Kıyı Mekanı Ve Kıyıda Kent Mimarisi Ada Ve Magosa Örneği

Deviren, A. Senem
Süreli Yayın başlığı
Süreli Yayın ISSN
Cilt Başlığı
Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Bu çalışmada 'kıyı mekanı ve kıyıda kent mimarisi' konusu ele alınmıştır. Kıyının ne nitelikte ve nasıl bir mekan olduğu, mekanın kimliği ve kıyıya bağlı kent gelişimi incelenmiştir. Birinci bölümde; konuya bir giriş yapılmıştır. İkinci bölümde; 'kıyı mekanı' konusu ele alınmıştır. Kıyı mekanının tanımı yapılmıştır. Deniz varlığının, yapısal ve doğal çevreye bağlı olarak, insan üzerinde yarattığı anlamsal ve algısal etkiler incelenmiş; mekan tanımının nasıl farklılaşabileceği ortaya konmuştur. Akdeniz kimliği altında, kıyı mekanının nasıl bir anlam kazandığı üzerinde durulmuştur. Üçüncü bölümde; 'kıyıda kent mimarisi' konusu incelenmiştir. Önce, deniz kıyısındaki kentlerin konum ve zamana bağlı olarak diğer kentlerden farklı algılanış özellikleri belirlenmiş; kent kimliğini ortaya koyabilecek tasvirlere yer verilmiştir. Farklı nitelikteki kişiler tarafından yapılan bu tasvirlerde, mekan tanımının ne tür yorum farklılıkları içerebileceği ortaya konmuştur. Bölümün devamında, genel olarak kent sınırlarının oluşum ve gelişimine değinilmiş; kent mekanını oluşturan ve tanımlayan sınır çeşitlerine yer verilmiştir. Kent mekanının özel bir yer niteliği kazanmasını sağlayan 'sınırlar'ın mekan kimliğiyle ilgisi saptanmıştır. Sınır, mekan, kent ilişkileri içerisinde 'kıyı'nın yeri belirlenmiş ve farklı tarihlerdeki kıyı mekanı düzenlemelerinden örnekler verilmiştir. Kentlerin deniz varlığıyla sıkı ilişki içerisinde geliştiği Akdeniz kıyı kentlerinin karakteristik mimari özellikleri ve ayrıcalıkları incelenmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde; 'ada mekanı' konusu ele alınmıştır. Ada tanımı, boyutları ve mekan-yaşam ilişkileri üzerinde durulmuştur. Akdeniz adalarının diğer adalardan farklı yönleri belirlenmiş ve yerleşimlerin genel mekansal gelişimlerine değinilmiştir. Beşinci bölümde; kıyı mekanı ve kıyıda kent mimarisi konuları, bir örnek yardımıyla değerlendirilmiştir. Bir Akdeniz adası olan Kıbrıs'ta genel ada mekanının karakteristik özellikleri ortaya konulmuş ve adada kıyı kenti gelişimine örnek olarak, Magosa üzerine incelemeler yapılmıştır.
The subject matter of this research is 'Coastal Space and Urban Architecture'. To Explain the subject; the quality and identity of coastal space and urban development related to the coast is examined in a general perspective. Chapter one is an introduction to the subject. The definition and overall effects of coastal space are included in chapter two. Two main areas define the coastal space. One of them is sea and the other one is hinterland. The definition of the space must include all values of sea-land interaction and combination. The general (visual, phenomenological, psychological, etc.) environmental effects of coastal sites change according to the natural and built environment conditions. The main perceptive and semantic effects of coastal space can be classified as edge, continuity and transition. Boundary definition consists of the application of certain aspects of several components which make up the landscape unit. These components consist of general form, terrain pattern, dominant vegetative patterns, water presence, characteristic weather and cultural patterns. The definition of the edge then, extracts from the whole group of components. Boundary is the edges which are created between dissimilar things and contrasting elements. Continuity is particularly concerned with the relationship between waterscape and setting unit. Both edge and continuity effects can be examined in two main definition areas: 1. Horizontal definition (longshore definition) 2. Vertical definition (cross shore demarcation) Transition is concerned with shore linkage between water and land and their mutual relations. Shoreline can be imagined as a transition zone or mixed area between land and maritime oriented functions. The legibility of the landscape, an equilibrium in the relationship between nature and society in the Mediterranean area always affected people. The common topographical conditions, cultural patterns and historical background of the countries bordering the shores of the Mediterranean, contributes to the definition of the area as one geographical region. The entire coastal region of the XI Mediterranean has a number of common characteristic features, both in settlement and in the behavior of people. Mediterranean coastal towns have a special character, expressed in the building materials, the architecture and the settlement model. The effect of the cumulation is a result of mutual contacts between cultures. Although there are common characteristics of all the Mediterranean world; coastal settlements do not develop homogeneously because of their location and economic problems. Through suddenly accelerating changes, the mountain and plain areas, the land and the sea started to alter the meaning and value they had in the past for people and their activities. In chapter three; the architecture of coastal cities is examined. Firstly; some graphical and written descriptions of the coastal cityscapes are given to express their unique sense of place. When we arrive to a coastal city by boat, we enter in its center. Arriving a coastal city is a different experience then arriving to any other one. The topography effects the visual sense of the city. The flatter landscape tends to diminish the importance of horizontal water surface through perspective foreshortening. The steeper and more irregular site should offer more opportunities for viewing; higher observer positions enhance water prominence, natural or manmade lighting is another factor which changes perception at the seaside. Different spatial effects can be observed, at the same place, by day and by night. Also, the image of a given reality may vary between different observers. Travellers' diaries are valuable resources for the images of coastal cities. These descriptions give an idea about sea-land interaction, urban-landscape relations and the special way of life at the seaside. Some examples are given; the first one is about Istanbul: The city intrigued European travelers to the east for centuries. Especially, the travelers in 18th and 19th centuries were delighted by Istanbul of which elegant waterfront palaces whose reflections danced on the waters of Bosphorus. Almost all Europeans did arrive by sea, because those who had already visited Istanbul recommended that this was a view not to be missed. The second example is Goethe's descriptions of Palermo which he arrived after a short voyage around the island of Sicily in the 18th century. These two examples are romantic descriptions of coastal cities which were perceived primarily as a picturesque object. The third example is Lynch's descriptions of Venice. He used a more analytical way to describe the city form with certain image elements of the urban space (edges, landmarks, paths, etc.). Stories about voyages, fantasies about coastal sites (islands, cities on water, etc.) can be seen as intellectual exercises for future studies and experiments in architecture. Last two examples are about these fantasies of coastal spaces. First one is More's 'Utopia' and the other one is Calvino's 'Despina'. The city edges, which define the urban space are also displayed in this chapter. These edges play an important role for the structure and identity of the cityscape. It is difficult to classify the edge elements. They can be man XII made or natural, stressed by a visible element (wall, path, natural barrier, etc.) or non visible (social, customary, etc.). Rather being strong or weak in character; they give a sense of belonging to a place. The city edges had a special meaning and a sacred character in the past. Almost every culture had boundary-marking rituals. Although things have changed in the modern period, cities have boundaries. Some of the different city boundaries are:. The Customs Boundary. The Multiple Edge. The Walled Edge. Alternative Boundaries The walled edge is the most impressive one among others. The walls define the urban space and express the inside-outside differences strongly in a pragmatic way. In the Middle Ages the walled city was a phenomenon which symbolized the concentration of wealth and political power. In the 16th and 17th centuries, city walls lost their importance and the boundaries became popular promenades for leisure time with a good view of countryside. Then, they fell into disfavor and were destroyed. Topography is the main factor that defines the shape of the city edges. In some cases, natural elements in the environment can create a clear cut borderline between urban and countryside. Coastline is an impressive example for these alternative boundaries. It is a permanent edge element in every coastal settlement. Also; the waterfront developments of the coastal cities are studied according to the edge and urban space relations in this chapter. Since the Hellenistic era port architecture symbolized the monumentality. In Roman times, artificial harbours were treated as a part of the architectural program of the city. Until the 18th century antique images were used in harbour areas. First commercial docks were built in Europe in these times; landing stages, yards, warehouses, arsenals became main elements of harbour scene. The aim of this planning was to produce an urban framework suitable for the exploitation of the sea. Developments of the European ports in 19th century affected American port cities. The most famous one was Boston. The arrival of the railway and massive staging yards mechanized the waterscape. In the 18th century; the rapidly changing social structure and life style in Europe rised the interest in travelling, landscape and geology; constituted the first steps of the activity to be called 'tourism' in later periods. By the way, sea and seaside pleasures occurred in society. Seaside resorts gained importance in late 18th and the beginning of 19th century. After 1950s the differences between working waterfront of cities and these townscapes of leisure areas increased rapidly. They were developed in separate spatial expressions. X1H Today; coastal cities are developing faster than the inland ones, because of the variety of business sectors. Most of them are metropolitan areas which need boundless spaces for their increasing population. Mediterranean coastal cities constitute a special research subject for the theme of the study. Although; they have common architectural characteristics which give the identity to the whole maritime space, they developed in different ways because of their location and economic and politic power. So; beside their unity they have individual urban characteristics. Therefore, the Mediterranean world is not so homogeneous as expected. In many Mediterranean countries, because of the maritime oriented economic life (maritime orientation), coastal areas are most dense places. Cities in the Mediterranean region can be classified in three types. These are: 1. Million City: They became integrated in the industrial revolution like Torino, Milan, Marseilles, Barcelona. 2. Connecting City: These were actually 'outposts' of Europe in the Middle East and in North Africa before the independence of those states. 3. Traditional City: They are usually charged with history; medium and small sized and found in southern Italy, the Balkans, Turkey, Greece, Spain, Syria and Israel. In Mediterranean cities, the division between rurality and urbanity had never been clear. The settlements that have not undergone massive urbanization were established on protected sites on the hills or mountains. On the coasts, the settlements were built on hills jutting into the sea like a peninsula. A fortress was built at the top of the hill or mountain, at each of those defense sites. The vitality of residential, cultural, recreational and commercial activities in a happy community is the essence of Mediterranean life. The characteristic architectural elements (walls, gates, balconies, windows, stairs and squares) are all harmonized in such a way as to provide various levels of privacy and human contact. In the 19th century, because of economical and technical developments, Mediterranean harbour towns gained a special importance. With the advent of being located on the coast, many of these towns became cores for urbanization. Industrialization and commercialization were the main sources of migration from inland into the coastal urban concentrations. Consequently, the population and economic wealth increased in coastal sites. The Mediterranean cities, even they are inland or coastal cities, have two main sections: One is old, contains the old city with all its characteristic elements. The port of the city is attached to that section. The other part of the city is modern and contains a new commercial center. But development of port cities are different then those of inland cities. In Middle Eastern port cities, two main sections -old and new- overlap each other. This overlapping XIV is either partial or complete, but these centers are always adjoining and linked, because of port services. The expansion of the port in most cases is linked to its historical site and is always gradual. The use of the railway brought changes to the old cities and distinguished the port and inland city. Infusions of foreigners into the port city (especially during the period between 1800-1945) developed recreation and beach areas relatively distant from the port. Beirut, Alexandria, Izmir, Haifa could serve as examples of Middle Eastern port city phenomenon. The common characteristics of all the cities in the eastern basin of Mediterranean are as follows:. The site of the port. The use of railway. Cosmopolitan character. Resorts and recreation areas. Commercial centers. Residential districts In Southern European port cities, the old part of the city is completely replaced by the new one. The arrival of the railway greatly effected the land use of these cities. The networks of railroads cut across the old sections, disconnecting them from the ports. Piraeus, Naples, Barcelona, Alicante, Trieste are examples of these kind of port cities. Since 1950s the transformation of the 'closed cities' and their suburbs into 'urban zones' spread over dozens of kilometers is not 'Mediterranean'. Urbanization, nevertheless, was the sole factor in the relatively high growth rates of coastal areas of Mediterranean. The development of tourism and vacationing along the coast created a new kind of economic base for the coastal regions. Tourism is an extensive user of space and the spatial patterns of it vary markedly from those of urbanization. The spreading effects of tourism are opposed to the concentrated effects of urbanization and cause loss of identity. Chapter four is about 'island space' which has a special meaning for the theme of the study. The size and the location of the islands are main factors for the definition of space. It is hard to answer that when an island is too small (as an isolated rock) or too big (as a continent). Also the small ones, together can form an archipelago in an inseparable way. The distance from the main land affects the settlement patterns and economic life due to the size of the island. Islands, geographically, have well defined boundaries delimited by the surrounding sea. These boundaries give a strong sense of place in the island space. In semantic way, they symbolize the endless life, liberty, perfect world; at the same time a place for exile, quarantine and isolated world. Their virtual reality of the island stresses the isolation and separation. XV A great part of the Mediterranean coastal space is made up of small and large islands. They offer a special research area. Any studies about Mediterranean islands can help us to understand human-space relations and settlement development. The extraordinary beliefs, traditions and cosmopolitan culture gives a unique character to these islands and the life style. A Mediterranean island, Cyprus and its harbour city Famagusta are chosen for a case study in chapter five. Being the third biggest island in the Mediterranean, Cyprus is situated in the eastern basin. In the island space, even more than elsewhere, history is inseperable from land and landscape. Cyprus has never been an isolated island. The first settlers came in Neolithical times. Through history, great powers batteling on the mainlands around, brought tension, conflict and dynamism to the island. Some of them are Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Crusaders, Genoesians, Venetians, English and Turks. The basic theme of the island's history can be seen as a struggle for the borderline between Asia and Europe. But the sea formed a link rather than a division. Thus the island became a meeting place of people and states, of cultures and religions. As in all Mediterranean islands, the relations between the inside and outside world affected the settlement development in Cyprus. The built environment were shaped in a colonial atmosphere and cosmopolitan character of public life. The city of Famagusta is situated at the eastern shore of Cyprus; at the end of Mesoria plain where the Karpasia Mountains and Cape Greco form a suitable bay for port facilities. The mutual relations between the flat land and the sea constitute the characteristics of coastal space. The oldest settlement, which was founded in Byzantine times, was a small fishing village with a natural harbour. Famagusta seems to have suddenly sprung up as a walled mediaeval city at the beginning of the 13th century. The entrance to the port was marked by a small tower and a fortress. In the 14th century, under the rule of the two great mediaeval Republics of Genoa and Venice, Famagusta became an important port on the busy trade route from Venice to Crete; from Crete to Cyprus and Syria. After the decline of Venice's power in the sea-trade world of the Mediterranean in the 16th century, the port of Famagusta lost its importance until the end of the 19th century. Then, at the time of the English Occupation, in 1900s the old harbour area was renewed; a quay, warehouses and a customhouse were built for new port facilities in front of the eastern city walls. Constituting an additional factor which brought change to the old city, the railway arrived in 1915 and was used until 1951. Around 1950s, Varosha (Maraş) began to develop as a new center for commerce and recreation which was once the suburb of the old city. Seaside resorts and touristic hotels suddenly appeared on the beaches of new Famagusta. This recreational area was on the southern side of the old city not very far from the port facilities. In 1 960s, the harbour was extended to the north with an addition to the old port. In 1982, this area was proclaimed as a free zone for modern port facilities. XVI The ethnic division of Famagusta has been preserved all through the years. The urban framework has always been shaped by different ethnic neighborhoods. The situation became more complicated in the 1960s with the conflicts between Turkish and Greek Cypriots. After the war in 1974, Varosha (Maraş) has been abandoned and became a military zone. Today, the development of the settlement is still continuing toward the northern side of the old city. Although, the development process of Famagusta has some similarities with other Mediterranean coastal cities, it has a unique sense of place with architectural remnants from all periods of cosmopolitan cultures. Thus, today, Famagusta presents a picture of living witness to forgotten revolutions in coastal cities.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
Anahtar kelimeler
Kıbrıs-Gazimağusa, Kıyı şeridi, Coastal use, Coastal line