Şişli İlçesi'nde Art Deco Üslubuna İlişkin Cephe Düzenlemeleri

Baykara, H. Canset
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Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Bu çalışmada, Şişli İlçesinde Art Deco üslubunu yansıtan yapılar saptanmaya ve incelenmeye çalışılmıştır. Zaman içinde yeniden yapılanma ile yok olmaya başlayan bir dönemi simgelemesi açısında büyük önem taşıyan yapılar hakkında elde veri kalması için bu çalışmaya ihtiyaç duyulmuştur. Giriş niteliği taşıyan ilk bölümde üslubun en çok görüldüğü semtler, seçilme nedenleri, alana getirilen sınırlamalar, örneklerin incelenmesi sırasında cephe düzenlemeleri ve demir işçiliğinin dikkate alındığı belirtilmiştir. İkinci bölümde, Art Deco'nun Batı Dünyasında ortaya çıkış nedenleri, tarih sınırlan, akımın isminin nereden türetildiği, hangi akımlardan etkilendiği, Fransa dışında hangi ülkelerde başarılı olduğu, üslubun karakteristik özellikleri anlatılmıştır. Üçüncü Bölümde, Art Deco döneminde Türkiye'de ve daha sonra da İstanbul'da ekonomik, siyasal ve toplumsal koşullara bağlı olarak kentsel değişiklikler ve mimarlık mesleğine özgü değişiklikler ele alınmıştır. İstanbul Art Deco'sunun özellikleri üzerinde durulmuştur. Dördüncü Bölüm' de, araştırma bölgesi olarak seçilen Şişli ilçesinde yer alan Kurtuluş, Feriköy, Pangaltı, Osmanbey, Nişantaşı, Teşvikiye ve Şişli semtlerinin, tarihsel gelişimi anlatılmıştır. Şişli ilçesinin oluşmaya başlamasından itibaren hangi akslar üzeride geliştiği ve bu gelişmenin mimari etkileri anlatılmıştır. Gelişme sonucunda hangi alan sınırlarına ulaştığı belirtilmiştir. Beşinci Bölümde, saptanan örnekler çizilerek ve betimlenerek açıklanmıştır. Betimlemelerde yapının Art Deco üslubu ile ilgili kısımları haricinde genel yapısı ve biçim özellilkeri hakkında da bilgi verilmeye çalışılmış, üsluba uymayan kısımların hakkında da açıklamalar yapılmıştır. Bu bölümde ayrıca zaman içinde yapının özgünlüğünü bozan bilinçsiz ilaveler genel çizimden arındırılmaya çalışılarak binanın orijinal haline sadık kalınmaya çalışılmıştır. Altıncı Bölümde ise, binaların cephelerinde görülen karakteristik özellikler belirlenmiştir. Genel- bir yorum yapılarak binalarda rastlanan ortak özellikler sıralanmıştır. Ekler kısmında, genel anlamda Art Deco üslubuna uymayan binalarda rastlanan bu üsluba uygun kapılar da dikkate alınarak ayrıntılı çizimler verilmiştir.
Istanbul is growing in an unorganized manner. As a result, many of its architectural pieces symbolizing certain historical periods are being demolished day by day or they are losing their properties. The aim of this project is to find and analyze samples of Art Deco buildings present in Şişli where very limited research have been done. Art Deco is a style that began in 1920's and became popular in 1930's, especially in France and America in architecture and decorative arts. The style was named Art Deco not in the period it was applied but after the exhibition in Paris, Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriale Modernes. This exhibition caused Art Deco style to be recognized and become popular. During the years it was applied, it has been called various names such as art moderne, modernistic or jazz pattern. Art Deco was the last truly sumtuous style, a legitimate and highly fertile chapter in the history of the applied arts. There is a continuing debate, however, on the exact definition of the therm "Art Deco" and the extent of the movement it encompassed. The initial belief fostered when the Art Deco revival began roughly in the mid-1960s, was that Art Deco was the antithesis of Art Nouveau, and had been spawned in 1920 to eradicate its 1900 predecesssor, which history had already judged a grave, but mercifully brief, transgression against good taste. When Art Deco started to be applied right after the end of World War I, the basis for modern art had been established. An opposite approach to the style of XlXth century that puts emphasis on details was taken. Innovative art styles did not qualify to meet the needs of the middle class. At this period Art Deco came out as an alternative style for high income earning middle class. In France, the Parisian "Art Deco" high style, which dominated the annual decorative arts Salons from the end of the First World War until the 1925 International Exposition of contemporary reviews reveals a random selection of boutiques-typically perfumeries, bakeries and shoe stores-adorned in the new idiom. The best French Art Deco architecture was designed for the 1925 International Exposition as was destined to last only six months. The fact that the entire site would be razed on the Exposition's closure stimulated experimental with radical architectural forms and untried materials. Stone and brick yielded to laminates and plastics. via The resistence of Expressionism and Futurism to multi purpose usage and the modernism of Corbusier's and Bauhaus' that rejects ornamentation had left a considerable gap in application arts that has a great importance in daily life. Application of Art Deco style has spreaded from architecture to ceramics, from textile designs to furniture, from daily used appliances to graphic arts, from painting and sculpture to even fashion design. Similar to previously used styles, usage of Art Deco does not have a beginning or ending date. Therefore, many of the works recognized as Art Deco has been designed either before the World War I broke out in 1914 or during the War. Due to this fact, the movement can not be limited to the decade from 1920 to 1930. The roots of the style can be extended back to 1900. The two pioneer of Art Deco are Scottish Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Austrian Josef Hoffmann whose works of 1900's pave the way for future artists. The first true Art Deco design was Hoffman's Palais Stocket (Brussels, 1905) followed by the exterior of Glasgow School of Art Library by Mackintosh (Glasgow, 1907). Mackintosh's Basset Lowke House (1916) is a fully fledged Art Deco design with its zig zag lines, arrow shapes, overlapping squares and flat geometrical patterns. The most immediately apparent feature of these three designs is their rectangularity. This was already characteristic of works by the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright, and European acquaintace with his designs after 1910 accelerated Art Deco tendencies. Art Deco' s first tenet, that form must follow function, later remained unchallenged by all succeeding schools of design, but its second, which related to decoration, proved its undoing. The modernist argued that the new age required nothing less than excellent design for everyone, and that quality and mass production were not mutually exclusive. The future of the decorative arts did not rest with the rich, and even less with their aesthetic preferences. An object's greatest beauty lay, conversely, in its perfect adaptation of its usage. Each epoch must create a decorative vocabulary in its own image to meet its specific needs. In the late 1920's this aim was best realized by industry's newest means of production, the machine. Existing cocepts of beauty, based on the artisan and his handtools, needed therefore to be redefined to meet the dictates of the new machine age. For the first time the straight line became a source of beauty. Art Deco is an extention of Art Nouveau style from many aspects. However, it is a style created by Art Nouveau's change to a more simple style with a geometric and industrial content with the effect of Bauhaus and Cubism movements. It is created by the synthesis of Art Nouveau style and the rich European appreciation in American culture of 1920's. IX The simple outlook of industrial design, linearity, repetition of elements, geometry and stylization are characterics of Art Deco. Its aesthetic origin roots back to Expressionism and Cubism. Cubism has been rejuvenated in Art Deco as an ornamentation style. Undecorated and simple patterns, ornaments in geometric style and common usage of expensive and high quality materials is observed in architecture. In standard ornamentation of the Art Deco such as stylized floral bouqets, maiden figures, geometric motifs including zig zag, lightning bolts, chevrons and animal figures, effects of the arts of Egyptology and Hellenism, the Orient, tribal Africa, and Ballets Russes are clearly visible. In 1925, Paris held an Exposition of Decorative Arts and all countries were invited to show their art and architecture. Most European countries participated except Germany. The United States also declined. Notwithstanding these omissions, the exposition was considered by most critics as a major showpiece for Modernism. The Paris International Exposition of 1925 showed of the opulent and decorative character French Art Deco, and is often regarded as the climax of the style. Outside France, functionalism had dominated decorative arts ideology since the end of the Victorian Era (1840-1900). In Germany, the formation in 1907 of the Munich Werkbund carried forward the logic and geometry at the heart of the Vienna Secession and Glasgow Movements some years earlier. In contrast to the litany of Art Nouveau, flowers and maidens in neighboring France, and its own Jugendstil, the Werkbund placed emphasis on functional design applicable to mass production. A reconciliation between art and industry, updated to accomodate the technological advence of the new century, was implemented. Ornament was given only secondary status. These philosophy reached fruition in the formation in Germany of the Bauhaus, which, in turn, inspired the Modernist strain which took root in American decorative arts in the late 1920's. After the First World War, other European and Scandinavian designers follow the German example by creating Bauhaus. Ornamentation was sparingly applied outside France. A certain amount was tolerated, but the high style embellishments of Paris between 1910 and 1925 were viewed as a Gallic eccentricity which would not be assimilated elsewhere. The styles only foreign success was in American architecture, where it was adapted by a new generation of architects to enhance their buildings, particularly skyscrapers and movie places. In the early 1920's the United States did not have its own Modernist style. The only decidedly modern decorative style which the American architect could use was the style flourishing in Paris. For this reason Art Deco ornamentation is to be found in the United States on a host of buildings under construction from the early 1920's and it most strongly associated with the skyscraper. Art Deco architectural ornamentation did not extend far beyond the French capital. Unlike America, which experienced a building boom in the 1920's, Europe was in a quite period of retrenchment following the devastation of the Great War. In addition, x its rich architectural tradition leaned heavily towards renovation rather than demolition. The Americans absorbed French ideas very quickly. The British were slower and Art Deco began to appear in Britain only in 1928, when it was already declining elsewhere. In 1930's Art Deco became the most popular movement of the Western World. However, later on with the resistence of Wright and the leading architects of Intertnational Style's towards Art Deco architecture followed a pattern, freed from architectural ornaments, functional and structural. Art Deco architecture in Istanbul can be observed in buildings housing the high level income residents of the city between 1920 and 1940. Exclusive Art Deco examples can be found in Talimhane, Ayazpaşa, Maçka, Nişantaşı, Şişli and Cihangir. Eventhough the establishment of apartment buildings in Istanbul dates back to earlier, their frequent use began simultaneously with Art Deco applications. The architectural characteristics and ranking of these buildings are parallel to the examples in Europe. There is visible similarity between their plan schemes and their mass. There are stylized plasters on the facades, geometrical shaped balcony and window parapets, top edges beveled windows, especially on the entrance levels, and doors with immediately distinct geometric composition of motifs, are also typical characteristics of Art Deco in Istanbul. Using large paintings at the entrances of the apartment buildings, is quite widespread as a special application. Examples of Art Deco style in private homes can be found in Moda, Feneryolu or Suadiye in Kadıköy. During the development project in 1970's many of the Art Deco private houses have been demolished just like the Art Nouveau buildings. The topic of the research, Şişli is one of the late settlement sights of Istanbul. The buildings have evolved both in quantity and quality at a very colorful and variant manner. Construction in Şişli have started out with big military barracks, mansions, stone buildings, and Levanten kiosks. These buildings have been kept in shape for many years. In line with the changes in social structure, the building structure underwent changes at the beginning of the 20th century, and especially starting from the first couple years of the Turkish Republic, these type of buildings began to dissapear. The transition first started in the early settlement sights of Şişli, along the main roads between Taksim - Osmanbey - Şişli and Harbiye - Nişantaşı - Teşvikiye. One or two story stone buildings, mansions and Levanten kiosks have dissapeared to give way to multi story buildings with ornamented facades, pillars and every now and then sculptures. The first settlement sites in Istanbul where the architecture style is completely Westernized and the effect of Ottoman style architecture can not be observed, are xi Galata and Beyoğlu. Şişli is the second settlement site after Beyoğlu in this aspect. This architectural characteristic in Şişli can be observed until 1950's. As a result of a wide spread field search in Şişli, many exclusive examples possessing Art Deco characteristics have been spotted. It has been observed that Art Deco style have commonly been used in facade or sometimes only in portal decoration in this region. The most of the examples were constructed with a basement. In some of these examples, the basement height was approximatly a half of a stage. It has also been observed that many of these exclusive Art Deco examples have been damaged due to reconstruction in Istanbul.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Anahtar kelimeler
Art Deco; Cephe; İstanbul-Şişli, Art Deco ;Facade ;İstanbul-Şişli