skill variety, task identity, and autonomy for the accomplishment of tasks of greater significance. The development of an information system needs to be planned and controlled and organized into an orderly process. The five stages in the development process described in this part are definition, requirements, evaluation, design, and implementation. During the definition stage, the problem is defined, feasibility is assessed, and a plan of action is prepared. In the requirement stage specific statements are developed of the output to be produced and the input required. Evaluatin stage, requirements are examined, the possibly modified or eliminated. Specifications are developed for each of the five components of the information systems. Finally, during implementation, the components are acquired, integrated, tested, and the system is installed, A workgroup is a collection of people who work to gether to achieve a common goal. Workgroup MIS was explained in the fifth part of this research. The major difference between personal information systems and workgroup information systems is that workgroup systems must support controlled sharing of resources. The major categories of workgroup information systems are hardware sharing systems, workgroup communi cation systems, text sharing systems, data sharing systems, and management systems. There are three fundamental types of information systems architecture. Centralized, or teleprocessing system, it involves a central computer that communicates with users situated at dumb terminals. Distributed architecture's most prevalent form is local area net works (LANs). Hybrid architecture combines centralized processing with distrubuted processing. Workgroup information systems require more sop histicated operations than do personal information systems. Consequently, some users need to be given special training. Organizational MIS was introduced in sixth part., The purpose of an organizational MIS is to integrate the activities of different departmants into a single business system that produces coordinated, integrated responses to its environment. Organizational MIS involve many people and many functions. Organizational information systems differ from workgroup systems in several ways. First, wheeras the users of a workgroup system know eachother personally, the users of an organizationally. Further, workgroup systems normally involve at most, a few dozen users. Still another difference is that organizational systems manage a thousand times or more data than do workgroup systems. Finally, while workgroup systems typically involve just one subfunction of a company, organizational systems cross many departmantal boundaries and involve at least one major organizational function. Three fundamantel processing architectures are used for organizational systems. With the teleprocessing architecture, all applications processing is done on a centralized computer; with distributed processing, XI applications are processed on several computers; and with distributed database processing, applications are not only processed on several computers, but the data base is divided among them as well. Organizational information systems involve systems, horizontal market, vertical market, and in-house deve loped programs just as personal and workgroup do. Organizational information systems involve development, operations, use, and management roles. Because of their complexity and size, such systems require support from a professional staff. The professional play a much larger role in development, operations, and manage ment of organizational system than they do for personal or workgroup systems. Most MIS departmans have two major division. One division is concerned with the development, operations, and maintenance of organizational information /systems. The other division is concerned with transfering technology to individiuals and workgroups outside of the MIS department. Organizational databases must be supported by data administration. Finally, in last part of this research, _on organiza tion's information system was tried to be developed. The current information system, persons in the organiza tion, tasks, data, information was described. At the end of this part a new information system have been suggested.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1993
Anahtar kelimeler
İşletme, Yönetim bilgi sistemleri, Business Administration, Management information systems