Orta ölçekli firmalarda kalite kontrol sistemi

Yuvakuran, Tamer
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Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
Bu çalışmada arta ölçekli firmalarda kalite kontrol sistemi ve bu sistemde yer alan elemanlar incelenmiştir. İkinci bölümde kalite ve kalite kontrolünün temel kavramları ele alınmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde kalite kontrolunda kullanılan tekniklerden ölç me, muayene, örnekleme ve kontrol diyagramları açıklanmıştır. Dördüncü bölümde kalite kontrol maliyetleri ve bu maliyetleri oluşturan unsurlar araştırılmıştır. Beşinci bölümde kalite kontrol çemberleri, çemberlerde yer alan elemanlar ve çemberlerin işleyişi ele alınmıştır. Altıncı bölümde sistem kavramı ele alınıp kalite kontrol sisteminin alt sistemleri ve sistemin işleyişi açıklanmıştır. Yedinci bölümde kalite kontrol faaliyetlerinin işletme içindeki organizasyonu ele alınmıştır.
Quality is the basic customer decision factor for an explosively growing number of products and services today whether the buyer is a housewife, an industrial coorporation, a government agency, a departmant store chain, or a military defence program. Quality has become the single most important farce leading to organizational success and company growth in national and international markets. The return - on - investment from strong and effective quality programs is providing excellent profitability results in firms with effective quality strategies. This is demonstrated by substantial increases in market penetration, by major improvements in total productivity, by much lower costs of quality, and by stronger competitive leadership.. Success in the implementation of this business strategy varies widely, however, among the organizations of the world. More than at any time in memory, buyers perceive that the products of certain companies are significantly higher in quality than those of their competition and they buy accordingly. A wider variation of effectiveness than ever before also exists among the quality programs of companies. Some are strong in depth and in commitment. Others deal in half measures and try to meet fundamental quality requirements with the fireworks display of one time quality encouragement programs or through dusting off the application of a few traditional quality control techniques. Because of the wide variation in quality results, the search for the genuine keys to success in quality has became a matter of deep concern to management of companies the world over. And" experience is disclosing a fundemental basis for achieving this success. Quality is in its essence a way of managing the organization. Like finance and marketing, quality has now become an essential element of modern management. And effectiveness in the mamangement af quality has became a necessary condition for effectiveness in industrial management itself. Every act by an individual, a group of individuals, or an organization to ensure that a product meets a desired or ^specified standard can justifiably be seen as a quality control activity. Viewed in this way, quality control is almost, if not exactly, as old ix as the human race. It is quite logical to reason that, in the earliest time, quality control acts were not conscious, rather were performed subconciously as part of everyday activities, in isolation, and were restricted to the single individual. The history and evolution of quality control are therefore linked with the technological advances of the human race. Today, costs are central to the management and engineering of modern total quality control as well as to the business strategy planning of companies and plants. Quality costs provide the economic common denominator through which plant and company management and quality control practitioners can communicate clearly and effectively- in business terms. Quality costs is the basis through which investments in quality programs may be evaluated in terms of cost improvement, profit enhancement, and other benefits for plants and companies from these programs. In essence, quality costs are the foundation for quality systems economics. One of the most widespread forms of employee group participation is the quality circle. A quality circle is a group of employees usually from one area of plant and company activity and usually small in number which meets periodically for such practical purposes as : - To examine and analyze and to solve problems often of quality but also of productivity, safety, work relations, cost, plant housekeeping and others. - To enhance the communication between employees and management. Gne of the unique characteristics of quality circle, among the several employee involvement concepts, is the structural emphasis upon the organized solution of relevant plant and company issues and problems. Gne of the principal factors in quality circle activity is the training of circle participants in such analysis and synthesis techniques. It is essential that quality be organized effectively and economically companywide. There are three considerations in the development and operation of this total quality organization. The first is the identification and confirmation of the specific quality work and teamwork including the responsibility, authority, accountability and relationships for quality of each of the key individuals and groups in the company and the plant. The second consideration is the identification and confirmation of these some areas for the quality control function itself so that it may help the company achieve its quality objectives. The third consideration is ihe leadership of company and plant management itself in the establishment and maintenance of quality organization. The basic managerial and technological foundation for the work and interrelationships of this organization is provided by the total quality system of the company and plant. Without a strong quality system, there cannot be a strong organization. The modern corporation is a complex system in which decision are made, communicated and implemented. The components of production, including quality, depend on the manner in which decisions are reached, the structure of the communication network, and the implementation system. Persons at all levels within the corporation, from chief executive officer to production - line worker, eventually have some influence on the final quality. The failure of management to plan for the future and to foresee problems cause waste of personnel, materials, and manufacturing resources, all of which raise the manufacturer's cost and the price that the purchaser must pay. Management cannot learn by gaining experience on the job. Doing one's best is not the answer. Productivity increases with improvement of quality. Low quality means high cost. Measures of productivity do not lead to improvement of productivity. Measures tell management how things are proceeding, but they do not point the way to improvement. Best efforts are essential, but everyone is already doing his or her best. To be effective, best efforts require guidance to move in the proper direction. It is important that managers know what is required from them. Quality is everybody's job but quality must be led by management. In its simplest terms, the keystone concept of modern quality thinking may be described as follows : Quality must be designed and built into a product; it can not be exhorted or inspected into it. In systems terms, however, giving operational meaning to this concept by applying the many powerful new techniques of quality and reliability in truly effective ways has come to represent a massive challenge. The systems challenge that must be met is massive, in part, because quality achievement is dependent upon people machine information interactions across all the functional areas of a company. It is massive, in part, because product quality is a very demanding concept to structure for complex products and services. It is massive, in part, because the managerial approaches that are needed to operate these systems are not yet widely enough practiced in industry and the ideas of prevention and coordinated quality programs, their application faces individual prejudices and organizational patterns that often have been based upon lifetimes of policing habits and compartmentalized engineering, manufacturing and quality control. The magnitude of the systems requirement of implementing technically sound quality principles and techniques has been underestimated. There has been a tendency to funnel quality systems problems into traditional functional channels too narrow to handle them adequately. And in a number of companies, the introduction of quality techniques has been largely uncoordinated with the managerial decision making process, with the result that the two quite unexpectedly have ended up in conflict with each other. xi As a defination: A total quality system is the agreed companywide and plantwide operating work structure, documented in effective, integrated technical and managerial procedures, for guiding the coordinated actions of the work force, the machines, and the information of the company and plant in the best and most practical ways to assure customer quality satisfaction and economical costs of quality. The systems approach to quality begins with the basic principle of total quality control that customer satisfaction cannot be achieved by concentrating upon any one area of the plant or company alane-design engineering, reliability, analysis, inspection quality equipment, reject trouble - shooting, operator education, or maintainability studies - important as each phase is in its awn right. Its achievement depends, instead, both upon how well and how thoroughly these quality actions in the several areas of the business work individually and upon how well and how thoroughly they work together. The creation and control of the proper product and service quality for the plant and company require that the many quality activities in its product and service cycle be integrated and measured on an organized, technically effective, and economically sound basis. The total quality system is the foundation of total quality control, always providing the proper channels through which the stream of essential product - quality related activities must flow. Together with other systems, it makes up the main line flow of total business system. Quality requirements and product - quality parameters change, but the quality system remains fundamentally the same. There are many quality actions that must be brought together in proper relationship to provide the single major function of getting a quality product to market. The starting point is recognition that, in companies today, most of the major operations particularly including quality control typically consist of a broad range of mutually related people, machines, material, and information activities. These activities can usefully be regarded as systems. As a defination: A system is a group or work pattern of interacting human and/or machine activities, directed by information, which operate on and/or direct material, information, energy and/or humans tD achieve a common specific purpose or objective. Many plants and companies have always had some form of an overall work pattern for quality no matter how well or how poorly it has been documented which has served as their quality system. In the past, most of these have merely grown up on a bits and pieces basis: The control activities have evolved over a period; the equipment has been installed from time to time; the job descriptions of people have been written as separate elements; information processing has not always been considered an explicit matter; planning and controlling of the complete system have almost never been established; quality costs have not been under direct management control. xii In this essentially casually evolved quality systems, customer quality satisfaction and quality coat can be unplanned, perhaps not fully motivated, consequences of sometimes unclear qulity goals and sometimes unbalanced organizationwide quality actions. Experience throught industry demonstrates that when casually evolved systems whose results, either good or poor, have been more a matter of circumstance than of management intent can be effectively systems engineered and systems managed into total quality systems. They will provide major improvements in company quality and quality cost results needed to meet today's marketplace and competitive requirements. Indeed, such total systems structuring gives the company for greater quality effectiveness than its several quality activities individually considered. The structured quality system is far more than just the interacting activities which are characteristic of any system. It is, instead, an integrated system to produce full customer quality satisfaction and minimum quality costs with most effective use of plant and company resources and with optimum speed, human harmony and motivation, economy, and overall control of action. Quality improvement planning with a quality system is like planning the maintenance and improvement of the electrical system of a city with a complete distrubition network plan of the existing situation available; improvement planning in the absence of a framework is like trying to do such electrical system planning in the absence of network diagrams upon which anyone can agree. The systems engineering and systems management objective is to make the quality system far the plant and company the most effective work pattern of people, machines, and information for assuring customer quality satisfaction and minimum quality costs throught the entire customer - order to customer - delivery scope of the key quality activities of the plant or company. This quality system serves as the natural basis for major management and engineering attention to these activities. A quality system is structured to meet such objectives as the following : - Defined and specific quality policies and objectives, - Strong customer orientation, - All the activities necessary to achieve these quality policies and objectives, - Drganizationwide integration of the activities, - Clear personnel assigments for quality achievement, - Specific vendor - control activities, - Thorough quality equipment identification, - Strong quality mindedness and organizationwide positive quality performance, - Quality cost and other measurements and standards of quality performance, xiii - Positive corrective action effectiveness, - Continuous control of the system, including te forward and feedback of information and the analysis of results, and comparison with the present standards. There are certain subsystems for quality control systems. These subsystems are as f allows : 1. Preproductian quality evaluation, 2. Product and process - quality planning, 3. Purchased material quality planning, evaluation and control, k. Product and process quality evaluation and control, 5. Quality information feedback, 6. Quality information equipment, 7. Quality training, orientation and work force development, 8. Post production quality service, 9. Management of the quality control function, "ID. Special quality studies. The procedures under this component of the quality system provide the means far developing the people capability required to properly operate the quality system. It includes not only those persons in the company directly engaged in control af quality work but those in other functions and whose training affects product quality. Programs far training personnel not directly engaged in quality control are directed at the fallowing: product know-how; quality control function; shop operations in quality control methods, procedures, and techniques; management quality control program orientation; specialized education in quality control techniques for product design engineers, manufacturing engineers and buyers and other specific areas of activity; shop personnel proficiency evaluations; quality mindedness programs, trainee education.
Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 1991
Anahtar kelimeler
KOBİ, Kalite kontrol, Kalite kontrol sistemi, Small and Medium Sized Firms, Quality control, Quality control system